Air recuperator in a private house - independent manufacture and installation
Effective air ventilation provides a comfortable microclimate, favorable for living in a private house or apartment. Solve the problem of oxygen-enriched air intake and at the same time keep the heat in the room by using an energy-saving recuperation system. Due to the temperature of the air masses being removed, the recuperator heats the incoming air, which reduces heat losses and heating costs. To produce and install a recuperator is not as difficult as it might seem.
- 1The principle of the recuperator
2Types of recuperator structures
- 2.1Plate construction
- 2.2Rotary type device
- 2.3Tubular execution
- 2.4Recirculation heat exchanger
- 2.5Roof recuperator
- 3Which recuperator to choose
- 4Calculation of heat exchanger power
5How to make a plate recuperator with your own hands
- 5.1Plate design - pros and cons
- 5.2Necessary materials
- 5.4Video: manufacture of plate recuperator
6How to make a tubular coaxial recuperator with your own hands
- 6.1Tubular coaxial construction - pros and cons
- 6.2Necessary materials
- 6.3Manufacture of a tubular recuperator
- 6.4Video: manufacture of a tubular heat exchanger
- 7How to know the efficiency of equipment
8Installation and installation in a private house
- 8.1Tubular device type
- 8.2Plate type of device
- 8.3Video: installation of plate heat exchanger
- 9Feedback on the operation of the device
The principle of the recuperator
The design of the heat exchanger (recuperator) is a compact heat exchanger.
The design of the device provides in winter heating of incoming cold air masses due to increased temperature of outgoing air currents, and in summer does not allow hot outdoor air to penetrate into room.
The installation of a heat exchanger in a private house or apartment can reduce heat losses and reduce the cost of heating and air conditioning.
The air masses move independently, without intermixing. The increased thermal conductivity of the working elements of the chamber ensures an efficient exchange of thermal energy of the circulating air streams..
The recuperator can function independently due to the natural movement of air currents, be equipped with a fan or integrated into the ventilation system..
The intensity of cooling and heating of air depends on the temperature difference of the air masses.
Types of recuperator structures
The principle of operation of the recuperator differs depending on the technical features of the heat exchanger arrangement.
Consists of a package of plates made of a good conductive heat of aluminum or steel. Air with increased temperature gives heat energy to the plates of the heat exchanger and heats their surface. Cold air masses absorb heat and heat. In the design of the device there are no moving elements, which significantly increases the reliability of work. It is popular because of its low cost and high efficiency. The efficiency of the recuperator reaches 65%. The plate recuperator has positively proved itself in ventilation systems of private houses and modern cottages.
Rotary type device
The structural feature of this recuperator is the cylindrical drum of the heat exchanger, made of corrugated steel elements. Coaxial to the drum is a supply and exhaust fan, which ensures the cyclic movement of heated and cooled air. When the heat exchanger rotates, there is an effective exchange of heat energy in the air streams and a partial return of moisture to the room. The rotor-type recuperator is equipped with an electronic system that automatically changes the rotor speed. This allows you to regulate the intensity of heat output and provide the efficiency of the device up to 87%. Rotary recuperators are distinguished by an increased price and are used in industrial plants.
The popularity of devices of this type is due to the simplicity of design and low costs associated with independent manufacture. The principle of exchanging the thermal energy of air flows is analogous to the recovery in plate heat exchangers. In the tubular structure of the device, air circulates through coaxial tubes. External air absorbs heat from the walls of pipes heated by the air masses leaving the room. Tubular recuperators are installed in apartments and private houses.
Recirculation heat exchanger
In the construction of this type, a fluid is used as an intermediary for the transfer of thermal energy. This greatly complicates the design. The device includes two heat exchangers. One, filled with antifreeze or ordinary water, is installed on the exhaust ventilation line, and the other one - on the suction channel, through which external air enters. The heated liquid gives heat to the masses of air. The complex design of the device with forced circulation of the coolant limits the scope of its application. The coefficient of efficiency is commensurate with the efficiency of the recuperator of the plate structure.
This type of equipment has an efficiency of up to 68% and is an industrial installation used in air supply systems of shopping centers and industrial premises. Such a recuperation system is characterized by low maintenance costs, and the specificity of the installation allows you to save space in the ceiling area, which is important for production halls and shopping centers. Features of the roof recuperator design do not allow to use it in air supply systems of apartments and private houses.
Which recuperator to choose
It is possible to continue the description of features of designs and versions of aggregates. However, not all types of recuperators are installed in a small apartment or a private house..
The most feasible designs for the manufacture and installation by own strength in an apartment or own cottage are Plate recuperator with cross flow of air flows or tubular coaxial device of the countercurrent type..
For private rooms equipped with plastic windows, the choice of these types of structures is the optimal solution. The stagnation of air, caused by the lack of drafts, makes breathing difficult, and the air conditioner "chases the same" air. The supply of oxygen is necessary, and it is not always necessary to open windows for ventilation. Renewal of the air environment in a private house or apartment using a pipe or plate recuperator will be carried out every two hours. In the summer the room will be saturated with chilled air, and in winter - heated.
These two types of recuperators are distinguished by their simple design, small dimensions, low manufacturing costs and availability of materials used. In addition, these recuperators do not create noise, are easily installed and do not need special maintenance.
Calculation of heat exchanger power
When planning the installation of a heat exchanger in an apartment or a private house, it is important to correctly calculate the power and take into account the size of specific rooms.
Calculate the power of the recuperator according to the formula: P = 0, 335 x Q x (Tvn. - Tulich.), Where:
- P - power of the device, W;
- Q - the volume of air in m3, which must be delivered hourly to the room;
- Твн. - the temperature of the internal air after the recuperator;
- Tulich. - The temperature of outdoor air before entering the recuperator.
When calculating the power, take into account the normative volume of supply air. Its value is 60 m3 / h for permanent occupants and 20 m3 / h for temporary visitors..
Let's consider an example: it is required to heat up to 15 ° C an air flow volume of 100 m3 per hour, coming from the street into the room.
P 35x100x15 = 500 watts.
How to make a plate recuperator with your own hands
Given the level of prices for the finished plate heat exchangers, it is worthwhile to think about the independent manufacture of this device.
Plate design - pros and cons
The recuperator with plate heat exchanger has the following advantages:
- absence of wearing parts and moving parts;
- high thermal efficiency of 65%;
- small dimensions;
- simple design of the heat exchanger;
- the possibility of non-volatile work;
- ease of self-manufacturing;
- no need for special maintenance and adjustment;
- possibility of installation in any area of the air main.
Simultaneously with the merits, there are also weaknesses:
- icing of plates at a negative temperature of outdoor air and high humidity inside the building;
- impossibility to adjust the concentration of moisture in the room.
However, there are proven solutions that allow to improve the efficiency of the device when the heat exchanger is frozen. It is necessary to take special measures to heat the recuperator or use cellulose cassettes that absorb moisture, do not allow condensate to form and have the effect of a humidifier.
To prepare a plate-shaped heat exchanger, prepare the following materials:
- sheet metal, mm (preferably aluminum) for the manufacture of heat exchanger plates. The use of galvanizing, textolite, cellular polycarbonate or getinax is allowed (note that with a decrease in the thickness of the plates, the coefficient of heat transfer increases);
- material to ensure a guaranteed gap between the plates in the 2-3 mm interval (you can Use wooden slats, organic glass, a technical plug or a normal cord with a width about 10 mm);
- sheet material for the manufacture of the case (fine metal, plywood, particle boards or any available capacity of the required dimensions is also suitable);
- adhesive and sealant based on silicone;
- a heater having a thickness of 4 cm (mineral wool or polystyrene can be used);
- connecting flanges corresponding to the diameter of the pipes;
- a fan whose power is determined by calculation;
- steel corners for the production of racks;
- fasteners (screws, screws).
To perform the work you will need an electric jig saw or an ordinary Bulgarian.
For the independent manufacture of a plate heat exchanger, no special technical preparation is required.Carry out the manufacture of the recuperator parts and assembly of the device, guided by a pre-designed drawing.
Perform work on the following algorithm:
- Cut slices of square shape, having a side dimension of 20-30 cm. Prepare for the package 70 plates that have ideal dimensions and flatness of the surface. Use an electric tool that allows you to cut a group of workpieces.
- Prepare and glue to the elements of the package gaskets corresponding to the dimensions of the plates. Paste parallel stripes of gaskets from the sides of the plates (with the exception of one end plate) and in the center.
- Collect a set of blanks in the block, greasing the mating planes of the strips with glue. Pave the panels by rotating each subsequent workpiece at a right angle. Control the coincidence of the edges. Stick the last plate on which there are no gaskets.
- Ensure that the block parts fit tightly. To improve gripping, place the load on the cassette. Channels in the resulting block alternate at each level and are located at an angle of 90 degrees.
- Assemble the resulting structure into the power frame. Carefully seal all the gaps with a sealant.
- Assemble the housing, allowing the diagonal arrangement of the heat exchanger unit. The diagonal dimension of the heat exchanger unit must correspond to the internal dimensions of the recuperator body, and the width of the body - the thickness of the package. Provide space for mounting fans and filter elements if necessary.
- Prepare holes in the side walls of the housing for installing the nozzles.
- Fix the guide elements on the inner walls of the housing to install the heat exchanger. The location of the package should provide for the possibility of collecting condensate at the bottom and draining it through the drainage channel.
- Seal the joints of the housing parts, fix the ducts with flanges.
- Tightly insert the heat exchanger cassette into the body of the device, providing an angle of 45 degrees between the side surface of the plates and the wall of the recuperator housing.
- Ensure the tightness of the four channels obtained around the heat exchanger. If necessary, remove the slots with a sealant.The movement of air currents must be carried out only through the gap between the plates of the heat exchanger.
- Install filter elements and fans on the airway inlet, if their installation is provided by the product design.
- Color the enclosure, providing protection from corrosion and rot. Heat the recuperator using heat-insulating materials.
Video: manufacture of plate recuperator
How to make a tubular coaxial recuperator with your own hands
Owners of apartments often choose for self-manufacturing and installation a tubular coaxial recuperator, considering its design more simple. The technology of independent production of the heat exchanger is not too time consuming and requires elementary skills of working with the tool.
Tubular coaxial construction - pros and cons
The tubular recuperator with coaxially arranged shells is favorably distinguished:
- increased to 65-70% coefficient of efficiency;
- absence of moving parts;
- compact design;
- availability of materials for self-production;
- simplicity of manufacture;
- easy installation;
- the possibility of working without additional electrical equipment.
The coaxial recuperator also has disadvantages:
- inability to change the humidity in the room;
- Dependence of the efficiency of the device on the length of coaxial tubes.
For the self-manufacturing of a tubular recuperator you will need materials that can be purchased at any specialized store:
- Plastic pipe diameter of 16 cm, used for sewerage;
- adapters with a diameter of 16 cm by 10 cm, used as splitters;
- corrugated pipe 10 cm in diameter, made of aluminum;
- A fan with a landing dimension corresponding to the diameter of the pipe.
When purchasing materials for the manufacture of a recuperator, remember that the length of the channel determines the efficiency of the device.To increase the intensity of work, you can install a small fan that improves air circulation.
Manufacture of a tubular recuperator
For a self-made device, first design a tubular recuperator circuit - this will help avoid errors during assembly.
Perform work following the sequence of operations:
- Cut the preform of the plastic pipe of the required size, which is the body of the heat exchanger.
- Pack the aluminum corrugation inside the plastic tube, ensuring its maximum extension.
- Secure the ends of the adapter at the ends of the adapter, connecting the corrugated pipe with them.
- Ensure that the corrugated pipe is tightly sealed to the branch pipes of the adapters.
- Connect the supply line to the free branch pipes of the adapter.
- Dock the coaxial heat exchanger with the fan. This improves the flow of airflow through the corrugation.
The proposed assembly scheme will ensure efficient heat exchange between the walls of the corrugation and the outer tube of the coaxial recuperator.
Video: manufacture of a tubular heat exchanger
How to know the efficiency of equipment
To determine the efficiency of the recuperator, follow the formula: Efficiency = (Тost. - Твнеш.) / (Твнутр. - Твнеш.), Where:
- Тпост. - the temperature of air entering the room after passing through the heat exchanger recuperator;
- Tvnesh. - temperature of outdoor air at the entrance to the device;
- Inner. - the temperature of the stream removed from the room before recuperation.
Multiplying the obtained value by 100, we obtain the efficiency expressed in percent of the heat exchanger.
For example, the external temperature is 0 ° C, internal +20 ° C, and the recovered air is heated to 1 ° C.
Efficiency = (1, -0) / (20-0) 4.
The efficiency of the device shown in the figure is 4x100% = 74%.
The efficiency value varies depending on the operating conditions.
Installation and installation in a private house
It is not so difficult to install a recuperator in a private house.
Tubular device type
On the example of a tubular type equipped with fans, let's consider the sequence of work on the self-installation of the device.
Installation is carried out at a distance of 10-15 cm from the ceiling of the room.Installation is as follows:
- Drill a through channel with a diameter of 165-170 mm from the side of the room to the street with a slope of 3 degrees to the outside.
- Install the heat exchanger working module in the hole.
- Provide a protrusion from the outside of the outlet chamber from the wall level by 15 mm.
- Fill the free space with a mounting foam or sealant, which provides tightness and a fixed position of the housing.
- Install the protective grilles on opposite sides of the housing.
- Connect according to the scheme the recovery device to the 220-volt electrical network.
- Apply power and check the operation of the recuperator.
The installed device can function in one of three variants:
- in the passive mode. The minimum air exchange is 6-9 m3 per hour due to the natural pressure drop inside the room and from the street side;
- in the mode of ventilation. Simultaneous operation of two fans is carried out. An intensive exchange of air masses is created with a maximum capacity of 70-80 m3 per hour;
- in the night position. Circulation of air masses with a volume of 20-25 m3 per hour is created by forced means due to the reduced fan speed with the help of the rheostat.
Remember that all measures to connect the regenerative unit to the electrical network are performed when the supply voltage is disconnected..
Plate type of device
The plate heat exchanger can be installed as an independent device, and in the mains equipped with an exhaust and supply fan.The connection of a plate device with rectangular channels is carried out in lines having a corresponding cross-section of air ducts.
For installation, transitional elbows are used.
The recuperator can be mounted in the ceiling part of the room using studs.
With the passive mode of operation of the device, natural heating of air masses circulating due to pressure drops is carried out. It is connected by means of outlet nozzles to the mains, which ensure the withdrawal and supply of air masses.
Installation of the plate recuperator, functioning in conjunction with the exhaust and supply fan, is carried out by connecting the device to the air mains according to the scheme.
In a private house the recuperator plate type can be connected, guided by various schemes.
Video: installation of plate heat exchanger
Feedback on the operation of the device
Numerous reviews testify to the efficient operation of the heat and air exchanger and the expediency of its installation..
A year and a half ago we moved to a new apartment. In the bedroom in the corners and on the ceiling was mold. They made repairs, in places where mold appeared, everything was treated, but after half a year it began to appear again. I had to do repairs again, this time more thoughtfully. It was caused by insufficient ventilation, since the house is old, the ventilation shafts are almost "not pulling the windows are plastic. The solution was a recuperator. It's been more than half a year since the repair, while everything is fine and breathing in the room perfectly!
I ordered a recuperator installation in a country house. While all his work is very happy. The main change is at home all the time fresh and at the same time not cold air. Maybe in the summer it is not so relevant, but in the winter - very!
In my apartment in the kitchen, a Mitsubishi-150 m3 / h camera hangs under the ceiling. Works without turning off and in winter and summer for 5 years. Without ventilation, the wife would not have agreed to live.
http://forum.abok.ru/index.ph? howtopic = 45276 & amp; t = 0.
When repairing the room immediately planned installation of the recuperator, laid the cable to the installation site, installed under the window near the radiator, looks neat and aesthetic. In the room it's easier to breathe, we plan to install it in other rooms.
Great thing! With its task completely copes. The air in our bedroom is always fresh, the sleep has improved several times. And we fall asleep more quickly, and we get up easier. I was a little afraid to install in the bedroom, because anyway the sound of any device is audible, but in practice it turned out that it is very, very quiet and does not interfere.
We've been living in the house since last year. Airing the premises is clearly not enough for a good microclimate. After installing two recuperators for the whole house, we noticed that after washing the laundry began to dry much faster, the excess moisture left. In winter, we expect to reduce the cost of energy consumption with the recuperator!
I share here the experience of using recuperator. Installed it in mid-December last year and from those do not imagine how they lived in the stuffiness before without it. The air of the house has become much cleaner, fresh. In the bedroom it is an indispensable thing, and in the nursery too. Do not open the windows every time it becomes stuffy. Also, at first I was just delighted that the dust on the windowsills in the bedroom was a little less. Now we are accustomed to all the advantages of the recuperator and want to install another one in the big room.
Practice confirms the efficiency of using recuperators as independent devices, as well as in ventilation systems of premises. Characteristics of self-made recuperators correspond to the parameters of samples produced by modern industry. With small financial costs, you can independently manufacture and install the unit, which will ensure a healthy microclimate in a private house or apartment..