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Water has a destructive effect, so drainage around the house should be the primary task of the owner of the private structure. If the walls begin to be blocked or the fungus of the mold is visible, and puddles appear in the basement, then the process of destruction of the building has already begun. The consequence of this are horrific cracks and distortions of doors, as well as windows. You can create a reliable waterproofing system on your own, although this can be a rather complicated process. But the result is that the drainage around the house and the blind area will successfully complement each other, as well as create a reliable protection of housing from destruction
The Importance of Planning
There are several common reasons why rain and melted water accumulates at the base of buildings. Much depends on:
- type of earth (clay has a viscous consistency, so moisture drains very slowly);
- climatic conditions (strong snow melting or heavy rainfall);
- high groundwater level.
As a result, intensive flows regularly undermine the foundation. During the thawing of snow deposits groundwater rises, and the soil begins to sink. Without a good drainage system, you can not do without it.
However, before you make drainage around the house, you need to consider the following points:
- Features of the foundation: type (piles, slabs, linear) depth, shape and processing.
- Priming. Its composition and quality. If it is weak, it will be necessary to strengthen the walls of the trenches.
- The Land Committee is obliged to provide information on the occurrence of groundwater, as well as other sources.
- Identify the most vulnerable place where the most moisture accumulates. To do this, you need to explore the local terrain - the inclination of the site, as well as the formation of depressions.
- The period of work is only summer. Since the weather is even then changeable, it is necessary to make a special canopy. On the boards fix the plastic film and install over the future drainage of the foundation. Then the rain will not wash the boundaries of the trenches.
- The complex of works is quite laborious. This often takes two, or even three months.
All this preparation will end with a carefully designed scheme of waterproofing system. It should be noted places where the inspection and storage wells will be located. Calculate the quantity of consumable material:
- rubble / expanded clay;
- geotextile fabric;
- fittings for connecting pipes, as well as insulation tape;
This will require different tools. These include several types of shovels: bayonet and shovel. The wheelbarrow will need to take out excess soil, and the perforator - to make holes. A pickaxe, a stationery knife and other accessories will not interfere with the master.
Step-by-Step Instruction for the Construction of a Drainage System
There are several options for installing these drainage systems. Some dig out the usual ditches along the perimeter of the building.Strengthen them with boards or other material. The lack of such structures - spoil the entire interior of the site and quickly become unusable.
Storm drains (surface drainage around the house) are mounted under a certain slope to the base. They consist of pipes, the upper part of which is represented in the form of a lattice, delaying debris. Instead, special gutters or trays can be used.Unnecessary moisture will get into them and drain into the space reserved for it. Such a drain is ideal for regions with a humid climate, where very often rains and a lot of snow.
The most durable and reliable is recognized zasypnaya waterproofing. For each type of foundation of the house there is a scheme for installing such a drainage. For example, before the beginning of the flooding of the slabs, the drainage device must already be laid. Otherwise, you have to tinker a bit. This does not apply to tape and pile supports.
Everything begins with the excavation of the base of the building. Plates must be thoroughly cleaned of dirt and building materials. They must dry thoroughly. Then, the outer part of this wall is treated in this way:
- primer with bituminous-kerosene;
- apply mastic, made on the basis of bitumen;
- on the still dry surface attach the mesh for puttying (division into 2 mm);
- The next layer of the coating material should be applied 24 hours after the previous one has dried.
In conclusion, it is recommended that the burrs be cleaned with sandpaper so that the surface becomes smooth. When everything is ready, you can start the main process.
Dimensions of trenches
A pre-designed site plan, even the most primitive one, will help to correctly mark the territory and economically spend the material. The foundation drainage system includes a system of properly excavated trenches and securely laid pipes. Trenches should comply with the following parameters:
- the distance from the basement is not less than a meter or, m;
- width is calculated as follows: to the diameter of the pipe add 20 cm;
- depth 50 cm below the base of the building;
- the slope increases to the place where the liquid is collected (1 cm through each meter).
Plastic, asbestos-cement and ceramic pipes are successfully used in the installation of drainage systems. Manufacturers produce polymer versions of these items, which are covered with a special shell. This non-woven filter cloth protects the containers from sludge formation.
To make the desired bias, you need to pour sand. After this, a special device should be tamped a dug out and dug it with a 10-centimeter layer of sand mixture. Again, compact the bottom by checking the slope level.
When the trenches are ready, they need to be densely laid with geotextile material. Each side cut should protrude 30 cm or more, depending on the width of the trench. On the canvas to fall asleep large-gravel rubble / gravel, adjusting it to the slope of the ditch. Laying a pipeline drainage device around the house is as follows:
- make small depressions in the rubble (under the pipes);
- Lay them in the center, slightly bending and pressing;
- connect fittings with fittings;
- fall asleep with rubble (a layer from 10-20 cm);
- Geotextile fabric connect and sew the edges with a thread or glue together with a tape.
To ensure that there are no leaks at the junction of pipes, a winding is used. Several layers of tape for insulation - a guarantee of tightness of the system.
All these plastic channels must be connected to the main pipe, which removes moisture to the water receivers. Then use the river sand to fill the trench volume. On top of it, pour the remaining soil to form a good tubercle. Under the influence of external factors, the land will still settle. As a result, such a mound will be equal to the horizon and without the formation of a depression.
During these works, you must constantly check the selected slope. To do this, you can advance the cord or rope along the house, which will serve as a level.
Water wells / wells
To water in the drainage under the house does not accumulate, it should be withdrawn. This can be done with the help of special wells. Moreover, they are needed to systematically clean the structure and regularly service the system. In these wells, which should be removed from the building at a distance of 5 m, all the excess moisture is collected. They are installed below the sewer pipe (per 1 m), but not on a level with the groundwater.Modern projects show that there should be four such water sources on the site, at each corner of the task.
According to the standards, drainage systems are provided with four wells of inspection type, and two - a catchment. One is fixed to the storm sewage system.
The well at the lowest point will be deeper than all the others. Its diameter depends on the size of the container installed in it:
- plastic reservoir;
- welded constructions;
- reinforced concrete rings;
- cast constructions.
Lay the geotextile material on the bottom of the pit and then attach the container to the ground so that it does not move in the event of landslides. Void fill the gravel interspersed with the ground.
In some cases, drainage around the house with your own hands requires additional costs. The receiving point can be placed an order of magnitude higher than the sewage pipes, then a pumping installation is needed. Sometimes the pipeline is not deep enough, so you'll need to lay a heating cable.
All these laborious and costly procedures are worth it. After all, the owner can protect the monastery from the harmful effects of moisture. Only quality drainage around the house contributes to this. It is installed in several ways. Each master decides for himself which one to choose.
Video about drainage systems around the house