Typically, the user does not care about the device layout of the washing machine. But if there is a sudden repair of equipment, then you have to understand. You can perform independent diagnostics or replacement of parts only after understanding how the SMA nodes work and where they are.
Almost all washing machines with front loading are arranged the same, except for the location of some parts.
Content of the material:
- 1Internal structure of the washing machine
2Technical device of washing machine
2.1Control module and electronics elements
- 2.1.2Water intake valve
- 2.1.4temperature sensor
- 2.1.5Other elements
- 2.2.1Electric motor
- 2.2.2Electric heater (TEN)
- 2.2.3Lockout device
- 2.2.4Drain pump
- 2.2.5Tank construction
- 2.2.6Shock absorbers
- 2.3.1Dosing Tray
- 2.3.2Rubber cuff
- 2.3.3Hoses and nipples
- 2.1Control module and electronics elements
Internal structure of the washing machine
Before you take up the repair, read the principle of the device of a modern washing machine.
The device of household washing machines is the same, whether it is a model with vertical or front loading. Regardless of the brand ("Indesit LG, "Samsung "Bosch"), all the details are hidden in a metal case. The base of the body includes: front, rear, top covers, base. The type of loading determines the location of the hatch - horizontal or vertical.
The internal structure of the automatic washing machine consists of parts and components that are responsible for a particular function. Let us consider in more detail every detail.
Technical device of washing machine
Let's start with the most important thing - the "brain" of the stylalki.
Control module and electronics elements
The electronic module controls all parts in the machine. It sends a signal to start or stop through the wiring that connects the board and the CM node.
All programs, modes and functions are monitored and executed by the module. Therefore, if one of its elements fails, any part of the machine may stop working. In order to perform certain tasks: correctly fill the water in the tank, monitor engine speed during washing and spinning, the control unit has "assistants".
The pressure switch or level sensor monitors the amount of water in the tank. He does the work by measuring the pressure in the tank. Then sends the signal to the electronic module. The control unit, in turn, instructs the inlet valve to stop the water intake.
Water intake valve
Depending on the type, the valve can have one to three coils. These coils are energized, so that the valve diaphragm opens and starts. Once the unit has commanded - the membrane opens and the water is set in the tank. After the electricity supply to the coils ceases, the membrane closes.
It is the device that helps the electronic unit to regulate engine speed. After all, for each program of washing or spinning, a different speed of rotation of the drum is required.
The structure of TEN in modern models Ariston, Zanussi, Ardo, Electrolux provides for the presence of a thermistor. The device is a metal tube, which is installed in the heater housing.
The thermistor determines the degree of heating of the water by sending a signal to the module. The main unit switches off the heater when the water temperature rises to the desired level.
This is the wiring, the control panel, the commander, the indicators. All that allows you to control, set modes and programs in the washing machine.
The device of the washing machine-semiautomatic machine and automatic machine provides the presence of performing nodes. The electronic unit gives the command details, after which they begin to work.
The engine in the stylus helps to rotate the drum at different speeds.
In modern machines, motors with direct drive are installed. These are inverter motors that are attached to the drum. They are more efficient, powerful and quiet. Their design is reliable, therefore such motors are very rare.
Often there are collector motors. They transmit the revolutions to the drum due to the drive belt.
Collectors are arranged simply: their construction contains a stator, a rotor and brushes. Electric brushes are made of soft material, so they often need replacement as a result of wear.
Electric heater (TEN)
Serves for heating the water in the tank. Each wash program requires a different water temperature. The electronic unit sends the preset TEN signal, after which the heating is performed. The thermostat controls the temperature and after reaching the set values sends a signal to the module.
How to replace the heater in case of a malfunction, read in previous articles.
This is an electronic door lock. Manually you close only the mechanical door lock. When you start the program, you hear a click that says that the hatch is locked. Only after this begins to take water.
Learn how to replace UBL in a washing machine.
The pump allows pumping water from the tank after washing, rinsing. There are synchronous and asynchronous pumps.
What does the pump consist of? From the inside its design is the same: the motor, the impeller. Above is a snail, to which is connected a drainage pipe, a hose.
Most often, the pump breaks due to foreign objects. If coins have dropped from the pocket during washing, then they can get into the sink. The filter, hose, nipple and pump itself are clogged. Read how to clean it.
The tank can be made of steel or plastic. Of the latest developments - a tank of polyplex. Depending on the manufacturer of styralki (Atlant, Kandi, Virpul and others), it can be:
- Collapsible. Two halves are fastened with screws.
- Nondividible. Two parts are hermetically sealed.
Different elements and terminals are connected to the tank. Let us consider them in more detail.
Dampers or shock absorbers are parts that cancel out fluctuations in the operation of the AGR. The damper is attached to the bottom of the tank and to the body of the washer. With a strong squeeze, the tank will not bounce and fight against the wall.
The springs hold the tank from above and perform the same function as the shock absorbers. The upper spring hook is fixed to the body, the lower one to the tank part.
If a belt-driven motor is installed in the washing machine, then a pulley is attached to the tank. On it is put on the belt transmitting the engine speed. The pulley rotates with the drum. It is fastened with a powerful bolt in the center.
Heavy blocks are made of concrete or plastic. They are connected by bolts to the outer part of the tank to restore the balance.
Over time, the counterweight may collapse due to a strong vibration. But most often weaken their fasteners, which can be tightened more tightly.
Located inside the tank, made of stainless steel. It has a cylindrical shape, there is a hole in front for loading laundry. The rear part is used for connection to the crosspiece and the tank. Inside, the entire surface of the drum is perforated, which allows draining the water.
It remains to understand the small elements that are used for the convenience of washing and automation of the process.
The tray is divided into several parts (usually three). In one of them, powder for the main wash is filled, in the second - for the preliminary washing. The third compartment serves for liquid preparations and rinse aid.
The tray is placed in a hopper, to which the hoses from the inlet valve are connected. Through them, the water enters the compartments for picking up the powder.
Sealing rubber is located on the hatch and serves to seal the door. One part of the rubber is attached to the body, the other is attached to the tank with clamps.
Hoses and nipples
The water inlet hose is installed at the water inlet. The other part is attached to the body.
The drainage hose is attached to the pump and sewer.
The nozzle is installed from the tank to the pump. Water, merging from the tank, enters the nipple, and from there - into the pump.
There is a filling nozzle that feeds water into the tank from the water supply system.
As you can see, the design of the washing machine is quite complicated and involves a lot of parts and components. If repairs are to be carried out, it is worthwhile to understand how this technique is designed to facilitate disassembly, assembly and repair procedures themselves.
More detailed information about each model of the washing machine can be found in the manual.