Mysterious natural delicacy - truffle mushroom

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Among the many magnificent gifts of nature, a special place is taken by a truffle mushroom, featuring a unique taste and aroma. There is an opinion that those who have tried it once in their life, never forget its specific smell. Behind an unsightly view is an unrivaled culinary masterpiece admired by admirers of exotic dishes. A close acquaintance with the fungus will help to appreciate it.

The unsurpassed aroma of the product is a combination of smells of fallen leaves, moist wood, soil and humus.

Experienced cooks admit that if you brush a lot of these mushrooms at one time, your head starts to hurt. But this is its main feature.

General description of the mysterious delicacy

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In appearance, the fungus resembles potatoes and can be of different sizes. Some are slightly more than a nut, others are real giants weighing more than 1 kilogram. The top layer of the product can be smooth, porous or with numerous outgrowths.Inside the truffle, the fungus is filled with so-called veins of light and dark tones, on which there are spores of various configurations. The cut of the product is distinguished by a clear marble pattern of white, gray, chocolate or black. This is due to the variety of species of exotic fruit.

Truffle mushroom cooks are used to prepare various dishes. Pates, tender sauces, aromatic filling for pies. An exquisite addition to meat and fish dishes. Often canned, frozen or served as an independent culinary masterpiece.

In search of a favorite variety

A unique fungus is considered an underground species, as it grows at the roots of ancient trees. In truth, the truffle is in some sense a parasite, because it draws useful substances from the plant for its existence. Despite this, the tree does not harm it in any way.

Read also:Original recipes for pasta with mushrooms in Italian style

In the natural environment there is a huge number of species of such fungi. The most popular are the following varieties.

Tuber aestivum

Often called a Russian truffle. It is found on the territory of the European part of Russia, in the Crimea, in the Transcaucasus. It grows at the roots of oak, evergreen pine and hazel shrubs. It is considered a summer species, as the first specimens appear in June and continue to grow until the middle of autumn.

Each individual fruit can weigh 400 grams with an average diameter of 10 cm. Age is determined by the color scheme of pulp:

  • white;
  • yellowish;
  • with a brown tinge;
  • grayish tint.

The internal consistency of the fruit cut determines the age of the truffle. Young specimens have dense mass, old mushrooms - loose. The taste resembles a sweet nut. In the fragrance there are notes of algae. A truly unique product!

Tuber mesentericum

The autumn version of the mysterious fungus is black. Chocolate shade flesh is filled with white veins. The shape is round. The diameter of the mushroom ball is 8 cm. Weight is not less than 320 grams. The product smells of cocoa, and bitter taste.

Tuber melanosporum

The warty appearance of the truffle is cultivated in many parts of the planet. It is considered a winter species, as it begins to bear fruit at the beginning of winter and ends in the spring. It is one of the most valuable products, which is often called a "black diamond". Despite this, you can buy a truffle mushroom in specialized retail outlets and try its excellent taste.

The highlight of the fruit is multifaceted warts. They are red-brown when the fungus is young enough to turn black in old age. The flesh is usually light with a delicate pink tint. Over time, it acquires a brown or dark purple color, indicating age. Strong fragrance and pleasant taste tempts true cooks to cook original dishes from them to a festive table.

Read also:Features and value of the aspen tree

Tuber magnatum

The white truffle mushroom has the wrong shape of the fruit and can be of the following colors:

  • yellow;
  • red;
  • brown.

He weighs an average of about 300 grams. Some options reach a kilogram mark, which is difficult to imagine. The product has an original aroma reminiscent of a collection of garlic and cheese. It grows on the territory of northern Italy.

Tuber nitidum

A brilliant truffle of red strikes with its unusual smell, which reflects the notes of such products:

  • pear;
  • coconut;
  • Sweet wine.

It grows in coniferous and deciduous forests. The first fruits in May, the last - in August. The size is only 3 cm, weight - up to 45 grams. Despite this, it is used as an original product for fastidious gourmets.

The habitat in nature

Perhaps someone will think: since this delicacy is so expensive, can you try to find it yourself in the nearest forest? Acquaintance with where the truffle grows mushroom, gives the answer to the question asked.

The habitat of the product is captured by the following countries:

  • Europe;
  • Asia;
  • America;
  • Northern part of Africa.

It is interesting that the fungus loves the roots of various trees. For example, a truffle growing in Italy is found at the trunks of birches, limes and poplars. Black specimens of the Perigordian species grow at the foot of the oak, beech and hornbeam. Summer variants are found in mixed forests of Ukraine. Winter varieties are found in small groves and mountain forests, where majestic cedars, oaks and pines grow.

Read also:Preparing for the New Year: choosing a Christmas tree for the house

In Russia you can also find various variants of the fungus:

  • winter variety;
  • summer black;
  • white truffle, often called gold.

It is interesting that the golden appearance of the fungus occurs in at least seven regions of Russia, including the Moscow and Leningrad regions. If someone is lucky enough to find the most expensive mushroom in the world and skillfully cook it, then he is a happy man. In other cases it is easier to buy a truffle in the store.

To find such a mushroom in the forest, it is better to orient yourself to such places where vegetation seems stunted and not fresh. The soil near it has a gray or ashy tinge.

Artificial mushroom cultivation

In a natural environment, the truffle is spread by the forest animals that feed on it. Together with the feces, spores fall to the ground next to the roots of trees, where they successfully survive. However, in many countries, artificial cultivation of such fungi is practiced. Basically - these are black species.

To grow a truffle mushroom, you need to consider the following factors:

  • temperate climate;
  • suitable types of trees;
  • unique soil composition.

To achieve this goal, artificial green massifs are created from oaks. In some cases, the roots of young seedlings specifically infect truffle spores so that they successfully develop on them. As you can see, the process of growing an exotic product requires a lot of effort and time. Therefore, only experienced experts are involved in this business.

The composition of the fungus includes many useful elements that contribute to strengthening the human body. Taking it as food, even occasionally, you can forget about emotional disorders and other illnesses for a long time. It is practically harmless and does not cause food allergies.

Video about collecting truffles in the forest

Cooking truffle mushroom - video

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