How to provide your own land and house with enough clean water? Sometimes the easiest answer to this question is the device of the well. If you hire a brigade is expensive, and the skills and desire to work hard are available, you can drill it yourself. The methods by which you can get water from the bowels of Mother Earth are different.
Among them, drilling a well with a scum takes quite a decent place. Most often zonification is used in combination with the rotational core method to extract loose loose rocks: sand, gravel deposits. It happens that without the use of zhelonka, it is generally impossible to lift the destroyed ground from the bottom.
We will talk about how the drilling work is done using zhelonka. With us you will learn how to properly drill a water well in a suburban area, using a simple homemade drilling tool. Taking into account our recommendations, you will equip the water source with minimal costs.
The content of the article:
- General concepts about the drilling process
- What needs to be considered when working?
- Tools and materials used
- Description of drilling technology
- Choice: with or without filter?
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
General concepts about the drilling process
Drilling by the sill is a so-called shock-cable method of drilling. As a drilling tool, a shell is used - a heavy, hollow, long and narrow projectile, which is dropped into a well shaft from a height of several meters.
Under the weight of the billow, the layers of the soil are destroyed and fall into the cavity of the projectile. The slug is removed, cleaned from the ground, and then thrown back into the mine.
The process is repeated again and again until it reaches the aquifer and passes through it. Although the process looks simple when describing it, it can be long and laborious.
However, percussion cable drilling has many advantages compared with other methods. For example, during manual drilling with the help of a scythe, water is usually not supplied to the barrel, as is often done when using auger or rotary drilling.
As a result, the soil in the well does not get wet, and this reduces the risk of weakening or destruction of its walls. Another plus is the precise definition of the aquifer.
In “wet” drilling, it is not always easy to understand that the long-awaited water has finally appeared. Even experienced drillers sometimes do not immediately recognize this moment and continue drilling. In addition, it is believed that the flow rate of “dry” wells is higher than that of “wet” ones.
The shell is used when constructing wells in loose, debris rocks filled with water. The tool is equipped with a valve to capture and lift up more rock in one go.
When choosing between a small plate and auger, some masters are guided by the following considerations. The auger plants with flushing, which produces modern industry, there are restrictions on the depth of drilling.
And the power of such plants is 12 kW. It is difficult to find a gear motor that provides such power in domestic conditions.
But the gearbox with a capacity of only 2.2 kW lifts a weight of about one ton. Even a very heavy shell will lift such a mechanism without difficulty. It remains only to throw the yellowfish down to get a strong enough impact, capable of destroying enough dense rocks. Thus, with less energy consumption, a more effective impact is obtained.
Also collect handcap it will be easier and faster than the screw, whose design is much more complicated. There are cases when with the help of a homemade yolk, a tripod and a motor, it was possible to break a well more than 40 meters deep, although it took several months to do this work.
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Zhelonka - tool for the production of shock-cable drilling. It is a pipe with devices for the destruction, capture and retention of rock being destroyed in a well.
The top of the sting is equipped with a device for fixing the cable. This is an earring, as in the photo, a cone with an eye or just a welded rod.
There is a hole in the upper third of the zhelonka through which the rock, captured by the projectile, is unloaded during drilling.
Shoe zhelonka equipped with a valve that keeps the drilled rock in the pipe. To enhance the destructive effect, the bottom of the yolk can be supplemented with a cutting crown with teeth
The basis of homemade zhelonka - pipe
Earring for holding tool in the well
Window for unloading soil from zhelonka
Ball valve and crown
What needs to be considered when working?
For starters, it does not hurt to foresee possible problems. Of course, each well has individual characteristics.
Drilling at a distance of just a couple of tens of meters can take place in a different scenario. But knowledge of the approximate composition of the soil and the layers it includes will allow you to make a preliminary plan, stock up on the necessary tools, etc.
The heavier and viscous substance that needs to be removed to the surface, the more difficult it will be to work with a scum. The easiest way to cope with dry sand. But on the quicksand, the work can last forever, and the well almost does not deepen. In this case, some masters recommend drilling with simultaneous flushing, immersing the casing as soon as possible.
It is almost impossible to overcome layers of heavy clay with the help of a yolk. On soils of this type it is more efficient to perform drilling in other ways.
To select a layer of loam, use the glass: a narrow long tool with a sharp bottom edge and without a valve. He is also thrown into the mine from a height of several meters. Then the glass is removed and cleaned through a narrow vertical hole made in its side. Sometimes such a hole is made in the shell.
For drilling of especially viscous layers of the soil by the shock-cable method, use a glass - a long pipe with a pointed lower edge and a narrow hole made along the glass
Such work on loam is moving hard and slowly. It is worth assessing the cost of labor and time, perhaps it makes sense to prefer auger drilling to the impact method. To assess the composition of the soil on which drilling will be performed, there are two ways. Cheap - ask neighbors who already have a well, and expensive - order drilling work from specialists.
Usually, a place is chosen for the well where the relief decreases, it is considered that this will be closer to the aquifer. Some craftsmen managed to drill quite a decent borehole right in the basement of their house with the help of a yolon, because the machine or tripod for the zhelonk is a relatively compact structure.
It should be remembered that such work can be carried out only in a fairly spacious basement with a high ceiling. In this space, it is necessary not only to place the drilling rig, but also to build up the casing.
If the floor and ceiling are not yet available, the winch can be mounted on rafters. In addition, there should be considered a large amount of dirty water that will come from the well during drilling and can pour all around. Drilling is more reasonable to carry out in a dry season.
Drilling with a slug - the work is rather dirty, you need to provide a place where the waste material removed from the device will be poured
Most often it is done in the summer. Drilling operations are also quite effective in winter, although it may not be easy to overcome the layer of frozen soil. But in the spring during the flood wells are not recommended. It is more difficult to remove wet soil, and it will be more difficult to determine when water will appear in the well. In the fall, jobs usually fall in November.
Tools and materials used
To begin with, you will need the stalk itself, as well as the installation to which it should be hung. The drilling hole is a rather heavy projectile.
With a strong desire, the filled device can, of course, be pulled out of the shaft manually, but this will take a lot of time and effort. To facilitate the work, at the site of drilling establish tripod tower.
To hang the stalk above the working hole, use a special tripod. It is usually made of metal, but wooden beams are also suitable.
It can be made of metal or wood. Upstairs fix the unit through which the metal cable is passed. On this cable hang the shell. So, it will take less effort to pull it out.
The lift is performed using a gear motor with a clutch, on the shaft of which a cable is wound. To prevent the drum from spinning by inertia after the impact of the barrow, you can install a special device for braking.
In commercial use, the use of the brake is fully justified, but for your own use, you can do without it. Using the clutch, you can adjust the force applied to the device, taking into account the moment of impact. In the process of the device operation, the ability to determine this moment quickly comes with experience.
In the lower part of the barrel is welded or screwed shoe with a flap valve built into it. The valve does not allow the soil to get enough sleep from the projectile when it is lifted to the top to clear
And the installation, and the sink, and the glass can be done independently or purchased in hardware stores. How to make a drilling tool for hand drilling, is written in detail in this article.
For the manufacture of a yolk you will need a piece of metal pipe with a length of several meters. The outer diameter of such a pipe should be about 20 mm smaller than the inner diameter of the casing. For example, if a steel casing with a diameter of 133 mm is used, a pipe with a diameter of 108 mm will be suitable for a wave of waves.
The thickness of the pipe walls for zhelonka can reach 10 mm. At the same time, the dimensions and weight of the device should be correlated. It must be heavy enough to effectively loosen and seize when hitting the ground.
But it should be remembered that for pulling out the filled zhelonka the gearbox power should be enough. A weight of 30-40 kg is considered sufficient. When the pipe is selected, it is necessary to weld or screw the shoe with the flap valve down.
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The choice of valve type for zhelonka depends on the diameter of the pipe and the problem to be solved with a drill
Narrow balls with ball valves are mainly used to clean the bottom of the well.
For drilling a well, a shell with a diameter of 80 to 160 mm is considered a suitable projectile. In drilling, a flap valve is more effective.
Flap valves are one and two doors. To increase the destructive power of shoe zhelonki complement incisors
Ball valve in a narrow shelf
Narrow tank for cleaning wells
Zhelonka with dvuhlepestkovymi valves
At the top of the welded grille and handle to which to attach the metal cable. The lower part can be sharpened inside to improve the loosening of the soil. Instead of sharpening the edge, you can weld pointed rods or sharp pieces of metal at the bottom.
In approximately the same way, a glass is made from a piece of pipe for drilling a well on loams. Only in this case, the valve is not needed, and vertical holes are made along the length of the pipe so that the glass can be cleaned of viscous soil.
In addition to the installation and zhelonka, you need a number of materials and devices:
- casing in the right quantity;
- clamps to fix pipes during welding or brazing;
- garden drill;
- place for collecting waste soil;
- capacity or place for discharge of polluted water;
- welding machine or soldering iron for PVC pipes.
In the formation of the wellbore can be used both metal and plastic casing. The lower part of the first plastic pipe should be equipped with a special shoe that facilitates the process of lowering the pipe into the well shaft. Plastic pipes are soldered using a soldering iron designed for this purpose.
It is easy to master the work with this tool, but before starting work it is better to take a few lessons from more experienced craftsmen or to train on sections of unnecessary pipes. It is a little easier to work with metal pipes, because they are stronger than plastic constructions.
Often, such a pipe is simply driven into the mine to lower it to the desired depth. For welding metal pipes use a welding machine, if the skill of working with such equipment is not, they will have to learn. Most often, wells with threaded joints are used for wells, but welding is considered more reliable.
Description of drilling technology
If all materials and tools are prepared, you can proceed to work. A tripod is installed above the chosen place for the well. A metal cable of the yolon is turned on the block, and is wound on the gearbox shaft. In the ground under the sludge with the help of a garden drill, they make a hole of such diameter that the shell goes into it.
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The shell is used for penetrating loose loose soils: sand, gravel, gravel, gravelly deposits
Stage 1: Before starting drilling, it is better to dig up soil with plant roots and top soil layers with a shovel. The starting pit depth is approximately 0.7 - 1.0 m.
Stage 2: Throw the small hole into the hole at the bottom. A tool hitting the ground destroys the ground. The destroyed soil is pushed inside the drill, the valve slammed behind it keeps it inside the pipe
Stage 3: Installing the casing to prevent shedding of the walls and keeping the trunk vertical. We strengthen the walls of the pit. We fix the position of the casing so that when the barrel is buried, it does not twist
Stage 4: The yellowcone badly destroys and practically does not capture clay soils: loam with sandy loams. If they are in the section, you need to stock up auger tool
Step 5: We lower the auger into the casing, increasing the tool with the rods to the required depth. Screw the drill string assembled in this way into the face and extract the auger with the rock deposited on the blades from the barrel
Step 6: Manually, the sludge can go 5 - 7 m. Then the drilling process is too complicated because of the depth of production and the weight of the tool with the cuttings. Facilitates the work of the rig
Step 7: At the apex of an improvised drilling rig, a block is fixed, through which a rope is connected, which is connected to the shell. You can use a winch to lower and lift a projectile.
Scope of zhelonka in drilling
Digging a hole before drilling
Drill for clay rocks
Sanding up of sandy loam
Homemade machine for deep development
Mechanization of drilling by sill
You can start drilling. Raised above the hole, the cup is simply thrown down. The blow loosens the ground, the valve opens, and the cavity of the yolk is filled with soil.
Usually they do not one, but three or four blows, so that the shell is filled with soil as much as possible. Then it is lifted up from the shaft, the valve is opened and the captured soil is poured from the device.
The empty shell is dropped into the pit again several times, etc. Gradually, the mine becomes deeper. To protect its walls from collapse, the first casing should be lowered inside.
With the help of zhelonok well can be drilled even in the basement, especially if the floor and ceiling have not yet been laid. Instead of a tripod, rafters are used as a support for the device, on which the block is fixed to the cable
The pipe is held with the help of special clamps so that it does not sink too deep. As required, the length of the casing increase, welding, screwing or soldering the pipes to each other.
It is believed that you can first drill a shallow well, and then install the pipes, but it is much more sensible to install the pipes immediately. This will precisely protect the walls of the well from collapse.
It is very important to properly install the first casing in the mine. Her position is set to level and carefully fixed. The position of the remaining tubes is set by the first tube. If the pipe is staggered right from the start, this can make it difficult to drill, install a filter pump, maintain a well, etc.
The top layer of loamy soil is usually very dense due to the large amount of clay inclusions. It is held with the help of a glass, the device of which is described above. They act in the same way as a scaffold: they throw it into the mine, remove it, clean it, etc. Having passed this difficult site, it is possible to use a small shelf again.
In order to connect the casing it was more convenient, the upper and lower edges of the pipe, which are attached to an already deep column, are fixed with special clamps of either metal or wood.
Difficulties may arise during the passage of flow, if in the process of drilling the barrel goes through this layer rich in water. Some masters believe that in order to speed up the work, it makes sense to put water in the casing and scoop out liquid soil.
Usually, drilling is performed dry. This allows you to accurately determine the appearance of water in the well, indicating that the aquifer has been reached.
The cessation of drilling, as soon as water appears in the mine, is a common mistake of new drillers. It is recommended to continue drilling and go into the next layer of soil by about half a meter. Thus, the maximum well rate will be ensured. Then remains pump well, lower the pump into it, equip the head, etc.
Choice: with or without filter?
To prevent contamination from entering the well, a second pipe with well filter. It is made from a long length of pipe, the diameter of which must be less than the diameter of the casing. The upper part of the pipe is used under the gland, and in the middle part there are many holes.
On the section of the pipe from which the filter is made for the well, a number of frequent and fairly large holes should be made. Such perforation will ensure a quick flow of filtered water into the well.
The perforated area is closed with a net of galloid weaving, but in the extreme case, the usual fine-meshed grid will also work, for example, with the parameters 0.2X0.13. The grid can be fixed with wire.
The bottom of the filter is a sump, there is no need for perforation. If the well, arranged auger way, you can lower the filter using connected between a rod, then when performing shock-cable drilling filter is delivered using a metal cable.
The perforated filter for the well should be closed with a metal net of galunny weaving and secured with stainless steel wire. Instead of a net of galun weaving, you can take a regular, rather fine mesh.
It is not possible to press the filter with force to ensure the tightness of the structure when connecting to the gland. In this case, you can effectively use PSUL - pre-compressed sealing tape. This material is widely used when installing PVC windows.
Such a tape should be wound on the edge of the filter and immediately lowered into the mine, since the PSUL expands rather quickly. If the filter is lowered immediately after winding the tape, it will expand to the bottom and provide a reliable seal on the filter. After the filter is lowered down, the casing is gently lifted up.
PSUL - pre-compressed self-expanding sealing tape is used when installing PVC windows, but is suitable for creating the gland of the well filter. It is necessary to wind PSUL approximately 30 cm in the upper part of the filter and immediately lower it into the well.
In this case, most of the filter should be below the level of the casing edge. To lift the pipe, you can use two five-ton jacks. The part of the pipe that is removed to the surface is cut off or unscrewed. To prevent the clamp from slipping, pieces of reinforcement are welded to the protruding piece of pipe.
The shock-cable drilling method allows you to create a filterless well. To equip it in this way, it is necessary to lower the casing below the aquifer by about 0.5 meters. When “wet” auger or core drilling is difficult to extract from the well core. The sap easily removes loose, water-saturated clastic rocks.
Diagram of the device filterless wells: 1 - well; 2 - aquifer - horizon; 3 - water intake funnel; 4 - roof; 5 - casing; 6 - sand; 7 - cavity formed in the process of pumping sand airlift
After the casing is firmly installed, two hoses are lowered into the well. In one of them, a stream of water flows into the well, and in the second, air is injected with a compressor. Thus, the so-called airlift is obtained, and the flow of water prevents the formation of a sand plug.
As a result, a mixture of water, sand and air will flow through the casing, which must be drained into a separate container. When the mixture is settled, it is necessary to measure the amount of sand washed in from the well. According to the reference books, each cubic meter of such sand is about 4.5 cubic meters of flow.
With core and auger method of drilling a water well will introduce another articlewith which we advise you to read.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. Visual demonstration of well drilling with a slug:
Video # 2. The combination of auger drilling on hard ground and using zhelonka to go through fine sand filled with water:
Video # 3. An interesting variant of the device zhelonka and glass for drilling:
Drilling by the shock cable method has many advantages over the more common auger method. Sink and other devices is easy to make from scrap materials. The drilling process is also simple, especially if possible problems are foreseen at the very beginning.
Do you have personal experience in manual drilling? There were questions in the course of acquaintance with the material presented by us, want to share only you with known subtleties? Please write comments in the block below, ask questions, leave a photo on the topic.