The idea of building a septic tank sooner or later arises from any owner of the dacha plot or a country house. Local sewage, along with water and heat supply, allows you to spend time outside the city, without giving up the usual comfort.
Agree, not every summer resident is willing to spend a considerable amount of funds to buy a septic tank. Many economical owners solve the problem, self-constructing storage for waste.
At the design stage of the autonomous sewage system, it is necessary to choose a tank for a septic tank, calculate its volume, study the requirements for the placement and installation of the tank. All these questions are detailed in the article.
The content of the article:
- Types of septic tanks and their features
Manufacturing technology homemade septic tanks
- Concrete rings are the most popular material.
- Eurocubes - a great base for a septic tank
- Brick tank - long, but reliable
- Old tires are also an option
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Types of septic tanks and their features
Septic tank is the main element of individual sewage system, which allows residents of a country house to use everything the benefits of civilization (warm toilet, shower, dishwasher and washing machine, etc.), while not poisoning the surrounding Wednesday
With its help, sewage water is effectively cleaned and disposed of.
The modern market offers a variety of septic tanks, among which there are local cleaning stations - expensive, but very efficient facilities.
The whole set of these structures is divided into the following types:
- Storage device. So you can call a simple plastic tank, dug into the ground. An ordinary pit is also considered a hopper, the walls and bottom of which are insulated from the ground with the help of bricks, concrete rings or the method of continuous concreting. In fact, we are talking about a cesspool, in which waste products accumulate with their subsequent pumping and removal.
- Overflow septic tank. This structure consists, as a rule, of two or three wells. In them, sewage drains are not only collected, but also cleaned in the process of settling and gradual separation as the waste mass moves from one chamber to another. Additional purification is carried out by anaerobic bacteria.
- VOC (local treatment plants). This is the most modern, very comfortable, although very expensive facilities. Apart from anaerobes with aerobes, multistage filtration systems, UV devices, etc. are involved in cleaning. There are many models of such stations, but their work requires electricity, which complicates their ubiquitous distribution.
The first of these options requires regular pumping of the waste mass completely. In the second - the clarified and purified water must be passed through the ground after-treatment system before disposal. The remaining fractions are removed, using sewage disposal machines for this work.
The third type allows you to dump the treated drains into the ground, water, ditch without performing additional purification procedures.
Regardless of the technical complexity, the degree of purification produced and the dependence on energy supply in device septic tank uses the same types of containers made of polymeric compounds, concrete or brick.
The final choice of capacity for septic tank affect:
- estimated volume of waste;
- the type of soil in the installation area of the future structure;
- proximity of groundwater to the earth's surface;
- operating conditions of the facility - seasonality, intensity, etc .;
- the complexity of future installation work;
- cost of materials and services.
It is possible that, choosing a tank, you will come to the conclusion that it is easier and more convenient to build a septic tank on your own. Well, consider this scenario.
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The most common version of the device capacity for the organization of the septic tank are concrete and reinforced concrete rings
The ready-made constructions are also cast-in-concrete versions of sewage tanks. Of these, they construct both the simplest grab and multi-level cleaning systems.
The analogue of the finished reinforced concrete tank is poured on the site of the device. For this, a formwork is first constructed, which is removed after the concrete has hardened.
In the construction of septic tanks used brick. If you need an impermeable septic tank, brick walls are plastered and covered with clay as a waterproofing
The simplest and quickest way to set up a septic tank is to install a plastic container of factory performance.
In independent construction, instead of a finished plastic container, eurocubes are often used, from which it is possible to assemble a multi-level cleaning system.
The assembly of a small septic system for gardening can be done from plastic barrels.
Old car tires will serve as a budget option for the construction of a septic tank for the treatment of drains from the shower or bath
The device of a septic tank of concrete rings
Reinforced concrete construction
Homemade monolithic septic tank to give
Construction of a septic tank made of bricks
Plastic container factory made
Practical application of Eurocubes
Plastic barrel septic tank
Using old tire covers
Manufacturing technology homemade septic tanks
Like any other thing, a septic tank can also be made by hand. Requirements for this product will be unchanged. This essential element of local sewage must be functional, durable and safe in operation.
For the manufacture of containers for septic tanks with their own hands using a variety of materials: concrete rings, bricks, eurocubes and so on. Even the spent tanks for different purposes and automobile tires will fit. Consider the most popular methods of self-manufacturing we need containers.
Concrete rings are the most popular material.
It is believed that exactly the capacity of concrete rings easy to install and maintain. Therefore, they are most often used for the construction of septic tanks. Overflow sewage of such material may, for example, include two or three wells, each of which has its own purpose.
In the first well of concrete rings the bottom is also concreted. To him down the drain pipe, which will move the sewage. The slope in the direction of the well when laying the drain pipes should be 2 cm per meter.
Inside the well, heavy fractions are separated from the lungs. The first settle to the bottom, and the second are sent to the next tank.
Often, septic tanks consisting of three wells, two storage and one filtration, are constructed from factory-made concrete rings.
As a rule, the second tank differs from the first only in size: it can be smaller. This is where the wastewater is filtered. For this purpose, filter materials are used: expanded clay, gravel and others. Purified effluents are sent to the third well. From this, the third in a row, the tank should be absorbed into the soil.
This design has a number of advantages:
- Simplicity. The design is really uncomplicated. Its construction does not require deep knowledge. Need physical strength and minimal information about the basic rules of the sewers.
- Relatively low cost. If you compare the cost of building a septic tank of reinforced concrete rings and concreting capacity with your own hands, the rings will be cheaper.
- Construction speed If the deadlines for commissioning local sewers are tight, then the concrete structure is what you need. It can be built pretty quickly.
In addition, this structure is highly resistant to mechanical damage, has a significant useful volume.
There are structures and disadvantages:
- Design features. A well consisting of massive concrete rings may not be heavy enough to withstand the movements of the expanded soil in areas where such a danger exists in principle. Septic tank rings are best welded to each other with staples or metal plates.
- Difficulties in the installation process. Great attention should be paid to sealing joints. This is quite a laborious process that requires attention and concentration. In case of insufficient sealing of the joints, untreated drains may enter the ground.
- The cost of special equipment. It is clear that delivering the rings to the place of assembly of the septic tank is necessary by special vehicles. But even in the installation process itself, a crane may be needed, which will increase the total cost.
Two options are possible. mounting a septic tank of rings.
Option number 1. You can dig a common trench with an excavator. All the rings are installed in it with a crane, after which the overflow pipes are laid, all the gaps and joints are sealed.
The wells are sealed and insulated, then covered with soil and compacted.
The schematic diagram of the operation of the septic tank, which consists of three wells made of concrete rings, looks like this (+)
Option number 2. When it is on the ground, first install the lower rings of the wells, and dredging is done inside them and under the wall. Rings fall into the ground under the influence of its own weight. In this case, initially the bottom of the wells will not. It is poured later in each of the cumulative wells, which somewhat reduces the reliability of the design.
To warm a septic tank with the second method becomes more difficult. For laying overflow pipes, it will also be necessary to dig trenches. This is a more time consuming and relatively long method, but they can be used by those who want to do all the work themselves.
Our task is to figure out how to make the septic tank itself. And the installation method does not change the method of creating a well. Therefore, we take a closer look at the first method of installation with digging a common trench.
The construction process includes a number of standard steps:
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The first step in building a septic tank for local sewage is the development of a pit. Its depth should be 0.3-0.5 m below the design value, which is necessary for the arrangement of the bottom.
If during the development of a pit excavate incoherent soils, sands of various sizes, it is necessary to strengthen the walls. Without strengthening the walls will constantly crumble and interfere with work. The bottom line and ram
The construction of the first chamber of the septic tank begins with the installation of a concrete cast ring with a solid hermetic bottom
The following links are installed on the starting ring. Before installation, the end of the previous ring is treated with a solution, the oiled cord is placed in the folded protrusion as a sealant
For the reliability of the connection, the rings are connected by mounting metal plates, the seams are sealed. At the design depth in the walls of the well holes are drilled to enter the sewer and overflow pipes
The septic tank chambers are collected according to the standard scheme. If the septic tank is arranged with a filtering well, then it is constructed without a starting ring with a bottom. In the end, overlaps are installed on all cameras
On the ceiling are mounted narrow concrete rings, with the help of which the necks of the chambers are formed. Attach hatch cover rings directly to the hatches.
To check the tightness of the connections, the septic tank and the pipeline connected to it are filled with water. Convinced of the normal operation of the system, they fill it with rolled out soil during development.
Stage 1: Excavating excavation
Stage 2: Strengthening the walls of the pit if necessary
Step 3: Installing the starting ring for the first camera
Stage 4: Installation of ordinary concrete rings
Stage 5: Formation of holes for the introduction of pipes
Step 6: Installing the overlap on the septic tank chamber
Stage 7: Capacity of rings of small diameter
Stage 8: Filling the pit with a concrete septic tank
For accumulative wells, we choose rings with locks: their degree of sealing is higher, they are easier to install and less likely to shift in case of frost heaving of the soil.
Even before installation, they are recommended to be treated with Penetron type impregnation or with bitumen mastic for the purpose of waterproofing.
Typically, concrete wells are arranged in a linear manner (two cumulative close to each other, and filtering at some distance), but the economical option with one neck involves the placement of wells a triangle
The bottom of the pit is covered with gravel 20 cm thick. It should be well tamped, while achieving a strictly horizontal surface. The quality of the work can be checked at a building level of 2 m.
On the rubble are placed rings with a bottom. Between the cumulative wells we leave a gap of 0, 5 m, which will be filled with soil and, in case of its movement, will play the role of a buffer. The walls of the initial rings should be placed strictly vertically so that the well is more stable.
If it is decided to fill a monolithic concrete slab under the cumulative wells, then its thickness must be at least 30 cm, and the sole is 20 cm on all sides to exceed the area occupied wells The slab must be flat and strictly horizontal.
In this case, the first rings can be mounted only after the concrete has matured, and it will take 28 days.
The junction of the initial rings with the plate is sealed. Under the ring for this lay the roller Aquacement - concrete solution with high waterproofing properties.
Extruded from under the base, the residue of Aquatcement is used for the joints of the rings. Rings put one on another, forming a well. All joints and gaps between them are smeared with concrete mortar Aqua-cement and treated with waterproofing compound.
It is very important that all the gaps at the joints of the receiving and overflow sections of the septic tank, as well as cracks and chips, are sealed as much as possible.
Toxic compounds should not fall inside the well, otherwise they will disrupt the decomposition of bio-inclusions of wastewater.
Connections with metal brackets installed outside serve as an additional fixation of the rings to each other. The “entrances” of the brackets concreted and protected by waterproofing. That part of the septic tank, which is located above the depth of frost penetration, is warmed with polystyrene foam.
In all regions of our country, the depth of soil freezing may be different, but it is important that the part of the structure that is above is well insulated.
Often over the top of the wells install the neck. They are made to save the volume of the empty part of the septic tank, which is above the overflow pipe.
Construct such necks of bricks, smeared with cement and waterproofing, finished concrete products or monolithic reinforced concrete, made with your own hands using formwork.
That part of the well, which is located above the supply pipe, remains empty, the neck is needed to reduce the useless volume of the structure.
There are installation features of the third filter well or absorption column. For her, the pit should be deepened up to sandy soils capable of diverting water. The bottom of the pit is covered with rubble at 20-25 cm, and then with sand - 30-40 cm. The bottom ring of this well should not have a bottom.
If the filtration properties of the exposed rocks are insufficient for unimpeded disposal treated wastewater, for example, in a sandy formation there are interlayers and sandy loam lenses, then I arrange side filters.
In this case, perforated rings are added to the column. Holes in them - not less than 30-50 mm in diameter, so as not to clog the ground.
If the holes in the filtration well are smaller than the minimum size, they will simply clog and stop performing their function: the absorption well will overflow
The soil surrounding the filtration column would also be good to replace with rubble. In this case, the treated wastewater will be easier to absorb.
Eurocubes - a great base for a septic tank
Plastic is an ideal choice as this material does not burst even in case of severe frosts. In addition, septic tanks constructed from plastic containers serve for a long time, since does not respond to aggressive environments.
Eurocube is a remarkable construction made of plastic, protected by a reliable metal frame from deformation, which may well serve as a material for septic tanks
Eurocubes are lightweight, which provides additional advantages during installation. To install them do not need special equipment. External frames allow Eurocubes to be covered with earth: they are not deformed.
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Assembling a small septic system consisting of two eurocube chambers is more convenient to perform on the surface.
The construction with embedded pipes, sealed joints and rigid coupling of the chambers is simply installed in such cases in the pit
It is better to assemble the sewage treatment system of three or more chambers in the pit so as not to disturb the slope and correctly enter the pipes
Installed in the ground plastic construction must be warmed. Insulation should cover the septic tank to a depth of 0.5 m below the seasonal freezing
Septic tank made of eurocubes assembled
Installing the finished septic tank in the pit
Inset overflow pipes in the pit
Warming of a septic tank from eurocubes
It will take 72 hours for high-quality sewage treatment. The required total capacity of the septic tank will depend on the total amount of water used by all residents of the dacha for three days.
Given that one person consumes an average of 200 liters of water per day, a family of three consumers needs a septic tank consisting of three tanks and containing more than 1,800 liters of liquid.
Before starting the digging of the pit, you need to measure the reservoirs, and then proceed to earthworks. A sand cushion (30 cm) is poured at the bottom of the pit, then concrete is poured (20 cm).
This means that the depth of the pit should exceed the height of the euro cup by 50 cm and on the top layer of backfill. The Eurocup placed in the pit should be 30 cm away from its walls along the entire perimeter.
In order for the construction of several Eurocubes to become a septic tank, its components need to be improved by making holes in them and placing pipes
If the groundwater in your area is located close to the surface, and there is a risk of an ascent of a light plastic septic tank, it should be weight, fixing plastic straps to a concrete base, or at least to standard curb stones, placing them on either side of designs.
Additional recommendations for choosing a septic tank for high groundwater are given in this article.
Cubes should be cascaded so that the drains flow from the top to the bottom independently. In the first tank enters the pipe that goes from the house, and leaves the adjacent tank. It, in turn, is connected to the third cube, the withdrawal of which goes to the filtration field.
This diagram shows, in particular, that one of the cubes (the second) is located slightly (20 cm) below the previous one: it is necessary that the drains move in the septic tank by gravity (+)
In addition to eurocubes, you will need 6 tees and plastic pipes of 150 mm in diameter for transitions between cubes and creating air vents.
To prepare Eurocubes for installation, you must cut the holes:
- around the neck of the cube so that a tee passes inside the tank;
- on the side of the cube 20 cm from its top for the incoming pipe, which is connected inside the compartment with a tee;
- on the opposite side surface 40 cm from the top for the outgoing pipe going to the adjacent cube;
- on the cover for mounting the ventilation pipe.
The septic tank is assembled sequentially from the first reservoir to the second one, and from it to the third one. Each subsequent cube must be 20 cm below the previous one. You can do just two cubes, which significantly reduce the cost of work. All connections structures are tightly sealed.
When the septic tank of eurocubes falls asleep, it is simultaneously filled with water to avoid accidental deformation during the process of tamping backfill layers.
For backfilling a pit, a mixture of five parts of sand to one part of cement is needed. The dry ingredients of this mixture are mixed, filled with a layer of 30 cm, and then compacted.
So do the subsequent layers. The cube chambers are poured with water so that the soil they fall asleep does not deform them. The upper part of the cubes is protected from freezing with sheets of foam or poured penizol.
Brick tank - long, but reliable
That master who took build a brick septic tank, has a decent supply of time, knows how to handle not only a shovel, but also a trowel, ready for hard work in the hope of the durability of the structure.
A brick septic tank can be both very complex and quite simple construction: each site owner himself determines which model best suits his plans and capabilities.
After completing the preliminary calculations and having decided on the volume of the future excavation, you can proceed to its construction.
The advantages of this choice include:
- availability of source material;
- the product from a brick is calculated on long operation;
- brickwork requires certain skills, but their absence can be replenished with the skill of a home craftsman to adapt to any work;
- all models of septic tanks can be executed from bricks;
- brick tank can be of any size, which makes it easy to correlate it with the parameters of the site.
The disadvantages include the need for additional insulation of bricks, since it initially does not have special insulating properties. In addition, the construction of this object will have to spend a lot of time and effort.
For work, you need bricks, of which a full clinker 240x115x71 is preferable. The walls will be erected with single-row masonry, and the pier in two bricks.
It is necessary to prepare:
- cement ShPTS400 (not below);
- waterproofing material such as bitumen mastic;
- fittings 10 mm thick stainless steel;
- for each of the chambers a cover with a hatch;
- tools for excavation and construction work.
The finished pit should be 10-15 cm higher than the corresponding dimensions of the future structure. Installing temporary formwork will prevent the soil from shedding. 20-30 cm of gravel, and then 40-50 cm of sand fall asleep on the flat bottom of the pit.
The resulting pillow moistened with water and tightly tamped. Over it lay the reinforcing mesh, which is poured with concrete (30 cm) and leave for 10 days to freeze.
If for a brick septic tank to dig a narrow and deep pit, it is better to use the formwork: there is always a risk that the tunnel will suddenly begin to collapse
Under the scheme, remove the wall, leaving gaps for pipes. It is recommended to add liquid glass to the cement solution to increase strength. Waterproofing is performed using bitumen mastic, imposing a layer of 3 mm. The finished tank is equipped with ventilation, set the top plate, which has a hole for the hatch.
The brick structure is filled up with clay, having previously connected the septic tank to the sewer system. The work of the finished structure is checked by filling it with clean water. As an external insulation of the structure, a clay lock 1 meter wide and half a meter deep can be used.
Old tires are also an option
The most cost-effective material from which to make tanks under the dacha septic tank is old automobile tires. The advantages of this option are obvious - it is affordability and simple installation.
Disposal of old car tires is a long-standing problem that has been repeatedly mentioned by environmentalists, it is possible that septic tanks from skates are the long-awaited solution (+)
However, the drawbacks of the method are also obvious:
- With this septic tank, only a small amount of waste can be recycled;
- a septic tank of tires is cumulative, that is, it involves the periodic pumping of accumulated content;
- it is problematic to seal the joints and the tires themselves, so the risk of contamination of the soil with sewage is high.
Volume septic tank tire depends on the rate of water consumption by one tenant of the house and the total number of residents. As a rule, 5-7 tires are enough for one well. However, the tires are also different.
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For the construction of a septic tank of automobile rubber we stock up in advance with the necessary number of tires, having previously calculated the volume of the septic tank
To assemble a septic tank from tires, dig a pit to the required depth, taking into account the 10 cm needed to fill the bottom with sand and rubble
Before diving the tires into the pit, level the bottom and check its evenness with the construction level. Then we put the starting tire and again check the horizontal position. Next, collect the rubber capacity and trim the edges of the tires inside
We assemble the tires in a vertical column with plastic ties. We seal joints between tires with bitumen mastic
Install the upper tire without cutting the top shelf. At a depth that takes into account the slope of the sewer pipe from the object to the septic tank, we cut a hole in the pipe in the assembled septic tank
Entering the pipe into a homemade septic tank must be sealed. It is processed with silicone and bitumen mastic.
At the bottom of a septic tank of tires pour two layers: 35 cm of sand, then 35 cm of crushed stone
On top of the fine fraction of the soil filter we pour out 35 - 55 cm of large crushed stone
Step 1: Harvesting Tires for a Septic Tank Device
Step 2: Forming a pit for the construction of a septic tank
Step 3: Install the tires one by one into the pit
Step 4: Connect the tires with plastic ties
Step 5: Putting the sewer pipe into the septic tank
Step 6: Sealing the sewer entry point into a septic tank
Step 7: Backfilling of the lower layers of the soil filter
Step 8: Dump the top layer of the soil filter
Installation of sewage treatment plant is not complicated. Before you dig a pit for a septic tank from two wells, you need to mark the territory. The dimensions of the wells are scheduled with the help of tires, spreading them on the ground.
The tire for the second tank fits close to the first. It may be larger: the second well is better to do more than the first. After marking for both tanks we dig one hole.
The bottom of the well should be protected from the penetration of sewage into the soil. To do this, it either concretes, or make it a plug of clay with a thickness of 20-25 cm. The well itself is made up of tires, which are removed using the jigsaw to remove the upper part.
The strength of the connection of tires between them is ensured by their pair ligament: the top tire is tied with wire to the bottom. All seams, punctures and seams securely seal.
The transition pipe is inserted into the hole, which is cut at a height of 2/3 of the bottom of the pit. For the incoming pipe in the upper part of the first well also need to cut a similar hole.
Plastic pipes are used to transport wastewater. Fill the excavation should be sand and the soil that was extracted in the process of digging. For each of the wells need a cover from a material that does not rot, you can pick up polymer manhole.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The visual image of any process is better perceived than the printed word. That is why we put all these videos together.
See how you can independently build a septic tank consisting of three wells, using factory-made concrete rings for tanks:
Happy owners of eurocubes have almost perfect material for building individual sewage systems. It is only important not to forget that the relatively small weight of the cubes themselves can be a problem when the soil heats up.
How to use Eurocubes, see the video:
Often in the construction of different objects used bricks. They can be a good material for a septic tank. The nuances of this construction will open the video:
The choice of material for the dacha septic tank is not an easy task. It is necessary not only to estimate their financial capabilities, but also to find out the peculiarities of the area where this structure will be operated. Having collected all the necessary information and armed with information, you will make a choice that you will not regret later.
Have experience in solving such problems? Or have questions on the topic? Please share your opinion, tell us what capacity you use for the septic tank. You can leave comments in the block below.