Resident of the city, accustomed to comfort, it is difficult even to be at the cottage for several days without amenities. Constructing on the site visited infrequently, expensive sewage system is irrational. But to abandon the idea, somehow to equip their temporary housing is not worth it.
A practical and inexpensive option - a cesspool of tires, this solution will significantly improve the quality of country life. We will tell you how to make a simple and budget rake yourself. In the article presented by us, the construction steps are described in detail, and valuable recommendations are given.
The content of the article:
- What is a cesspool?
- Pros and cons of the construction of tires
Self-made construction of a sump
- Components of the preparatory phase
- Subtleties digging pit
- Installation of tires and drainage
- Production of floor slab for pit
- Sinkhole with overflow
- Rules and frequency of cleaning
- We improve the manhole cesspit
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What is a cesspool?
The cesspool can be given the following definition: it is a fortified well, which is dug in the ground to transport waste into it through sewer pipes. In order not to have to call the sewage truck, it is often necessary to do preliminary calculations.
The basis is the volume of water consumed by one person per day. It averages from 150 to 200 liters. Thus, 3 people permanently living in the house during the summer period spend 9000 l (9 mᶾ) maximum or 6.8 mᶾ minimum for 15 days. This will be the necessary capacity of the pit.
A cesspool is not a structure that can be built anywhere. It must meet the sanitary standards and rules of SNiP
Pros and cons of the construction of tires
The following arguments can be made in favor of a cesspool device:
- material available;
- cost in some cases is zero;
- Work on the device is not difficult;
The operation of a self-made construction of the tires is convenient, but retains efficiency no more than 15 years.
The opponents of such a decision are right in their own way:
- Sealing is not perfect.
- To dismantle the structure when all its possibilities have been exhausted, if it succeeds, then with great difficulties. We'll just have to fill the pit with soil.
Pit of tires often do without a bottom. Upon receipt of waste from the house, the liquid through the filter cushion of rubble seeps into the underlying soil layers, and thick waste in the form of sludge remains at the bottom.
It is highly undesirable to pour water mixed with chemicals into such pits. However, they are ideally suited for the disposal of gray waste generated during the reception of hygienic procedures, cooking, etc.
A photo of
For the construction of a cesspool, we collect tires, having previously calculated their number according to the required volume.
According to the previously made calculations and the height determined as a result of the calculations, we are developing a pit. The depth is increased by 10 cm
At the bottom of the pit we fall asleep 10 cm of sand, align it before installation. We put the starting ring on the leveled surface, check the horizontal level, set the following
We collect completely mine from automobile tires. The top link should be 20-25 cm above the surface.
We lay the sewer pipeline with a bias towards this sewer point to the cesspool. At the depth of pipe insertion, we cut a hole in the tire and insert a pipe into it
We trim the sides of the tires in order to increase the internal volume of the sump. We sew tires with polymeric ties, punctures with pre-awl holes for their entry
Thoroughly process the joints of the tires with silicone sealant on the inside
At the bottom of the mine pour 25- -30 cm of sand, then 35-40 cm of fine gravel. We finish the filling with a layer of large crushed stone fraction of 35 - 40 cm
Step 1: Procurement of tires for construction
Step 2: Development of a pit under the cesspool
Step 3: Immersing the starting tires in the pit
Step 4: Construction of the mine tires
Step 5: Putting the sewer pipe into the mine
Step 6: Trimming the sidewalls and stitching
Step 7: Sealing the joints of tire covers
Step 8: Backfill Soil Filter
Self-made construction of a sump
Deciding to arrange a cesspool of tires, without the help of experts, you need to decide what type of tires to choose for this. Any suitable, you can take the tires from heavy vehicles, cars, tractors.
When choosing the first option, you must be prepared to deal with huge and heavy tires. But the vygrey get volumetric and roomy.
All tires used for the sump facility should be the same size. Depending on their size, you may need from 6 to 10 pieces
If it is impossible to dig a hole of great depth because of the proximity of groundwater, then the required volume is obtained due to the width. Here you need tires with large dimensions.
Components of the preparatory phase
It should start with the search and preparation of a place for an important point of the sewer system - a grave or drain hole. The main thing is to retreat from the house at least minimum 5 m, from the fence 2 m, and if there is a reservoir, then the distance to it should be at least 25 m.
With the close location of groundwater, this distance is increased. If the relief of the site is uneven, the structure is placed at the lowest point of the site.
When choosing a place for a cesspool, it is important to be guided by the provisions set out in SNiP 30-02-97, otherwise you may expect a fine.
In the next step, large diameter tires are harvested. In rural areas, the easiest way is to find tractor tires. On average, the pit will need about 8 pcs.
Subtleties digging pit
To facilitate the process of digging the top layer of soil is cleaned of vegetation and debris. In its parameters, the well should exceed the dimensions of the pit, so that in future it will be possible to seal the walls.
It is necessary to take into account the recommendation of experts regarding the depth - it should be 2 times the diameter. Another 1 m or more is added so that the drains do not freeze if you plan to use the pit in winter.
To dig such a hole it is quite possible to do with improvised means without using equipment. Take 2 types of shovels - bayonet with short and long cuttings and something in the form of a scoop, bent relative to the holder at 80⁰. The first is used to destroy the rock, and the second is cleaned up loosened soil.
The excavation pit can be dug with your own hands, but you will have to work hard - you will have to remove about 25 m of soil from the pit
Before embarking on excavation, outline the contour. The easiest way to do this is with a tire laid on the ground - its contour is led around with a sharp peg and another 5-10 centimeters are added to it. Digging begin standard spade with a long handle.
With the deepening of a long stalk becomes a hindrance, so they begin to use a shortened version. To keep the pit size the same throughout the depth, the tire is periodically lowered to control it. The bottom is made with a slope relative to the hatch.
Installation of tires and drainage
Having dug a hole, put tires on each other by a column, after cutting off one of the rims. To protect the cesspool from melt water, the depth of the pit is calculated so that the top tire rises above the ground level to half its height.
If tires from heavy trucks are selected, then a knife or a grinder will not work for cutting the cord. All due to the fact that inside the tire is a steel thread. Rescued in this case, an electric jigsaw with a blade for metal.
Before laying in a pit tires must be prepared - get rid of the elements that will interfere. The inside is cut off on one side
You can cut the rim of tires, where there is no such thread, even with a knife. It needs to be sharpened well, moistened with water and run with a blade over a bar of laundry soap. Then the tool is driven into the rubber layer, and moving around the circumference, cutting is relatively easy.
The gaps between the tires are sealed. It is best to use bitumen based sealants. Some will cover the gaps with a cement-sand mixture, but this is not worth doing, because the design does not have sufficient rigidity and such a seal quickly crumble.
To provide at least an elementary additional waterproofing tires wrapped with plastic wrap or roofing material. In the remaining gap between the walls of the well and the erected structure, broken brick, crushed stone are poured, well tamped. A drainage well is drilled in the center of the finished sump using a drill; this will prevent the stagnation of wastewater.
A pipe is inserted into the drilled trunk so that it protrudes 1 m from the base. Holes are made in it at different heights. The top of the pipe and holes in it are covered with mesh material, which will protect it from clogging with large particles. The bottom of the pit is covered with 10 cm of crushed stone.
The drainage hole in the center of the pit is done with the use of a garden drill. It is necessary in order to increase the drainage area of sewage facilities
Sewage pipes are located between the slopes - several, if they connect to the sewer a shower and kitchen sink or just one for the toilet. To prevent the spread of unpleasant odors pit cover with a lid.
Production of floor slab for pit
Upon completion of the construction of a self-made septic tank tire it is dug around the perimeter of 0.2 m to create additional support for the plate. Its production is the most difficult and financially costly stage of construction of the simplest septic tank.
On the surface around the pit install boards with a focus on the butt. Hardwood floor can be replaced with a metal profile with a large bearing capacity.
Formwork from boards is laid on the prepared structure. It leaves holes for pipes and hatch. Sometimes, instead of boards or profiles, sheeting is used as a formwork.
The drain pit can be blocked with a prefabricated reinforced concrete slab, but you can also make it yourself. The form is chosen arbitrary.
From the reinforcement with a diameter of 12 mm make a grid with a mesh size of 1.5 to 2 cm. The armature at the intersection is tied up with wire, or welding is used to connect the rod.
After this work is completed, the surface is poured with concrete. In order to improve the filling of the mesh with the mixture and eliminate air bubbles from the embedment, concrete is poured during the embedding process.
When the whole area is covered, the grid is slightly raised, ensuring that the reinforcement is fully incorporated into the concrete. After that, continue to fill until the required thickness of the plate. The product must stand in order to gain the necessary strength. This process takes up to 28 days. The plate can be made separately, and then install it on the walls of the pit.
After the time allotted for freezing of concrete, the formwork support is removed and the construction of the manhole walls is started. Spread them out of brick, plaster the outside, and put a layer of bitumen to prevent precipitation from entering the pit. Next, cover the slab with a layer of earth, align it.
Hatches are mostly bought in finished form. You can buy a concrete or cast iron product, but you need to consider that they have considerable weight. Good performance in polymer-sand products.
Sinkhole with overflow
Of tires, you can build not only the simplest cesspit, but also something like a septic tank. Cleaning volumes will be small, but for giving with non-permanent residence this is quite enough.
The technology is similar to the standard, but there are some differences:
- The bottom is made up with a thick layer (about 40 cm) of rubble, but the drainage pipe is not installed.
- The side parts of the tires are cut to increase the volume of the rake.
- In the center of the pit is placed a concrete pipe, orienting it vertically. Its cross section is ½ of the tire diameter, and the height is equal to the corresponding pit parameter minus 10 cm.
- In the upper part of the pipe, there is 1 large hole for the overflow of clarified liquid or a number of small ones. In the same area, a pipe with a diameter of 10 cm is connected, along which drains are removed from the house and pressurized the junction.
- The bottom of the pipe is concreted. The design is closed with a cover with a hole for ventilation. According to the norms, the height of the ventilation pipe should not be lower than 4 m.
Can do cesspool with overflow and in a different way. If the number of tires sufficient dig not one hole, but two. Connect them with an overflow pipe. From the house, the effluent is fed to the first mine for sludge.
Having built a cesspool with overflow, you will be less likely to use the services of an ashenizator machine, and you will be able to recycle more wastewater.
Here, the sludge will settle to the bottom, and the partially purified liquid will flow through the pipe into the second compartment. Thus, it is possible to recycle a larger amount of waste, but such a construction will cost more.
Device cesspool without bottom impossible if groundwater is less than 2 m from the surface.
Between the level of the water in the ground and the conditional bottom of the constructed sump there should be a layer of soil at least a meter thick. Only in this case, the wastewater disposed of into the underlying rocks will undergo sufficient additional purification for infiltration into the groundwater.
Rules and frequency of cleaning
The pit will have to be cleaned periodically, each time calling a cesspool machine. Can be used fecal pump or clean it manually using a bucket with a rope tied to it, but this procedure is both unpleasant and laborious, and the waste itself will have to be disposed of somehow. If neither the first nor the second method passes, bioactivators can be used.
The easiest way to call for the pumping of waste from the cesspool is an ashenizing machine, but for this you need to provide access to the cesspool.
Bacteria used to decompose organic matter are grown on a special broth. This biological material may be dry, but the bacteria in it are inactive.
In order for them to start multiplying and performing their function, they use enzymes. Microorganisms retain high stability and survivability due to the presence of nutrient salts and enzymes in the concentrated preparation.
As soon as the composition enters the aquatic environment, bacteria are activated. The drug, reacting with organic masses, destroys their structure by decomposing molecules into gas and liquid and leaving sludge in the sediment. As a result of the water being absorbed into the ground and the volatilization of the gas in the sump, significantly less waste remains.
This is how the wastewater treatment process looks like the example of a cesspit toilet. On the 2nd month of bioactivator use, the effluent is lightened and the unpleasant smell completely disappears, and on the third month the volume of waste decreases.
Bioactivators need to constantly feed. If during 2 weeks a new portion of organic matter does not arrive in the grape, they die. Microorganisms can perform their functions only at positive temperatures. Colonies of bacteria and washings, in which aggressive chemistry is present, lead to the death.
Biological agents do not pose a danger to humans or the environment. They simply activate the natural processes of decomposition, contributing to an increase in the concentration of bacteria living in organic matter.
Modified microorganisms placed in tablets and gels, for example “Dr. Robic”, capable of processing not only organic matter present in the effluent, but also individual mineral compounds, paper. They have a long period of activity.
The system may malfunction, causing the pit to begin to spread an unpleasant odor and fill up very quickly. If it is completely sealed, then the situation is explained by an increase in water consumption, but if the bottom of the pit equipped with a filter layer, the case is most likely a decrease in throughput due to silting bottom.
In order to save the situation, it is necessary to free the pit from liquid contents, then pour water into the grab and leave it there for several hours so that the sediment at the bottom softens.
For the decomposition of sludge, biopreparations intended for this purpose are added to water containing microorganisms that can destroy the sediment formed during the decomposition of organic matter. After waiting a few days, the pit is cleaned again.
We improve the manhole cesspit
The cesspool cover often looks like a foreign body against the background of a green lawn and flower beds. Therefore, many try to disguise it with something. There are many options, but you need to choose such that the design of the site does not suffer, and if necessary, the decor can be easily removed.
On the hatch you can put an artificial stone in the form of a boulder or small stones, of which the hill is lined. On sale there are stones with deepening where flowers are planted.
Manhole covers are made in standard sizes. Choosing a design product, you solve the issue of masking the hatch is very simple
You can decorate the hatch with a decorative cover. Particularly beautiful products made from polymer-sand composition. Their colors are very different. Sometimes their surface imitates various materials. There are covers with sculpted images in the form of stumps, anthills, animals, cartoon characters.
With the peculiarities of the construction of a sump from the barrel for the country sewer system will introduce next article, the content of which we recommend to read.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The author of this video shares his experience with a toilet raking at the cottage:
An interesting idea: the housemaster did not trim the lid, but used the inside for horizontal drainage:
This master applied his non-standard solution:
The article presents a generalized technology of the device of the cesspool of tires. During the device, there may be some nuances, perhaps you will come up with some new solutions. The main thing to act and your life in the country will be more comfortable.
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