Sewer drain points from concrete rings have become popular due to the availability and low cost. If the construction is collected and arranged correctly, it serves more than one decade without maintenance. Sometimes, however, the concrete elements are displaced, and raked ceases to perform its function - to collect wastewater streams.
We will tell you what to do if the ring slipped drain hole, and how to prevent further displacement of parts. In the present article we describe ways to stop subsidence and effective action to restore the form of a drain hole. Recommendations for the prevention of such processes.
The content of the article:
Construction of drain holes of the concrete rings
- How to build a storage for sewage?
- Features raking device without bottom
- The causes of the subsidence of concrete rings
Methods for stopping the drawdown process
- Dismantling of construction and installation of the bottom
- Securing the lower concrete ring
- Sealing the space between the rings
- Effective methods of sealing the joints
- Prevention of subsidence raking
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Construction of drain holes of the concrete rings
To understand the causes of displacement and to determine the method of repair, it is necessary a good understanding of the structural features of sewerage facilities. For the most part they are buried in the ground, therefore, need to be able to understand and soil characteristics. First, remember mounting technology drives of concrete rings.
How to build a storage for sewage?
There are many options for the construction of a drain hole, without which the local sewerage system would be a defective.
Volumetric tank buried in the ground at a certain distance from home, is to collect waste water. As the construction material used to fill the cement structure assembly, finished concrete rings, masonry and even rubber tires.
Scheme accumulative sewage tank, which was used in the assembly of concrete rings 2 standard, and performs a function of bottom plate construction of concrete
Let the savings from the well reinforced concrete or concrete rings. Large (diameter 1 m or more) parts are quite heavy, and therefore, transporting, and assembling component parts by means of special equipment and workers.
But sufficiently durable and wear-resistant cylindrical shaped elements are of low cost, so that half of all cesspools in suburban areas and small cottages built it from them. For the construction of underground facilities take 2-3 ring factory production.
Independently making similar parts is difficult and impractical, while the sale is all the constituent elements of the storage container:
- standard diameter of the ring;
- an indoor unit to the bottom of the device;
- slabs circular shape;
- smaller diameter neck (dobornye);
- plate with a hole for the hatch.
Rings for assembling manhole at their summer cottage can be done personally. Walkthrough for their production is hereby, Be sure to familiarize yourself with very useful information.
After preliminary calculations become necessary set, from which the collected cesspit. Before installing concrete elements need to dig a pit, the width and depth slightly greater than the size of raking.
Closed on one side part that performs the function of the bottom, can be replaced by a reinforced concrete slab. It is placed on a leveled base, and bonded to the lower ring brackets
On the flat surface is placed first element - the bottom of the structure, then put on each other from 1 to 4 rings, thoroughly sealing the joints. To protect the concrete on both sides (outer and inner) applying mastic or other waterproofing.
After the backfill on the surface is visible only to the neck portion and technical hatch. It is needed for regular maintenance - pumping out accumulated waste.
For the construction of the accumulation drain hole develop the pit, the bottom of which is required to stamp
At the bottom of the pit immersed ring starting with a molded bottom, ensuring tightness
Face ring starting with a solution and put the next ring, then the second
Having increased the required number of rings of the column cover overlap and neck erect with the hatch. Drawdown of this option is possible because of the poor quality tamping bottom and skew rings during installation
Step 1: the excavation device for a drain hole
Step 2: Starting with a molded bottom ring
Step 3: Set the ordinary rings drain hole
Step 4: The unit of the neck structures
With traditional schemes and rules for calculating the depth of the drain hole introduce article, To understand all the possible options for the structure.
Features raking device without bottom
Drain pit without bottom - this is not the drive, and the construction of a partial wastewater filtration. The lower part of raking is not blocked, and is equipped with a kind of filter - a thick layer of sand and gravel. Loose "cushion" passes through a liquid medium directly into the ground, holding firm and coarse particles.
If you want to build a simple treatment plant must be at least two containers: the first - the same drive, and the second - filter well.
The first deposited and partially processed solid waste, and the supernatant liquid flows into the next tank. In it there is a further anaerobic treatment and liquid penetration into the ground.
Scheme septic tanks of concrete rings consisting of three chambers: two filter and storage wells. When subsidence or displacement elements one part fails the whole system
If only the capacity to do the filtering, cleaning is ineffective and waste water will all as dangerous for the environment. In addition, the filter - a mixture of sand and shingle - will have to change with the times, so as pollution and waste clogging it happen quickly enough.
If you want to make a hole without a bottomTo cause less vacuum trucks, one tank - not the way out. Construction raking with a soil filter occurs in the same sequence as the conventional drive, with one exception.
Instead bottom sealing arrangement necessary to pour a thick layer of sand, then the gravel. Do not forget two important requirements: accommodating sandy soil to be, in extreme cases loam and ground water must be below the bottom closure precoat filter of 1 m or more.
The design with a drain hole filter bottom characterized by accumulating embodiment. Sealed bottom of the column at the starting level of the Rings in this case there is no
Due to the constant movement of treated waste water into the underlying ground layers are possible gradual erosion of rocks m subsequent shrinkage of concrete rings
As in the case of accumulative one drain pit with concrete filter bottom to be collected without bias. They can contribute to deformation and shrinkage of construction
When the device with a drain hole filter bottom in loamy soils enhance its capacity perforation starter ring. The weight of a large concrete pit the ring can not stand
Drain tank with filter bottom
The water at the bottom of the filter well
Installation of concrete barrel drain hole
Excess starting perforation ring
The causes of the subsidence of concrete rings
If after some time after the beginning of the operation, you notice that the neck of the tank settled or moved slightly to the side, it means the sinking or displacement of structures.
Guard standing in the case, if the normal water consumption rate of accumulation drain water dropped sharply, like it's time to call the scavengers and the reservoir, and not half filled. Most likely, separated joints between the rings, resulting in a drain going straight into the ground.
It requires a minimum of maintenance work if moved only the upper ring. It is necessary to put it in place and additionally fix the brackets. But for the diagnosis would have to dig up all the rings
Causes sagging, offset, and structural failure may be several.
It should consider such factors as:
- level and mobility of ground water;
- the mobility of the tank surrounding soil layers;
- concreted absence (or fixed in another way) bottom;
- violation mounting technology (uneven base, insufficient sealing of joints, no staples, etc.).
water table level is determined at the stage of drafting. For this it is necessary to measure the distance from the ground surface to the aquifer. The best time to check - rainy autumn or during the spring thaw, when the ground is the maximum amount of water.
To determine just need to look in its own well and measure the level of water in it. Indeed, the majority of mine water intake structures in cottages deepened in vadose, at least the first surface of the aquifer.
If you or a neighbor's section of the well drilled and equip official Drilling Company, it should provide the customer with a report with documentation of work. The securities issued by it to be hydro-geological section with marks GWL.
It so happens that the high groundwater manifest themselves immediately, but after some time. Under their influence deformed and porous layers and subsidence of ground, which may also disturb the stable position of the sewage tank.
Especially good watertight sand bed. Deposited under heavy reservoir layer of loose sand loam or loess can cause sagging or breaking joining of concrete rings.
Driving with a septic tank filter wells made of concrete rings. If the groundwater under the well are higher than prescribed norms, they podmoyut base over time, and the construction of prosyadet
When the whole structure subsidence omitted, whereas the upper part at break remains unchanged place, sandwiched gravel-sand dusting or sand-cement mixture, and the bottom off and "out" way down. Often ground motions are due to ongoing construction work nearby.
Errors in the sealing joints or settling bottom are frequent causes repair cesspools. Especially, if the bottom is not equipped with a concrete slab, or at least make the filter correctly. To determine the exact cause of the sinking or shifting rings, and then select a repair, you must be completely emptied pit.
Ways to repair the drive, filter installations without a bottom, and even the well water, which is made of concrete rings factory, similar.
Methods for stopping the drawdown process
Repairs should always be started after a full tank cleaning. For this cause scavengers and with the help of special equipment is removed from the pit of the entire contents. The solid precipitate adhering to the bottom, you also need to clean up with shovels or scrapers and bucket lift upward on the rope. Let us consider in more detail how to restore the sump.
Dismantling of construction and installation of the bottom
If subsidence - the phenomenon is not temporary, but permanent, construction is necessary as soon as possible to make out and solve the problem of the bottom of the device. Most likely, no work was carried out by compaction and compaction of the base before the construction of the sewer points at which it was planned to establish a column of concrete rings.
- Otkopka drive from all sides.
- Grouting and lifting rings up.
- Assessment of the state of the bottom of the pit.
- Installation of concrete slabs.
- Reassembly drive.
If after otkopki or the next stage pit quickly filled with water, do not get to carry out repair work.
There is a solution - you need to move raked in another place and spend a full cycle of the required measures for device manholeComprising rammer bottom or enhancement of its cement mortar. Unstable position of layers of soil sooner or later, will again be the cause of the destruction of the assembly.
Otkopku better to produce conventional shovels - because of the shortage of space and the possibility of harm to the structure. For dismantling of heavy concrete elements need to rent a crane
After careful cleaning and otkopki will cause visible subsidence. Most often it is in violation of the bottom of the device technology. Consequently, it is necessary to reinforce and align the base to fix the bottom.
On level ground layer of sand is poured, its tamped, then - a layer of crushed stone or gravel. The thickness of each layer -. 0.35-0.45 m again leveled and then placed concrete slab.
Second Embodiment - reinforcement with subsequent concrete casting. The bottom of the pit amplify mesh metal reinforcement. The diameter of the rod - 10 mm, cell size -. Not more than 0.2 m mesh poured cement mortar with plasticizer added for strength. screed drying times depend on the weather, but will have to wait at least one week.
When it becomes clear that the bottom is firmly secured, it is possible to build the tank again, simultaneously closing up joints and producing waterproof rings.
Securing the lower concrete ring
In rarer cases, the basis for a well done correctly, but still lower ring is shifted to the side. It is necessary to fix it - to fix on the concrete wall and pour on the sides with cement mortar. If subsidence occurs downward, the lower link should stall by means of additional devices.
One of the simplest options - in inset ring wall steel pipes, which are firmly fixed in the ground and serve as a hedge against further subsidence, even if the base little moves.
For this purpose in the walls of bore holes the lower link (4 to 6 pieces) and insert them in the pipe diameter of not less than 0.05 m. The cavity of each pipe must be filled with a solution to prevent water penetration.
For making holes in concrete drill is used. Pipes can try to drive a firm ground through a hammer inside holes
If the ground is not sufficiently tight and drive a supporting part does not work, they further Secure with backfilling sand and gravel, which can add to reliability dry cement.
Sealing the space between the rings
If two concrete link parted, and between them formed a large space, there are several ways to solve the problem. First, you must determine whether the subsidence process has stopped. If not, you'll have to disassemble the structure, strengthen the bottom and re-erect the structure.
When you stop the sagging process can go two ways:
- Disassemble structure to repair the places to install the ring, staples and secure them to seal the gap.
- Repair without disassembly, easy to close up a gap brickwork.
Bricks put conventional manner with a shift of a half-brick, on a normal cement mortar. To strengthen the masonry, it must be covered with plaster, then bituminous waterproof mastic.
Driving masonry unit for repair rupture of concrete rings. For more effective sealing from the outside and take out the ground work also operate obmazochnye
After repair it is necessary to check the reliability of a design and trace, if not continue to sink the vessel. If a kind of "patch" does not work, have yet to produce a complete disassembly and perform repairs to the strengthening of the bottom, an additional fixation of joints and brackets wall waterproofing manhole.
Effective methods of sealing the joints
Very often the consequence of a small drawdown is the formation of gaps between the links. The reason - the fragile connections between the rings, insufficient sealing. It is understood that one seal cracks formed will be insufficient.
Pre necessary seal units interconnected metal straps (entire circumference), and only then produce sealing joints according to the rules.
Materials that are used for the sealing of joints:
- Stucco (based on cement and PVA);
- web material coated with bitumen mastic (preferably for outdoor use);
- putty from a bitumen-gasoline mixture;
- sealing tape RubberElast;
- fibrorezina Kiilto FIBERPOOL;
- Sealant Peneplug et al.
The use of brackets makes any reliable seal, but it is better not to use traditional remedies and modern materials.
As the finish sealing frequently used bitumen mastic or resin mixture. They completely cover the concrete structure to increase its resistance to moisture and chemicals
Small cracks and gaps can be filled by any material having as a sealant, for example, cold-resistant tile adhesive or assembly foam.
Concrete collars cesspools are constantly in contact with aggressive media. If their joints are not applied insulation, possibly the destruction of concrete rings of the joint line and the subsequent shrinkage of the barrel
Upon detection of the initial stage of the destruction of joints necessary to carry out repairs and waterproofing lost strength of the rings ends. To this end the pits trunk release from soil
After application to the repair and sealing joints polyethylene composition it is wrapped or coated with a bituminous mastic then filled trench dug for repairs
The joints on the inside of concrete rings should also be repaired and covered with a sealant for the prevention of
Destruction of concrete rings on the joint
The excavation of the concrete drain hole
Wrap polyethylene barrel
Repair of concrete inside the barrel seams
Prevention of subsidence raking
To protect yourself from the time-consuming and sometimes costly process of repair of the collecting tank, it is better to provide options for protection against displacement and subsidence structure.
To do this:
- arrange a smooth, durable, stable base;
- fasten the bottom or concrete slab that performs the function of the bottom;
- seal all links interconnected metal straps;
- produce reliable sealing of joints;
- to fill the reservoir from the outside with a mixture of sand and gravel with cement.
The three-dimensional structures, the higher the risk of displacement of rings, so protective measures should be more reliable.
Treating the joints between the rings, do not forget the sealing points of contact of pipes with concrete links. Eliminate gaps in the holes in the same ways
At high groundwater and loose sandy soil is recommended to install an airtight container, and not filter well.
With manhole maintenance conducted by installing a plastic insert acquaint next article, With the content of which we recommend reviewing.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
With video you will learn ways to eliminate the effects of subsidence or displacement of concrete rings sewer drive.
Video # 1. Jointing repair mortar:
Video # 2. Testing waterproofing Raber:
Video # 3. Bond units brackets:
Addressing the causes of subsidence cumulative septic tank - a laborious process that requires patience and skills. If you doubt the correctness of the determination of the causes of displacement, or do not know how to repair a cesspool, consult an expert.
You want to talk about their own experience in the repair of the drainage holes with sagging rings? You know a proven way to restore its geometry? Please write comments in the below box, ask questions, divider useful information and pictures of the article.