Toilet on the street - it is not aesthetically pleasing, it is inconvenient and not environmentally friendly. To solve the problem of creating an independent sewage system to which you can connect the entire house, install special tanks - septic tanks.
Septic tank used for the collection, treatment, settling and clarification of wastewater. We can not allow waste water into the environment. It is fraught with contamination of soil, underlying rock and groundwater.
But what a septic tank is better for the house and how to properly set? To solve these problems sort out the criteria for selecting the original container to create an autonomous sanitation. And also consider the best manufacturers of septic tanks that will help you choose the best option for your home.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation of a septic tank
- Comparison of single-chamber septic tanks with a multi-chamber
- Septic tanks for increased cleaning requirements
Tips for choosing a septic tank
- Subtleties selection space for the installation vessel
- How to choose the volume of the septic tank?
- The layout and size of the septic tank
- Influence of soil on the choice of septic tank
- Material housing
- Overview of the most popular models of septic tanks
- Rating septic tanks producers
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation of a septic tank
Septic - one of the most important elements of an autonomous sewer system. Its main task is to collect and process waste water from homes or several buildings. Processing performed by simple sedimentation or more complex biological purification.
Depending on the degree of purification of waste water redirected in additional waste treatment facility, or discharged into the ground into the gutter. Multistage treatment of waste masses allows to utilize the clarified and disinfected liquid component without fear disrupt the natural balance, or create in the environment threatening situation.
The construction of an independent sewage from septic tanks for wastewater treatment will significantly increase the level of comfort and the status of a country manor
The simplest device variant of the organization involves the collection of all types of waste in storage. Mounted in the ground tank should be emptied assenizatorskaya technique as filling
The sealed container for storage and periodic pumping wastewater can be installed in any soil regardless of the ground water level
A more expensive option in the device predetermines application septic-settler. Recycled it wastewater forwarded to the dirt after-treatment system, then to the ground. The condition for installation are enclosing soils with good filtration characteristics
Structurally septic settling difficult drive. Capacity is divided into several chambers, flowing thereon drains are separated on a solid insoluble precipitate and water, disinfected and digested anaerobes
The more cameras in the septic tank sump, the deeper and better processing of waste produced, thanks so you can use the simple system of ground post-treatment or even to dump treated water to relief
The highest level of wastewater mass produces deep cleaning station in which mechanical, chemical and biological methods are combined
Deep cleaning station - the most expensive equipment, requiring besides electricity for the aerators and compressors. However, in contrast to the non-volatile storage and sedimentation tanks vacuum trucks they require ten times less
Capacity is prepared for installation
Storage tank for the accumulation of waste
The storage container is placed in a pit
The use of a septic tank sump
Connecting sewer pipes to the septic tank, sump
Multi-chamber septic tank for multistage purification
deep biological treatment plant
Volatile deep cleaning system
The apparatus may include one or more storage tanks. Its housing is made of water-impermeable materials, it has a high level of waterproofing. All types have septic receiving chamber or a separate compartment, in which gravity fed by wastewater sewer conduit.
Insoluble solid component of the waste mass settles to the bottom. Inclusions lower density float to the surface, where adsorbed sorts filtration devices. At this stage the bundle sinks.
The principle of operation of the simple type septic based on spontaneous separation of a liquid component and a solid waste mass as a result of sedimentation, and overflow from the vessel into the vessel
In the septic tank is a continuous process of decomposition of human waste involves complex bacteria. They contribute to the decomposition of organic substances in substantially pure water, activated sludge and gases. During processing all die a painful microflora.
Further purified water is separated from activated sludge, which accumulates in the sump for the subsequent pumping scavengers. The clarified and disinfected liquid component is moved out of the septic tank by gravity or with the sewage pump.
Septic tank with biological treatment - is a one-piece multi-level system using biological, mechanical and chemical methods. Processed in this septic tank effluent can be disposed to the relief or undergo additional purification in Infiltrator for discharge to ground
For purification and recycling of waste recycled apply:
- filtration fields - represent a system of perforated drain pipes laid in a covered with a mixture of sand and gravel filter trench;
- absorption / filtration wells - represent a cesspit with a filtration bed of gravel and sand of more than 1 m;
- Infiltrator - Factory fixture in an inverted upside down poluemkosti mounted on a dirt bed of gravel and sand;
- sewage ponds and ditches - objects intended for accumulation and discharging purified to 95- 98% of water to the centralized sewage treatment plant.
If the area of the autonomous sewerage unit with septic tank has developed a central network, it is better to connect to it.
Septic Settling purified waste mass by 70 - 75%. To dispose of the soil coming out of them, the liquid must pass additional cleaning dirt. For example, in the well absorbency
Selection dirt aftertreatment method depends on the degree of wastewater treatment, and the level of groundwater and soil type because:
- for normal utilization of purified water soils underlying aftertreatment system must have sufficient filtration properties;
- between conditional Infiltrator bottom, the well and the absorption filter drains field should be at least 1 m;
- sewage ponds and ditches, storm sewers in accordance with the requirements of SES allowed to drop only drains the last of the biological treatment and purified to 95-98%.
Consequently, the aftertreatment system may be installed only if local geological section prevail sand, gravel, gravel and detrital deposits. Between the bottom of the structure and the level of ground water in the spring and autumn period must be at least one meter.
Autonomous apparatus with septic sewage and Infiltrator allows discharge cleaned and disinfected effluent liquid component directly into the soil
If site conditions, which are building an autonomous sewer, do not meet these requirements, it will be necessary to look for a way to connect to a central sewer.
If the geological section contains the disconnected portion sediment (sand, gravel, crushed stone, gravel) and highest level of the groundwater is not more than 3 - 4 m from the surface, then used to reset drains filtration fields
If the output is not available, it is necessary to acquire a biological treatment plant, which allows you to drain the sewage into a ditch, or install storage container that does not produce clean, and only collects mass for subsequent pumping vacuum trucks.
If the geological section of the area represented by clayey soils, septic adjusted with a high degree of biological purification or sealed storage tanks
Comparison of single-chamber septic tanks with a multi-chamber
Experts recommend the use of two cameras installed on, because they are able to purify the water is much better. Single-chamber septic tank is suitable for home, where the total amount of waste does not exceed 1 m. A cube in a knock and possible ingress of fecal matter in the wastewater.
If you exceed a specified amount and add the fecal sewage, the single-chamber are not able to fully purify the water. Participation is also a need for a call for pumping sewage truck insoluble precipitate.
Selection of an appropriate volume and number of the septic tank is dependent on the number of scheduled for processing wastewater. Single chamber is set if the amount is less than 1 m³ / day, when constructing a two-chamber waste water volume to 5-8 m³ / day
More universal solution - a multidimensional septic tank. The first tank is a large part of inclusions in the form of a precipitate. Drains through the overflow pipe after primary treatment fall into the second chamber.
Here there is a complete biological treatment under the influence bacteria. All organic inclusions fall in a solid precipitate which is not subject to delamination. Secreted during this process gas is discharged through the vent pipe.
Then the water flows through an overflow tube in infiltration apparatus. The biological treatment plants have third and fourth chambers in which the water from the final sedimentation sludge. To enhance the action of aerobic bacteria, to the second chamber and a third compressor unit is often supplied to the saturation of water necessary for life aerobes oxygen.
Septic tanks, producing biological treatment, need a power supply, as without it can not be operated aerators and compressors. Constructs purifying sewage mass by settling, in most cases enegronezavisimy. An exception is a scheme in which discharge effluent produced by pumps.
Multi-chamber septic tank holds multi-processing waste with anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, with oxidation, separation and fermentation of the masses. As a result, at the output of the liquid component is treated to 95 - 98%
That in both chambers was the same pressure, the air channel is created between them. To perform an audit of the septic tank, they are fitted with sealed necks hatches.
Septic tanks differ:
- a set of materials;
- arrangement and others. features.
Earlier septic tanks manufactured in-house using concrete rings. But, in such structures it is very difficult to provide a high degree of sealing in view of the large number of joints.
Today, engineering systems manufacturers offer ready-made solutions from a reliable and sealed materials. More often - a few cameras, united in one body, but there are also modular design.
Septic tanks for increased cleaning requirements
Sometimes the treated water to be used for technical purposes. To comply with SEC requirements, manufacturers make a biofilter septic tank. Cleansing with aerobic and anaerobic combined with standard mechanical filtration and peeling, as well as to the chemical action of the active oxygen.
Septic tank with biofilter approach to the performance indicators to the local sewage treatment plant. By setting these disadvantages are the high cost.
Septic allow biofilter with the purified water to drop directly into the soil without harm to the environment
Tips for choosing a septic tank
Before buying will take into account some important nuances that are fundamental to the selection of a suitable model. Next, consider the basic criteria in more detail.
Subtleties selection space for the installation vessel
Before you buy a septic tank, the owner must determine the place of its future installation. In addition, the location of the impressive size of the design should be consistent with a number of health requirements.
Failure to comply with these rules may result in the following consequences:
- penetration of odors in the house premises;
- waste and bacteria from entering into ground water sources, and water;
- site pollution caused by floods, the melting of snow or rainstorms, when the water in the tank goes into ground slowly, that may pose a threat of flooding and subsequent septic infection of the surrounding territory;
Furthermore competent mounting object must perform a flawless liner pipe and sealed connection pipes to raw sewage does not get into the environment without proper processing.
To protect themselves from all the trouble, it is necessary to follow a few regulatory requirements:
- Consider the location of the nearest water bodies.
- Take into account the situation of water sources. Septic tank should be 50 meters from the well, while a sandy soil - 80 meters. The distance to the deep well type - not less than 25 meters.
- Distance to the foundation at least 5 meters, and other outbuildings - more than a meter.
In some cases, the distance to the foundation can be reduced, but it is only in those circumstances when using a local cleaning station type biofilter. But even this point requires coordination.
Location septic tank must take into account all the surrounding objects to comply with sanitary norms
When the project autonomous sewer, the distance in each case is determined individually, taking into account the particular soil, terrain and proximity to water sources:
- septic around trees should not be at a distance of 3 meters (roots can damage the reservoirs, and organic ingress can cause death of the plant);
- construction must be located at least 5 meters from the road;
- minimum distance from the static reservoir 30 meters and at a stream of a river or - at least 10 meters;
- Water pipes should be at least 10 meters from the septic tank;
- distance to the site of your neighbor should be at least 2 meters.
Compliance with all requirements may be slightly complicate the search for a suitable site for a sewage plant. In addition, it is necessary to consider how waste removing vehicle in the future will be able to drive for pumping sewage out of the tank.
Sewage deep cleaning station may be positioned adjacent to the foundation and the adjacent portion. They work without an accident and do not spread odors
Choosing a place for the storage must take into account several important factors: a capacious machine must be provided access to pump wastewater from the foundation must be removed by 4 - 5 m
Find a suitable location for the installation of a septic tank settling much more difficult. Its feature is not less than 5 m from the base should take into account the location + dirt aftertreatment system, which connect with septic undesirable angle
In order to decorate the neck of a septic tank, making it invisible on the site using different steps of: installing a boot boulder harboring shrub roses, alpine slide device or flowerbed around
Location deep cleaning station
Location for the Drive
Venue for a system with a sump
Decoration septic tank hatch on the site
Installation of a septic tank is performed as part of a previously created project, which is coordinated with the SEC. Construction should be carried out precisely for the project. Any discrepancies could give rise to a number of troubles in the form of an administrative offense with unpleasant consequences.
When the burial of sewage facilities in the ground below the 5-meter is required to obtain permission to install it in the local municipal organization. It would be nice to make a project autonomous system to accurately calculate costs and plan of action.
Installation of a septic tank, bury below the 5-m, it should be fully coordinated in the local administration
How to choose the volume of the septic tank?
Septic correct amount will provide a high degree of purification, the full decomposition of organic substances and quick to exclude overfilling of the tank. But do not go to extremes - too much installation will take up much space, will cost much more expensive and entails additional work during installation.
Determine the volume of the septic tank, you can use engineering formulas and special tables, but that does not make a mess, you can go in a simpler way. According to the sanitary standards of wastewater in the septic tank must be at least three days. From this it turns out that the volume of the tank should be three times greater than the daily volume of waste water, which produces a family.
Enough to know how much water costs accounted for one member of the family. On average, one adult spends about 200 liters of water every day. However, this figure may have a different value, which depends on the set of the sanitary equipment (shower, bathtub). It is also necessary to consider the presence of dishwashers and washing machines, which can trigger an increase in the daily rate.
The laying of a septic tank is necessary to consider future circumstances, including the arrival of the guests, or additions to the family. Therefore it is necessary to acquire the installation volume is 30% higher than the calculated. Capacity of septic tank may be reduced due to the accumulation of sediment between the planned pumping.
The volume of the septic tank should be calculated on the volley emission drains in the event of accidents or the arrival of guests
The layout and size of the septic tank
Obviously, the size depends on the volume of the septic tank. Available are models of various sizes, made in horizontal or vertical form. The choice depends on the available space for installation. Horizontal model will require more space, but for the vertical installation it is necessary to dig a pit of greater depth.
installation depth depends on the level of seasonal freezing of the soil, which is predetermined by climate zone. This information can be found in any construction company.
When imposing the freezing depth of soil is better to stay on the vertically elongated patterns. Input and output in the construction must be below the freezing means for horizontal structure need not only deep, but also a fairly wide pit.
The main drawback of the installation volume, underfill septic tanks - this is their ascent while improving ground water in the spring and autumn period and during snowmelt. Therefore, they are placed on the bottom of the pit arranged on concrete slabs and anchors - is attached to the metal plate embedded within. Vertical septic benefits from greater stability, requiring a smaller area of the concrete base.
When installed on a certain depth is necessary to consider the long neck, through which made revision and pumping waste. They must rise above the Earth's surface at 18 - 20 cm, to avoid flooding during snowmelt.
If the geological conditions of the site are of high groundwater table and cut the clay, the device sewer small private houses used storage tanks
Influence of soil on the choice of septic tank
The type of soil depends on equipment of the treatment plant and the method of installation of a septic tank:
- On the sands of all kinds of size and bulk density are set all kinds of septic tanks. For similar reasons with excellent filtration properties are gravel and detrital ground. System complemented by any type of ground post-treatment: filtration field, Infiltrator factory, a well absorbency.
- In clay soils used storage capacity or a biological treatment plant. Because filtration quality loam, sandy loam, clay does not permit disposal in the ground, the methods used vacuum trucks or pump discharge into the gutter.
If the underlying sectional clayey soil layer contains the capacity of 1.0 1.5 m, it is possible to withdraw and remove it by replacing gravel-sand composition. This is the only option when there is no possibility to establish bioseptik.
When the aquifer site lies close to the surface, in any case, only the storage container is set.
Selection septic variety largely depends on the geological conditions and hydrogeological portion
The optimum conditions for the use of all types of septic tanks are sandy soils, which have excellent filtration properties
In the organization of sewage from septic tanks and cesspools of dirt aftertreatment systems must take into account the level of groundwater. Between conventional filter field or the bottom of the well layer should be at least 1 m
Dirt aftertreatment system are divided into horizontally and vertically oriented. Absorption well takes up less space than the filtration field
Dependence on conditions such as septic tank
Optimal conditions for installation
Conditions for dirt aftertreatment systems
Accounting of free space on the plot
All models presented at the market are divided into metal and polymer. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages.
The simplest model of polymer septic tanks have a reasonable price and are not subject to emersion during floods, since preventing ribs equipped ascents. But it is also difficult to transport and install, requiring the involvement of specialized equipment.
Metal reservoir must pass quality factory anticorrosive treatment and have a high degree of waterproofing. Otherwise aggressive media simply "eat" pot.
Experts recommend paying attention to the plastic models are more practical and durable
Another significant drawback is the high thermal conductivity metal. Effluents in this reservoir can simply be frozen, while even below the level of soil freezing. Therefore it is necessary to mount the insulation layer using mineral wool or other material.
Plastic septic tanks are more widespread popularity. Have a low weight, reinforced by the reinforcing ribs, convenient for transportation and installation are complete design.
These models today are made of three types of materials:
- polyethylene - very cheap and easy, almost completely devoid of seams, which ensures a high degree of integrity. Limited maximum temperatures of waste water (hot water can oplavit housing).
- polypropylene - more durable and can withstand the abrasive environment, do not wear. Are resistant to temperatures of any wastewater suitable for hot effluent.
- fiberglass - the most reliable and durable among the polymer septic tanks. Glass is resistant to aggressive chemical environment including organic solvents. It can be used for purification of industrial wastewater. Have a higher price.
Plastic septic tanks are 50 years or more. Their only drawback is the likelihood of surfacing in mind the low weight. Therefore, the owner need to take care of the tank fixation in soil column.
In today's market, you can choose any septic tank performance and purity. The volume is selected based on the actual water-flow
Overview of the most popular models of septic tanks
The Russian market is dominated by polymer solutions for the independent water drain:
- series "Tank». Installation with thick plastic walls (10-17mm), designed for 50 years of continuous use (produced in different volumes, providing needs from 1 to 10 people). The modular design allows you to gather a few septic tanks into a single unit, increasing productivity. Processes least 600l / day for installation in weight 85 kg;
- "Biotank" series. Autonomous cleaning device, through which recycled water can be directed to the relief (construction consists of four chambers, in which there is a biochemical filtering and aeration). Available with volumes that can be serviced by a family of 3 to 10 people.
- series "Triton T». Septic increased strength with a wall thickness of 14-40 mm. It consists of three chambers and has a connector for installation of pumping equipment. Model nomenclature embodiment includes from 1 to 40 m. A cube that allows to serve multiple homes.
- series "Tapas». Treatment plant, which produces a deep biological wastewater treatment (5-20 people). At the output of purified water can be directed to discharge into the ground or in a flow-type reservoir. The septic tank realized the possibility of removal of silt on its own, using a sump pump or airlift. This does not necessarily cause a sewage truck.
All kinds of septic tanks require periodic removal of accumulated silt, which can be used as a fertilizer or a basis for the formation of the compost pile.
If the installation of a septic tank is not possible due to improper geological and hydrogeological conditions in the scheme of autonomous sewage storage tank used
Rating septic tanks producers
Experts recommend paying attention to the products of the following manufacturers: Evo Stock Bio, Fast, Alta Bio, Uponor Bio, cleansing, Poplar, And BIOozon Tver. The latter are very difficult to install and require specialized expertise for installation.
When choosing a septic tank be sure to consider the following advice to save finances. If the house is where you plan to install an autonomous sewer is used on the weekends or holidays, then a full septic tank installed is not necessary.
Bacteria and organic compounds will die due to lack of regular replenishment of the nutrient medium. Therefore, in such a case can be installed with simple storage septic desired volume.
But in this case it is possible to forget about the discharge of water in the precoat layer. Despite the biodegradation and sedimentation drains have to call the fire ladder at the reservoir is full.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Roller with recommendations to purchase a septic tank for sewage standalone device:
Owning your own home - it's a dream of many people. But, to truly feel comfortable in it will be possible only if you create the appropriate conditions.
Quality water supply and sewerage - critical conditions for comfort, if the family lives in the house on a regular basis.
You choose the best septic tank for your home? Maybe you have a question that you would like to discuss, but we have not considered them in our material? Ask in the comments below this article - we and visitors to our site will try to clarify the controversial points.
Or you're already using septic tanks and want to share their experiences with other homeowners? Write your recommendation, add a photo, specify the advantages and disadvantages of your model, identified in the operation.