Modern vacation home for comfort does not concede a city apartment. It is equipped with a toilet, shower, washing machine and dishwasher. At the same time, centralized sewage is most often absent. Its function can perform a septic tank for the garden, in which the accumulation and processing of partial discharges.
The treatment plant has gained popularity due to the simplicity of design, reliability and an affordable price. Queries about buying? To discover the device and the principle of the septic tank, its advantages and shortcomings, as well as installation and maintenance rules.
The stated information will help determine the choice of modification cleaner Tank understand for themselves the feasibility of its installation. Material will also be useful to those who are already using the storage septic tank in the country.
The content of the article:
The device septic tank "Tank"
- Features of the housing unit
- The design and function of the biofilter
- Principle of the installation
- Advantages and disadvantages of the septic tank "Tank"
How to increase the efficiency of the system?
- When the application bioaktivatory necessary?
- How to make Bioactivator?
- What is the dofiltratsiya?
- What land is not suitable for such a septic tank?
- Install and run a new installation work
- Rules of conservation septic tank
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The device septic tank "Tank"
Septic Tank - a treatment plant in which there is an accumulation, sedimentation and partial purification of biological wastewater. It consists of one - three serially connected sections, the last of which is divided into two chambers.
In the second chamber biofilter is intended for anaerobic treatment of waste water and the floating loading conducting filtering on the output from the tank.
Septic Tank are a series of molded polymer construction, for processing the waste water
Manufacturer septic tank brand offers an extensive range that allows the system to choose the small suburban areas and suburban places of residence
The company produces a full range of devices, using which one can easily assemble an autonomous sewer system of any complexity and length
Housing septic tank with a logo designed with installation in the calculation of the pit without anchoring
Molded structures for autonomous apparatus sanitation
Lineup of septic tanks for decorating garden
A set of devices for the construction of sewage
Advantages ribbed shape plastic housing
As a result, multi-stage purification process overflow, processing and bacteria filtration purification rate reaches 78-80%. After leaving the treatment plant effluent is fed within a ground Infiltrator. There aftertreatment extends to 95 - 100% and discharge treated mass into the underlying layers of soil, farmland filtration or gutters.
Septic tank mounting section, inlet and outlet gasket communications to be performed in strict accordance the manufacturer's recommendations, and with reference to a specific geological and hydrogeological situation, on the site (+)
In cottages use devices provided in the same housing often.
The design consists of elements:
- housing, The volume of which is divided into two or three sections with partitions modulations.
- biofilter polymer-floating load.
- fittings - incoming and outlet.
- One or two necks with tight-fitting lids.
Number of sections in the septic tank is dependent on its total volume. Two cameras are small septic tank volume capable of processing up to 600 liters of wastewater per day (fulfillment Tank 1). Others are divided into three parts.
sewage treatment system with a logo tank can include one or several sections depending on the needs in processing
Performance (drainage volume daily) monohull septic tanks according to the modification enough for the service of one to six tenants, which corresponds to the wastewater within 1200 l / day.
If you want to process a larger amount of waste, the working chambers are separate modules, each of which in this case performs its function. Thus constructed septic tank Tank 4 - it consists of three tanks connected modulations.
Furthermore, by sequentially adding additional capacity can be increased system capacity purification performance of any septic tank to the required level.
All components are made of polymeric materials, no corrosion, erosion or water erosion of soil (+)
Features of the housing unit
Housing unit - a monolithic molded container made of ribbed polyethylene, without any seams and joints. The rectangular shape of the septic tank is compact and stable, so it is simple enough to mount even a layperson.
The upper part of the body are made one (Tank 1) or two serving hatch. Neck attached to the sealant on the principle of male-female.
Ribbed wall, while remaining flexible and elastic at any temperature increase rigidity and structural strength. With proper installation can withstand soil pressure even during frost heaving.
The ribbed surface of the tank increases adhesion with the surrounding dense sand-cement bag, whereby it is firmly held in the ground and does not float during the spring flood. Therefore, the septic tank does not require additional anchoring during installation.
Monolithic molded case made of polypropylene, reinforced with ribs, stand quietly destroying environmental influences - uneven pressure of ground, and periodically cleaning the water drops temperatures
The material from which the tank is made - a solid polymeric compound. It is completely safe from an environmental point of view, biologically friendly material.
It does not decompose under the influence of microorganisms, does not react with chemicals is not subject to soil erosion and corrosion. The service life of polypropylene tank - at least 50 years.
The design and function of the biofilter
Biofilter septic tank is always set in the last chamber. It is a container in which the optimal conditions for the growth and reproduction of colonies of bacteria. To ensure the physical possibility of the settlement of microorganisms, the filter is filled with floating biozagruzkoy.
The main labor force biofilter are anaerobic bacteria colonies which are deposited on the walls and bottom of the tanks. The filter filling - a product whose shape allows for minimal size to create a larger area for mechanical cleaning.
Polymeric elements floating load is lighter than water, and therefore they float arranged at the outlet section of the nozzle with the biofilter. Material chemically stable and completely safe for all aquatic organisms.
biozagruzki elements have a different form - it may just be the polymer beads or large chips (Crushed). It is important that they created a space that can "attach" themselves to the maximum amount of pollution
the free surface area is a key performance indicator determines the biological loading and capacity of the entire treatment system.
In addition to the processing of hydrobionts in the biofilter is happening and centrifugal separation. Filter container itself is made in a form that allows it to work on the principle of the hydrocyclone.
The inlet openings are arranged so that the water enters at an angle (tangentially) and unwinds. Due to eddy microstreams eliminated all remaining heavy slurry.
Principle of the installation
Purification of sewage in a septic tank only occurs mechanically and biologically, without using any chemicals. If the construction comprises three sections, the process respectively divided into three stages.
Each stage takes place in their work area:
- The first section He is receiving. Through the sewers from home in her drain all household waste and upheld. Where fermentation occurs and mechanical separation - layer separation of different fractions by weight of the liquid. Heavy particles fall to the bottom, lungs (fat, faeces, and the like) rise to the surface and remains in the middle of the clarified water.
- The second section. It is flagged by overflow liquid from the primary receptacle of the middle layer. Here it continues to ferment under the action of microorganisms and defend - the movement is very slow, with no external disturbances. This contributes to settling small inclusions, not had time to settle out in the previous settler.
- The third section - biofilter. In its lower part by a centrifugal separation and purification from residual heavy impurities. To the top of the filter suitable fluid contamination which is merely biological. When passing through biozagruzku where colonies of bacteria are concentrated, it is cleansed of organic matter.
Settled to the bottom of the solid precipitate formed as a result of the filtering, separation and work bacteria is subject to periodic extraction through the sleeve assenizatorskaya machine.
To have settled on the bottom of the solids recycled wastewater is not pressed and compacted, at least once a year to conduct their evacuation through a hose connected to a vacuum trucks car
Colonies of bacteria which live and reproduce in the space of the biological loading is used dissolved in water, the organics in the food. Therefore, the processing takes place in a natural way. During formed innocuous carbon dioxide, a quantity of volatile hydrocarbons and water.
To arrange ventilation gas discharge, which is an indispensable element cleaning system. Otherwise produced during fermentation and biodegradation volatile components will accumulate in the reservoir and bled through the sewer line at home space. The building will fill the odor.
Septic tank - it is a sealed container, the biological treatment of waste water which is produced by anaerobic bacteria, without oxygen. These microorganisms are less efficient than aerobic (used in energy-systems).
Therefore, the degree of purification of water from organic matter at the outlet of the septic tank reaches 75-80%. Drain this liquid into the ground is forbidden by sanitary norms.
The efficiency depends on septic biozagruzki free area and size of the population of microorganisms. The rate of fluid flow in the system also affects the degree of purification - the higher it is, the less clean water exits the tank (+)
For doochischeniya effluent after septic tank is required to use the device dofiltratsii dirt. This structure, in which the water of the septic tank passes through the layer of crushed stone or gravel. Any remaining dirt are deposited in the filter mound.
The structure of the treatment plant based on the septic tank comprise one or more Infiltrator producing additional cleaning wastewater and discharge of treated mass into the ground, fields filtration gutters
These devices are:
- infiltrators - industrially manufactured without bottom tanks (similar to an inverted bath);
- filtration fields - a system of drainage pipes;
- filter well - absorption vessel without a bottom with drainage layer.
Type constructions and mounting scheme sewer system is selected depending on the type of soil in the area and groundwater level. On such issues is best to consult with a specialist.
When properly installed, a septic tank works as efficiently as in dry weather, and during the spring floods and heavy rains. He was not terribly frost heave of soil and seasonal shifts.
The most simple and quick to equip circuit. Suitable for soil, characterized by normal absorption of water - sand, gravel, pebble
Advantages and disadvantages of the septic tank "Tank"
Volatile septic tank "Tank" are ideal for Autonomous apparatus sanitation in a private house. They should be equipped in the areas of country and town houses for seasonal or periodic use, as well as in areas with frequent power outages.
Installation of the system is not complicated and is often performed independently. This allows you to save an amount equal to the cost of the septic tank
Local communications that do not require electricity to operate, and are used in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Technologies that save resources, are gaining in popularity.
Advantages of these septic tanks:
- The simplicity and reliability of the design - the tank is almost not subjected to wear and tear.
- casing strength - septic tank can withstand the damaging effects of the environment and ensures reliable operation of the system.
- Ease of maintenance - the absence of components that require periodic maintenance or repair. All service purification system based on the septic tank is to call once a year scavengers.
- The possibility of increasing productivity by adding additional modules which can be connected even to a functioning system.
- The cleaning efficiency. Sewage system combining septic tank dofiltratsii and apparatus provides complete cleaning of wastewater contaminants from - up to 98%.
- Durability - service life of at least 50 years.
- Easy installation. Compact body convenient rectangular shape and lightweight design allow for installation of a septic tank on their own, without the involvement of specialists.
- Acceptable price - compared to the competition, the cost of a septic tank is acceptable.
Septic Tank - one of the most unpretentious in operation. Keep out of the system toilet paper, food debris, and a reasonable amount of household cleaners and detergents.
Step 1: Develop a trench, whose bottom is covered with sand and carefully ramming Before installing a septic tank
Step 2: tamped and leveled bottom construction sewage set corresponding calculated value of flow for three days
Step 3: To a septic tank nozzles adapters, attach the elastic to ensure a tight connection of incoming and outgoing sewer line
Step 4: The previously developed paving trench sewer pipes that input and output of the septic tank
Step 5: sewer system components are located above the seasonal freezing of soil, insulated material, non-absorbent
Step 6: After filling the container the sewage water to the ground when filling is not deformed wall, trench fill. In areas with low groundwater paved rolled away in the development of the land, in places with typical flood - peskotsementnoy mixture
Step 7: To install a separate Infiltrator dig a pit, the bottom of which is lined with a geotextile and covered with rubble
Step 8: In built for infiltrators compactor filter geotextile and gravel set required the number of these devices connect to the septic tank, the ventilation pipes and set fall asleep system ground
Device for setting the excavation septic tank
Installation sewer construction in the trench
Adapter for connecting sewer pipes
Laying sewer pipe to the septic tank
Thermal insulation components sewerage
Filling the pit with soil layers septic tank
Development of the excavation for the installation of infiltrators
Installing infiltrators on a dirt filter
However, as with any engineering design, septic tank has not only advantages, but also disadvantages:
- Leaving the septic tank into the soil water can not be drained by sanitary standards - for its use doochischeniya-detrital sand or gravel-sand filter;
- Blemishes mounting give rise to unpleasant odors in the home, coming from sewage;
- Yl accumulated in the tank can not be used as a fertilizer because it may contain organic residues and harmful substances which can cause contamination of soil and groundwater.
To prevent odors in the house in the supply line is required to embed a vent stack. Anaerobic bacteria in the processing effluent recovered methane gases therefore necessarily must take. Also, during the installation of the tank can not prevent its buckling.
For the removal of methane concurrent processing of waste by anaerobic bacteria, the ventilation risers installed. They are installed at the inlet to the purification system and at the output of Infiltrator (+)
How to increase the efficiency of the system?
Micro-organisms are distributed throughout the volume of the septic tank and are concentrated in biozagruzke. They enter the system together with sewage, and, if there is sufficient organic successfully grow, reproduce and feed on organic ingredients.
Due to the bacteria in the septic tank is a constant ferment. Due to this, there is a division of organic, mineral slurries and fat fractions - stratified fluid.
The efficiency of wastewater treatment depends on the population of microorganisms. On the market a large selection of ready-made products containing bacterial colonies - bioactivators. Popular drug - "Dr. Robic".
Periodically adding them to the system, home owners improve the quality of cleaning. This effective prevention of the problems encountered in reducing the bacterial population - malodor formation of thick deposits on the walls, hardened sludge.
Activities anaerobes contributes to liquefaction of the bottom sludge and thick crust on the surface, so that the service can be invoked assenizatorskaya much less often - once every three years.
The choice of drugs against bacteria in the market is huge. When you select must take into account the conditions of microorganisms. Aerobic, requiring a constant oxygen supply to a septic tank does not fit - use can cause an imbalance in the system
When the application bioaktivatory necessary?
For the normal life of bacteria requires that the system receives and sufficient organic liquid. Accordingly, the use of continuously operating industrial septic optionally biologicals.
However, the violations in the operation resulted in the loss of the colonies, as evidenced by the appearance of an unpleasant smell. In this case, add Bioactivator should in the first place. Most often, this measure is sufficient to restore the normal operation of the purification system.
In these cases it is not necessary to wait for the smell, because in any case they help to reduce the population of microorganisms.
It is better to add ready biologic immediately, which is introduced:
- After a long downtime - for example, at the beginning of the summer season. If conservation is properly carried out, the bacteria in the septic tank do not die. However, their number is significantly reduced. Bioactivator helps to establish the system in a much shorter time than would occur under natural conditions.
- After resetting the drains Chemistry and disinfectants, which contribute to the death of aquatic organisms.
- After freezing in liquid septic tank. This can happen if the tank is installed without the insulation layer.
The smell of sewage is also displayed when the walls of sewer pipes and the walls have accumulated a thick layer of fat. Artificially added to the bacterial colonies is digested and liquefied sediments, after which they are free to drain into the sump.
How to make Bioactivator?
The drains poured pair of buckets (about 20 liters) of water. To biomaterial was in a septic tank, it is poured or emptied into the toilet. Thereafter, two or three times drained water.
Before you make a bacterial preparation in the sewers, should be familiar with the manufacturer's instructions
Before using liquid preparations just shaken, but in tablets or pellets should be made in accordance with the instructions supplied. Some manufacturers recommend biomaterial dissolve in water, the other - to pour in dry form.
After introducing the bacterial preparation for two-three days, control the water level in the septic tank, refilling it as necessary.
What is the dofiltratsiya?
Anaerobes are not able to recycle the organic compounds completely. They decompose complex compounds into simpler ones, which are contained in the fluid coming out of the septic tank.
Pouring this water into the soil, you can become a culprit of the infection and its groundwater. For complete cleavage of simple organic plum subjected to aerobic bacteria.
At arrangement dofiltratsii natural water from the septic tank passes through the layer of crushed stone or gravel, which is well oxygenated. This filtration bed of settled aerobic microorganisms, colonies which admission organic nutrient grow and multiply.
Thus the last stage is carried out complete purification of sewage in a sewer system, septic tank based.
What land is not suitable for such a septic tank?
Septic tank itself is absolutely not picky about soil. Rugged and waterproof housing, the material is not subject to any influence. The design ensures reliable operation, even if the body will constantly be in the water.
The presence of sand and cement pads around the vessel prevents uneven squeezing soil layers with frost heave.
But there are other mandatory elements in the cleaning system. Since dofiltratsii device presupposes good absorption of water into the ground, the highest groundwater level may become an obstacle for the installation of such a septic tank. According to the construction regulations between the filter bottom and roof of saturated water reservoir must be at least one meter.
Embodiments septic tanks, which are suitable for areas with high groundwater are described in here.
The second good reason - poorly absorbent clay soils, not passing into itself and enlarge itself cleaned wastewater. The filter layer in such situations is in the water and does not fulfill its task: not relieve the system from the purified liquid component.
However, to use non-volatile system in such areas as possible. It is only necessary to choose the right setting circuit.
For sanitation apparatus by close arrangement of groundwater for additional doochischeniya used infiltrators that set higher than the critical level. Between the septic tank and infiltrators mounted storage well with drain pump.
On part of the well pipe mounted check valve. It prevents the backflow of water if the water level in the well rises above it (+)
If the site clayey soil, the waste is used for doochischeniya filtration fields. Under the main filter layer satisfied the drainage system, the water collects in the sump to the pump and is discharged to the surface water taking ditch.
Reset to the relief of the water can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic needs
Install and run a new installation work
Before starting the septic tank needs to be filled with water by approximately 60-70%. Filling is performed by another stage of installation. Then, for about two weeks, the pure water is gradually replaced by drains. Once in the tank will accumulate a sufficient amount of organic substances in sewage introduced bioaktivatory.
It is not necessary to wait for the natural microflora filling drains. It takes up to several months, and at this time, the quality of water treatment will be low, can cause unpleasant smell and all sorts of problems. For example, the accumulation of deposits in pipes and on the walls of the tank, which can not be tolerated.
Therefore, to establish working purification system is necessary as soon as possible, and what helps prepare strains of bacteria. Before buying, make sure that Bioactivator for anaerobic septic tanks. Loading aerobic lead to a long run.
If you are interested in particular the installation of a septic tank "Tank", then we have A separate article - be sure to check.
Rules of conservation septic tank
If the cleaning system operates all year round, it will be no problems, even if the owners a couple of weeks will leave the house. But if you plan to cessation of sewage entering the septic tank for longer than a month, it is necessary to provide the bacteria with food. To do this, make the sewer sour-milk feeding.
issue preservation of a septic tank for the winter should be given due attention, as in the tank there is a living microflora, which must be preserved. To do this, you must take care of sufficient insulation design.
Insulation must be laid on the body during the installation of a septic tank. If the insulation is missing, you can do it before the cold weather.
Insulate the septic tank a must. Otherwise, the liquid in the tank can freeze and die microorganisms
Do not do it:
- Pump out waste water and wash chamberOtherwise the new season will have to restore the population of bacteria.
- Leave the tank empty - it ensures its expression from frozen ground and ascend in the spring floods.
In winter, leave the septic tank filled with about 2/3. This amount of fluid pressure compensates for the soil, and an empty space ensures that septic not break even in case of complete freezing of the contents.
If the wiper system installed wells with submersible pumps, the units for the winter season is suspended above the water level.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Comic video from the manufacturer quite clearly shows the main components of the cleaning system with a septic tank:
Some of the stages of production of septic tank. Visual measurements shell thickness in section:
Septic Tank is popular in Russia and many CIS countries. It has a simple and universal construction. Modular cleaning system is able to effectively serve and a small country house, and a roomy cabin, and several buildings.
If you have experience in the installation and operation of the septic tank, please share the information with our readers. Leave your comments on the article and ask questions on the topic - feedback form located below.