The content of the article:
Many summer residents have already heard of black-berry raspberries, and they want to know more:
- about its origin,
- about its popular varieties,
- and how to grow this plant.
In this article, those who have experience in growing black raspberries will share their knowledge and secrets.
Unique culture - black raspberries
What kind of dacha does without raspberries? This is an excellent plant. It gives abundant harvests and heals colds, it is unpretentious and its various varieties differ in taste and even in color. So, for example, black-berry raspberries have been deservedly respected by summer residents in recent years!
Black raspberry, it is also called blackberry - it is a perennial shrub. It belongs to the family of Rosaceae. The native land of the plant is North America. The length of the stems is 2-3 m; They are curved arcuate and covered with sharp spines.
Features of blackberry raspberry and its difference from red:
- it does not give a root shoot;
- its fruits, being ripe, do not crumble;
- only some varieties of this raspberry are well tolerated by frost;
- less than red raspberries suffer from pests, and almost not prone to disease;
- It does not require special care;
- before it begins to bear fruit, than red;
- The bush has a powerful root system.
The main difference between black raspberries and blackberries is that the ripe fruits are easily removed from the peduncle.
Advantages of blackberry raspberries
Talk about this berry is not vain, it really deserves attention. Here are a few of the most obvious advantages of this plant:
- Gardeners prefer to grow black raspberries on their plots because of its excellent taste. The berries of black raspberries are much sweeter than those of the ordinary, red. And some varieties have honey taste, without sourness.
- The fact that the black-headed raspberry gives excellent harvests, attracts many gardeners. Aromatic berries from a bush can be collected from 2 to 4 or more kilograms, depending on the variety and care of the plant.
- Elastic berries do not deform during transport. In addition, raspberries are not only suitable for fresh consumption, but also easily amenable to any treatment: freezing, preserving, cooking jam.
- The benefits of black raspberries are still being studied, but it is already known that it contains ellagic acid, which not only has the strongest antioxidant activity, but is also an effective means of preventing and combating oncological diseases.
Given this, many summer residents do not hesitate to plant black raspberries. Now it is worth to get acquainted with the popular varieties of this plant, and find out what care is needed behind the raspberry bushes.
The most popular varieties of black raspberries with a photo
In our locality is considered the most common variety of blackberries in Cumberland. And this is not surprising, because he has perfectly adapted to the climate of our country, and gives excellent harvests. But there are other, equally interesting varieties of black raspberries. For example, Bristal, New Logan, Earley Cumberland, Litach, The Gift of Siberia, Turn, Ugolek, Luck, Black Jewel and others.
Here is a description of some varieties of black raspberries with a photo:
- Litach. This variety was introduced in Poland in 2008. The early variety fructifies on two-year-old shoots. The bush is tall, with hard bent shoots and large spines. The berries are small, spherical with a bluish bloom.
- Coal. Another representative of early ripening varieties. The bush is of average power and spreading. The shoots reach, m in length, an arcuate shape with small spines. The berries are small, juicy, sweet-sour, slightly pubescent. The harvest yields good. The plant has a high resistance to diseases and pests well tolerates frost.
- Bristol. Raspberry black, varieties "Bristol" is considered one of the best varieties. As it yields amazingly high yields. The bush is of medium thickness and has a length of shoots, -3 m. The berries are almost round in shape, black with a blue bloom, sweet, juicy. He does not give root, prefers sunny places and weakly acidic soil. Poorly tolerates cold, susceptible to anthracnose.
- Boysenberry. Early ripening variety. The bush is strong. Shoots reach up to 3 m, spines do not. The berries are oblong, large, shiny, oblong in shape. The taste is sweet. The yield of this variety is high. The plant tolerates winter well, is practically not sick.
- New Logan. Early ripe bush. Its height is about 2m. The berries are black, shiny. Productivity is big. It is necessary to cover the bush for the winter.
- Raspberry black Cumberland. This early plant differs in its powerful bush, which is curved arched. On the wax shoots shoots, there are thorns. Berries are dense, almost round in shape, black shining. To taste sweet, have a taste of blackberries. Gives good harvests6 about 4kg from the bush. The variety is winter-hardy, but it does not tolerate an abundance of moisture.
Preparatory work before planting black raspberries
Black raspberry is not demanding, it will grow everywhere, and it will get well. But experienced gardeners know for sure that its harvest depends entirely on what place will be assigned to the plant, on the quality of the soil, and on the care of the fruit bush.
Choosing a suitable place for planting black raspberries
What you need to consider before planting black raspberries:
- A place. A well-lit place is perfect for growing raspberries. It is also important that there are no drafts: cold winds the plant does not tolerate.
- Neighbors and predecessors of raspberries on the site. The best neighbor of this plant is red raspberry. But with another "relative blackberry, black raspberries can not co-exist.
Bad predecessors are Solanaceae: tomato, eggplant, potato. It is advisable not to plant raspberries on the same site where these and other crops grew, that they suffer from such a fungal disease as verticillium wilt.
- Distance between bushes and rows. It is important not to plant bushes of black raspberries at a close distance from each other, even though they do not give root shoots. Then there will be no thickening of the plants, each of them will be evenly blown by the wind and heated by the sun.
The optimal distance between the bushes is 80 cm; between rows - about 2 meters. In this case, plants are easy to care for, and make sure that its branches do not touch the ground.
A suitable type of soil for black-berry raspberries
Soil quality is one of the most important factors affecting the raspberry harvest. Fertile loamy soil is "light" and contains in sufficient quantities minerals and nutrients.
Such soil is quite suitable for making black calf raspberries feel great and bring good fruits, since there is no stagnation of moisture in it, and it retains the heat necessary for the plant, and is breathable.
Planting black raspberries in the country
Plant black raspberries best in the early spring, given that this plant starts very early in the vegetation. That is why some summer residents prefer an autumn landing. But this is more suitable for a territory where winters are not so harsh, as the cold period of black raspberries is bad.
The depth of the landing pit must be at least half a meter; width - 40-50 cm. Wood char mixed with humus: and fill this pit with a centimeter of 20-25 cm. After this, it is worth pouring the pit with water. And there, gently, straightening the roots, place a raspberry seedling. Wait until the water has absorbed, and begin to fill the pit with soil mixed with sand and complex fertilizer. Then water again.
What care is needed?
Even beginners are easy to master several rules for caring for black raspberries. This culture does not require special attention, it is enough:
- Mulch the soil;
- In time watered;
- Tie raspberry branches;
- Learn how to properly trim the bush;
- Know about the diseases and pests of the plant, and be able to protect it;
- To carry out top dressing;
- Prepare raspberries for winter.
Mulching. Immediately after planting the plants, the soil under the bushes is mulched. For this purpose, crushed dry grass or straw, sawdust, that is used, peat or manure.
Watering. Black raspberries do not require abundant watering, even in the summer heat, it perfectly tolerates it. But, when it's time to ripen fruits, raspberry bushes need to be filled with enough water. Then the berries will be larger, and there will be more on the bushes. Of all kinds of watering, raspberries prefer drip irrigation.
Tying raspberry. The stems of the plant are thin and long, and grow rapidly. Over time, they need a garter. For this use both fences, and set the trellis.
Such support, as trellises, is very simple to construct. To do this, you need to dig up the pillars at the beginning and end of a row of black raspberries. Between them, pull the wire in several rows. To this wire the stems of the plant are attached.
Pruning. Pruning is needed so that the plant does not grow violent, it remains healthy, and that raspberries produce a good harvest. You should spend 2 scraps per year. One summer, the end of June, the second autumn, before the cold.
- Summer pruning. It is carried out to increase the yield. If you shorten the shoot at the point of growth, then from this place the next year will grow young twigs, a kind of fan. It is on these branches that young shoots will yield a generous harvest.
- Autumn pruning. This pruning is sanitary, the bush is preparing for winter. Cut dry and old branches. Long shoots are shortened.
Protection against diseases and pests. One of the most terrible diseases of black raspberries is verticillium wilt. It is not treated, so prevention is important - the acquisition of healthy plants, the correct conditions for planting and refusal to dig a land near the bush, a good drainage of the soil.
Rainy summer or insufficient drainage can lead to the appearance of fungal diseases. To prevent this, you can spray bushes with preparations containing copper. For the prevention of insecticides are widely used.
In the fight against the raspberry bug, which is one of the main pests of black raspberries, spraying with a 2% solution of nitrafen is used. This should be done before the buds awaken.
When the raspberries have floral buds, it is necessary to re-spray with bitter wormwood and marigold infusions (take 200gr of each herb, each of them insist on 10 liters of water). Before use, infusions of herbs should be mixed, this solution and sprinkle raspberries.
Top dressing. Black raspberry always thanks a plentiful harvest for top dressing. It can be organic fertilizers, for example, mullein, diluted with water 1 to 6, and bird droppings 1 to 17. Plus 1L of ash and 50g of superphosphate on the bucket of this "drug". Under the bush feeding is poured from 5 to 7 liters. Then it's worth all the raspberry planting to fill with water.
It is also possible to fertilize with nitrogen fertilizers. They contain the elements necessary for the growth and fruiting of the plant.
Reproduction of chokeberry raspberry
Black raspberries are multiplied by layers. To do this, at the end of summer, when the branches of black raspberries begin to stretch, they are bent into an arc and bent down to the ground. It is desirable to pre-dig a shallow trench, 10 cm deep. It is in these trenches that the shoots are lowered, fixed, and buried with earth so that the point of growth is above the ground. Preparing for the winter, the layers are insulated with sawdust, peat. The entrenched layers in spring are separated from the bush, and planted separately.
Preparation of black raspberries for winter
There are several ways to prepare a black raspberries for the winter. The choice will depend on the climate. Provided that the winters are not so harsh, you can leave the bushes on the trellis, securely securing each escape. So neither the wind nor the snow will harm the bushes.
If the winter is long and frosty, you can bend the bushes gently to the ground, but not too low. In this position, and fix the branches of raspberries. Snow, covering plants, will save them from the cold.
Black raspberries will become the main culture in the country, and will rejoice with their abundant harvests, if you devote a little time and learn about it. Then caring for this plant will not bring trouble.