One of the main elements of a modern water disposal system is a sewer well. The hatches of these structures, we often meet, even if just walking through the streets of the city. But in the autonomous sewer system, which the private owner equips on his site, wells are also used.
We suggest to familiarize with the classification of wells presented by us for sewerage systems. Their division into types was made according to the functional purpose and the material used in the manufacture. The article will help to understand the varieties and choose the appropriate option.
The detailed information we have provided on the types and operational features of the wells, which are an obligatory component of the sewage system, is supplemented by diagrams, videos and photos for visual perception.
The content of the article:
- Why do we need sewer wells?
Sewage Well Classification
- Accumulative and filter type
- Functions and features of manholes
- Features of Fade Varieties
What are these wells made of?
- Concrete service wells
- Polymer inspection products
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Why do we need sewer wells?
Sewerage is one of the inalienable attributes of civilized life. And it does not matter whether it is about the life of a large industrial city or a single family living in a country cottage. Through this communication, waste is carried out, the disposal of which in its absence would be a big problem.
Sewage systems, like any other facilities, need maintenance. Their condition must be monitored: maintain work functions, periodically performing maintenance.
If the system is clogged, emergency intervention may be necessary. To ensure all these processes and need sewer wells.
Despite all the variety of functions assigned to the sewer wells, all of them, anyway, are designed to maintain the drainage network in working condition.
If it seems to you that the hatches, by which we determine the presence of the well on the street, are located chaotically, then this is not so. There is a SNiP "Sewerage. External networks and facilities, which define the standards for the number and location of wells, their types, technology of construction, as well as the requirements for maintenance of sewer systems.
Wells arrange in all varieties of sewer systems, diverting household, stormwater and industrial wastewater
Sewage Well Classification
According to technical terminology, constructions belonging to sewer wells are divided into several varieties.
The division is made depending on what classification signs we will use. For example, it is possible to divide wells by the material of manufacture, by purpose or by the method of their device.
The type of structure to which a particular sewer well can be attributed depends on the type of classifying attribute applied to it.
There are the following classification features and the corresponding types of modern sewer wells. The first one is produced according to the environment transported by the sewer system.
Drainage networks, on which sewage wells are installed, are designed to move different in composition and degree of aggressiveness of effluent, these are:
- Household. These include water that has changed its composition as a result of mixing with waste and garbage. Depending on the constituents, the pollutants are divided into household and fecal.
- Industrial. These include water that has changed the mechanical and chemical composition as a result of pollution by industrial waste.
- Atmospheric. These include water, formed as a result of active melting of winter precipitation, flood and rainwater.
In addition to the varieties listed, the sewage system receives streams collected by the drainage system in the task of which is the drainage of the territory or the removal of groundwater from the underground construction designs.
Wells sewer systems are divided by production material on:
- Brick. Once a brick was often used material for the manufacture of wells, but over time, brick structures are becoming less and less.
- Concrete. Structures made of concrete - today it is the traditional version of the material for the sewer well.
- Plastic. It is obvious that the compositions with a polymer base are the material of the future, it is he who will someday replace both brick and concrete.
Plastic or composite prefabricated well constructions attract lightness, easy to install. Pleased with resistance to chemical effects during prolonged contact with aggressive media. They tolerate sharp and smooth temperature fluctuations, do not let in or absorb water at all.
Of course, on the scale of the city, it makes no sense to make brick manholes, and in the autonomous drainage network such facilities are still found.
Sewer systems are divided into floatable and exported. The first move the wastewater to the sewage treatment plant, objects or fields of discharge. The second produce only the collection of waste for subsequent pumping and removal. The wells included in both types of systems perform both the same and different functions.
According to their functional duties, they are divided into:
- Cumulative. Used for the accumulation of waste for the subsequent extraction and removal. They are built, of course, in the export sewer networks.
- Collector. Designed to collect wastewater from several sewer lines and to direct them to the storage tank, to the sewage treatment plant or to the discharge field. Arranged in both floatable and export branched networks.
- Filtering. Used for the disposal of the liquid fraction of effluent in a natural way. They play the role of a compact sewage treatment plant, transporting freed from environmental pollution in the ground or in reservoirs. Accompany exclusively flooded varieties of sewage.
- Lookouts. Constructed on the collector sites with a length of more than 50 m, as well as at all points of rotation and node connection of highways. Necessary to monitor the operation of the sewer system, for periodic cleaning and repair actions. They are satisfied in both types of sewage.
- Drop drops. They are satisfied in areas with sharp high-altitude differences. The reasons for the construction are the provision of in-depth release into the reservoir and the need for braking the effluent on sections of the pipeline with a large slope. May be present in the export and float sewer.
The classification of manholes is much more complex. We will talk about it a little lower, and now we will consider different types of wells in more detail.
A photo of
Wells - one of the most important functional objects of sewage. They are included in the composition of septic tanks, constructed along the entire length of underground utilities to monitor the operation of the system and cleaning
The simplest design option is a "descendant" of a conventional cesspool. It accumulates drains and is pumped out as it is filled with an absolutely sealed container.
In the device of cumulative sewer wells ready plastic tanks, a brick, concrete rings with a tight bottom and designs are used
A gray variety of drains transported to the well from kitchens, baths, bathrooms, showers, pools are disposed of in the absorption well, part of which is filled with a soil filter for water purification
The absorption well, which also filters the well, is constructed in the same way as a reservoir, but without a bottom. If necessary, increase the capacity to the height of the soil filter are installed rings with perforations
If the sewage system of the autonomous sewer system is discharged into a centralized network or directly transported to the treatment plant, a collector type is installed to collect them. It may be common to stormwater, gray drains and well drainage.
At the corners and every 25 - 50 m, depending on the diameter and complexity of the underground system, inspection revision and rotary sewer wells are installed
If necessary, reduce the speed of movement of wastewater, “bypass” the underground structure, or adapt to the relief, drop wells are constructed. Entry and exit are located at different levels.
Sewer wells in the septic tank organization
Cumulative version of the sewer well
Concrete storage device
Absorption well for the suburban area
Perforated part of the absorption well
Manifold well in the sewage system
Inspection rotary well to control sewage
Drop type sewer point
Accumulative and filter type
A cumulative well is a large sewer well, into which all sewage from a private house flows. The required size of this structure is determined by the number of people living in the house and the volume of water that they use.
When we talk about the cumulative well, it implies that the place of its use will be a country site, and not an urban or even a rural network.
Typically, the cumulative well is placed in the lowest part of the site. This ensures the desired angle of inclination allowing the drains to move spontaneously under the action of gravity along sewer line.
This structure is often made of plastered reinforced concrete rings. For the same purpose, you can use the plastic container factory performance.
The plastic well is convenient both in installation, and in operation. Of course, doing its installation, you also need to have some knowledge and skills, but still its installation is easier than working with a concrete counterpart. Concrete construction should not have gaps and cracks, otherwise liquid leakage can leak through the leaky seams, spreading an unpleasant smell.
A photo of
Step 1: A sewage system with a cumulative capacity begins with digging a pit for which you can use an excavator or carry out work manually with a shovel
Step 2: In order for the light plastic tank not to be "pushed out" by flood waters in spring and frosty swelling in winter, a concrete slab is poured or installed at the bottom
Step 3: A plastic container attached to the excavator boom with cables is immersed in a pit with a hardened plate. The term for the hardening of concrete 28 days, in the absence of the requirements for the plate 14
Step 4: The container installed in the pit should be leveled according to the position of the neck. Then its anchors are tied with a cable to the hinges laid before pouring into the slab.
Step 5: In order to strengthen the position of the drive, the pit with it is filled with a mixture of sand and cement. If the container is surrounded by sands that are loose and medium density, then it is better to reinforce the walls with concrete slabs, which will prevent the migration of the mixture and shrinkage of the dumping.
Step 6: Before filling the pit, the tank is one-third or half full with water to compensate for the pressure. The mixture is poured in layers of 30 cm and rammed. When the water level in the accumulator is equal to dumping, the container is completely poured and continue to pour.
Step 7: A sewer pipe is introduced into the tank, during which inspection and rotary wells must be installed in accordance with the construction requirements
Step 8: At the completion of the work on the sewer manholes, including the drive and inspection, are installed manhole rings, which join the hatches
Digging of the pit for the installation of storage tank
Pouring the concrete slab at the bottom of the mine
Immersion of capacity in the prepared ditch
Alignment and anchoring of the drive in the development
Strengthening the walls of the pit before filling
Rules for filling the pit with a mixture of sand and cement
Sewer line arrangement
Arrangement of a mouth of accumulative capacity
Another point for receiving and partial disposal of waste is filter well. It also flows by gravity by gravity, but does not linger in an airtight tank until export, but moves to the underlying soil, passing along a kind of filtration.
Filtration wells are constructed without a bottom in the usual sense. At its base, a multi-layered, multi-stage natural filter is made of sand and gravel of various fractions.
For the manufacture of filtering structures, brick masonry or concrete rings are also most often used, but their diameter is usually smaller. The design of this well is different in that it has no bottom. The building itself is filled up with either coarse sand or gravel.
The idea of such savings in cleaning the storage well is not bad if the drains are really subjected to high-quality filtration and do not poison the ground.
Functions and features of manholes
In order to monitor the state of the sewer system and in time to eliminate the problems arising in it, sewer manholes. Therefore, place them in places where system failure is most likely.
This manhole is both a nodal and a control one: such a combination of functions is quite acceptable, because no one will allow to increase the number of these structures unmotivated
They should be present in such places:
- where the slope of the pipeline or its diameter changes, what determines the speed of movement of wastewater and the width of the stream;
- where the flow changes its direction;
- where side branches are connected to the main pipeline;
- where it is necessary to observe, despite the fact that there are no special prerequisites for breakdowns.
Inspections are usually placed straight, keeping a distance of 15 meters between the wells. If we are talking about a private house, then the first viewing well should be at a distance of not less than 3 m, but not farther than 12 meters from the house.
The main function of these wells is still not the elimination of the resulting clogging, but its prevention. When sewage is clogged, it is possible to reverse the flow of drains. To prevent this from happening, experts recommend that a check valve be provided in the first observation building, which closes the outlet in case of clogging.
Inspection wells are also divided into several subspecies.
- Nodal. They are installed above the node, that is, in the place where the lateral branches are connected to the main pipeline. At the same time in the construction tray can not be more than one incoming and three outgoing pipes.
- Swivel. Such structures are located above the place where the pipeline turns. There is a rule that the angle of rotation should not be less than 90 degrees.
Turning should be performed with a smooth rounding, the radius of which can be from one to five diameters of the incoming pipe.
Rotate models can be very diverse, but there is also a limitation in their design: it is impossible that the angle of rotation was less than the direct
Direct-flow structures in places where there is no change in the direction of flow and branches:
- Checklists. These wells are installed in the places of discharge of treated water into the sewer. With their help, the quality of the cleaning performed is monitored.
- Washout. They are placed at the beginning of the network to wash it.
- Linear. Used for periodic preventive inspection of networks and for their cleaning.
Sometimes with the help of a single structure, not one, but several tasks can be solved at once. Despite the abundance of functions assigned to these structures, all the observation wells are arranged approximately equally.
They have manhole cover, the inlet, the shaft of the well, its working chamber and the bottom - here the outgoing and incoming pipelines are specially connected to facilitate the diagnostic procedure.
The material for the manufacture of manholes is usually reinforced concrete, but recently plastic containers are in great demand. Installation of such structures is carried out in the ground. They become the connecting parts of the sewer pipeline.
If this viewing structure is made at summer cottages, then some craftsmen will adjust sewer pipes of large diameter for such purposes. Typically, such a structure copes well with the tasks for the solution of which it was constructed.
Inspection wells are positioned so that access is guaranteed to monitor the technical condition of the system, for cleaning or repair (+)
For maintenance of drainage and storm sewer systems, manholes are also installed, about the types and features of the installation of which you can read in another popular article our site.
Features of Fade Varieties
The main function of the sewer wells differential type is the change in height and adjustment of the flow velocity. These structures can have a fairly diverse design.
Pay attention to how diverse the drops are, for which various differential type sewer manholes should and will be used
Sewer differential wells are installed there:
- where the depth of the incoming pipeline is reduced;
- where there is a risk of a sudden change in the rate of flow movement;
- where there is a highway intersection of underground structures;
- where this well is the last in the way of moving wastewaters before dumping them into a reservoir; Such a structure may have submerged release.
Given the various tasks that are assigned to these structures, the internal structure of these sewer manholes can have different design solutions.
According to the type of differential design are divided into:
- tubular, at the base of which vertical pipe is necessarily present;
- cascade - multi-stage mine-type structures to reduce the flow rate;
- with a practical profile, having a water fighter in the downstream;
- equipped with a water-drain wall;
- fast currents are short sections of the pipeline that are installed under a significant bias.
The last of the listed wells can also be used in an autonomous sewage system, in the case when the flow volumes are not large enough to ensure the cleaning of sewage pipes.
Drop wells sometimes have a rather complicated internal structure, therefore it is more appropriate to construct them not from concrete, but from reinforced polymers
There is another type of drop wells, which are installed on those parts of the sewer network, into which flammable or explosive substances can get or form.
Such wells are equipped with hydraulic seals. The specificity of such structures lies in the fact that the flow level here changes in the opposite direction: instead of lowering, it rises.
Such an effect is created with the help of a special camera in which preliminary accumulation of waste occurs. In the event of an emergency, the water valve will not let the fire spread.
What are these wells made of?
Most of our fellow citizens are confident that all sewer wells made of concrete. And they are almost right.
Usually for the construction of wells, which are located on the lines of the central urban sewer system, reinforced concrete rings are used. Only occasionally for the same purpose are used cubes or slabs of the same concrete.
Most of the sewer well shaft is built using basic reinforced concrete rings, and additional rings are needed to make the model fit into the drainage network as best as possible.
Modern producers are actively mastering the production of polymer products, which in all respects surpass reinforced concrete analogues. Gradually, although not as quickly as we would like, they conquer the Russian market. But while polymer structures are limited in use, concrete structures will still maintain their leadership positions for a while.
Concrete service wells
When standards and rules were created, which to this day regulate the procedure for creating sewer networks, no one heard of high-strength polymers.
And until now, sewage cleaning can be done manually. One worker descends into the well in order to push the wire in the direction of the blockage that has arisen, while his assistants, who are at the top, rotate its other end.
Wells for all types of sewage systems differ in depth and size. According to these attributes are divided into serviced and inspection types. The first require immersion inside the staff. The performance and technical condition of the second can be monitored from the surface.
Someday, concrete wells will be completely replaced by polymer structures, and then the heavy manual labor associated with removing clogs will also disappear.
Standard sizes of serviced wells were calculated in such a way that a person could not only fit into it, but also work. The construction size of 700 mm is minimal. A series of standard sizes continue 1000,1250,1500 and 2000 mm. These standards are preserved in our time.
Given these standard sizes, round plates are also produced, which are used as a base or top floor with a hole for a hatch with a diameter of 700 mm. Thus, the constituent parts of a standard concrete well are:
- base or bottom in the form of a circle or rectangle;
- the rings that make up the shaft;
- overlap with a round hole under the hatch;
- polymer or cast iron manhole cover.
The round shape is explained by the fact that the construction with such a geometry is best of all resisting the surrounding soil.
The manufacturer does not know in advance where and how it will be used. reinforced concrete elementstherefore, they are made in a standardized, flat form, and they are supplied only with embedded parts - loops, which are supposed to be used in the installation process.
To get the pipeline into the well, in the lower reinforced concrete ring, you need to punch a hole, and mount the tray of the shape that you need on the bottom plate. This design is the basis of manholes and even the drop wells, in which the device can be somewhat modernized, taking into account the design features of a particular model.
The height of the well depends on the number of standard and additional rings that are used in the process of its construction. In order for the subsequent ring to be installed as closely as possible to the previous one, it is necessary to remove the extra mounting loops. All gaps in the structure should be sealed with cement.
Since such measures are still not capable of ensuring a normal level of waterproofing, wastewater from concrete wells pollute the soil, while groundwater, by contrast, penetrate the well and contribute to its overflow.
Polymer inspection products
Wells made of modern polymers have provided a completely new level of freedom for sewer network designers.
The technical revolution, due to which mobile complexes emerged, arrived in a very timely manner. With their help, sewer pipelines can be serviced without the participation of people going into wells.
A photo of
Lightweight plastic modules are installed without lifting equipment, the system is assembled in the shortest possible time.
In the assortment of parts for arranging the bottom of the sewer well there are options of different sizes with the required number of inputs and trough cavities
The assembly of the shaft is made using easy-to-install fasteners and seals to ensure tightness along the joint
For the arrangement of the neck of the well, they produce cone-shaped parts, around the top of which a manhole ring is fixed.
Modular scheme of assembly of wells
Polymer well functional bottom
Tightness of connection of elements
Installation of a mouth of a well of the sewerage
This means that the size of the wells can not be customized by the parameters of an adult man. You can replace the bulky structure with a compact device up to 300 mm in diameter. Another advantage of polymer products is their low weight. The size of such a well can be precisely tailored to the needs of a particular sewer network.
Modern polymer wells can be classified according to different criteria. Well shafts may vary in the material from which they are made. They can be smooth, gofirovannymi and combined.
In turn, smooth and corrugated mines can be single-walled and double-walled. Moreover, the construction of the well itself can be telescopic, that is, retractable.
Even if the well itself is made of concrete, we recommend buying a polymer hatch for it: this is a very strong and sturdy product, which, unlike cast-iron, will not be stolen
Initially, polymer models were made of two parts: the neck and the tray. The tray part was supplied with wiring of the pipeline corresponding to the purpose of the well. At the present time, flow-free models are also provided for straight-through structures.
A huge advantage of polymer products is the complete waterproofing of their mines. This gives such facilities an absolute advantage, which over time will give them priority in the market of building products.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
In this video material, the advantages of models made of modern polymers are presented before products made of reinforced concrete.
Modern plastic wells not only look more attractive than their reinforced concrete counterparts, they weigh less and are better waterproofed. The future is surely theirs.
Without a sewer system it is impossible to imagine the life of a civilized society. And without wells of different types, no sewage system can carry out its work. Now you have an idea of what these structures are, how they are arranged and what materials they are made of.
Any questions in the process of familiarization with the material proposed by us? Have useful information you want to share with site visitors and with us? Please write in the box below.