Construction of sewage system involves the installation of wells to service the system. Previously this task was carried out reinforced concrete structures, now in force heaviness and complexity of their designs mounting polymeric analogs have replaced them.
What is the benefit of plastic manholes to traditional hydraulic structures, and what features they require installation, consider the article.
The content of the article:
- Scope of the plastic wells
- Features and manufacturing standards
- Advantages and disadvantages of plastic models
- Types of manholes
- Sight models throw
- Absorption drainage design
- Rainwater storage tanks
- Criteria for selection of competent
- Basic rules of installation
- Useful videos on the topic
Scope of the plastic wells
The former Soviet Union manholes were constructed mainly of concrete rings. To increase the tightness of the construction joints between them were sealed with sealing cement mortar technical flax fibers.
But under the influence of fluctuations in temperature and other environmental influences mezhshovnaya seal over time cracked, rings shifted relative to each other, as a result, the shaft sealing and partially losing It destroyed. Modern plastic wells such trouble is not threatened. Product solidity allows for airtight connections.
Ready sewage tanks in plastic can be used as stand-alone facilities, and as a supplement to the ready silos of concrete rings. In the second embodiment, they perform the function of a sealed plastic inserts in the concrete or brick well, which protects the soil from leaking sewage.
The main purpose of the polymer wells - to connect the sewer line between them. But thanks to its special design in addition to the basic function of the application allows to solve several problems at once:
- provide conditions for the monitoring of the technical state of the pipeline in place nodal compound change of direction or diameter of the pipe;
- create the conditions for laying sewage pipelines branches at different levels;
- increase / decrease the flow rate of wastewater;
- ensure access to prisoners in the pit area for sewer inspection and maintenance.
The oversized sewer manholes placed stop-controlled equipment and pumps, if there is a technical need for the stimulation of traffic flows.
Such hydraulic objects used both for industrial sewage plants and the laying of domestic, rainwater, drainage networks.
Features and manufacturing standards
Regardless of the type of construction material sewage wells same. The construction is recessed in the ground cylindrically shaped shaft, the bottom of which undeveloped Kineta - tray two or three pipes from sewage.
Adjust the length of the construction allows the use of extension cords and retractable shafts. To gain the necessary length of the structure, spliced them together, creating a strong and tight connection.
Often used for building construction and sliding extension model. In its role as the connecting elements, in parallel with this, and they are the continuation of construction of the wall.
The upper part of the well equip overlap with the hatch. When installing plastic wells is quite logical choice hatches of the same polymer, making it possible to provide the same great durability of the whole structure.
The dimensions correspond to the dimensions of plastic models of cast iron counterparts. When you select a hatch guided by its functionality. Depending on the degree to withstand loads hatches are divided into 4 categories:
- Standard "A15" used for installation on the green area and footpaths. He stands up to one and a half tons.
- "V125" installed on sidewalks and in parks and parking areas, where the load weight does not exceed 12.5 tons.
- "C250" is used in the construction of sewage, wherein the gasket is under urban roads. Products can withstand loads up to 25 tons.
- "D400" the most solid construction capable of withstanding up to 40 tons, designed for motorways.
Hatches standard "A15" can be set directly on the well shaft, and analogs thereof "V125" category "S250" and "D400" - on the torque ring or retractable telescopic tube.
The neck is a transition element between the shaft and hatch. Its main purpose - to take the load and compensate for the outside, which can damage the shaft and supply it to the pipe. For this reason, it is a bellows or telescopic design.
Telescopic part of the shaft can be extended by taking the most convenient position for exploring the surface condition of the walls and access during repairs. Emptying the ring at both ends is equipped with thread, whereby the compound is obtained as airtight as possible.
The walls of buildings are provided openings for summing input and output pipes.
The wells are of two types, depending on the size of the structure:
- Diameter smaller than one meter with unattended shaft. The compact design of the inspection is set at arrangement at a shallow depth.
- A diameter of over one meter. The design allows you to seamlessly maintain the equipment and repair the structure, if necessary.
The very well operate the same material as that used in the production of ordinary sewer pipes. This can be a double layer structured or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP).
Not less popular and model made from corrugated plastic. This solution simplifies the task of adjusting the height of the tank and allows to partially compensate for the load on the bottom, thereby significantly extending the life of the structure.
Both options available as the wells with single or double walls. To counter the compression of the soil outside the product equipped with ribs.
Advantages and disadvantages of plastic models
Construction of composites with polymeric matrix in no way inferior to traditional reinforced concrete ring-shaped modules. A polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride wells even superior in some aspects.
Among the indisputable advantages of plastic manholes for arranging sewage system is to provide:
- Affordable. Price depending on the design size, and the number of types of plastic pipes ranges from 5 to 50 thousand rubles.
- Lightweight construction. Weight of the product even more than one meter in diameter and no more than 100 kg.
- High compressive strength. Wall structures are capable of withstanding the high pressure created by both inside and on the outside.
- Ease of transport and installation. The installation design can be performed without additional manpower and applying small machines.
- low thermal conductivity. Polymer formation resistant to high temperatures. Trough part of the structure is also characterized by high resistance to wear. An exception may serve only siltation and overgrowing elements.
- Resistance to corrosion and frost. Manufactured by standard well plastic or polymer liner without loss practical qualities capable of withstanding up to -60 ° C.
For proper operation of plastic products are able to serve more than half a century.
Not so long ago were considered products of polyvinyl chloride are not strong enough and frost-resistant as compared to concrete structures. But modern compositions can easily withstand temperatures down to -70 ° C, so that they can be used in any climatic zone.
The only drawback plastic designs is that they are even and have thick walls and extra ribs, but their installation should exercise extreme caution, as there is a risk deform the container.
In addition, in most cases they can be repaired. Any chips or cracks in the wall is brought into recycling. For this reason, it is important to choose only high-quality and durable product.
Types of manholes
By appointment polymer manholes are divided into three types: the inspection, and the absorption of rainwater.
Sight models throw
Sight models are mounted on potentially hazardous sections of the pipeline. Their main purpose - to provide access for system monitoring, accommodation of special equipment and necessary maintenance facilities. Without them, can not do any sewer.
Without fail they are installed in the ground:
- turning highways;
- branching compound;
- changing slope and pipe diameter.
One manhole can combine up to three to four transport streams.
At arrangement sewer inspection plastic wells are placed at a distance from each other, regulated by regulatory documentation. The larger diameter of the installed hydraulic structures, the more regulatory allowable distance therebetween.
Absorption drainage design
Facilities of this type are installed where there is no opportunity to freely take wastewater. These are cylindrical plastic mine depth of two meters and a diameter of one and a half meters.
Unlike manholes absorption-type models do not require the installation of throw. Instead bottom tanks equip mesh or lining materials, providing drainage effect: gravel, broken or crushed brick. The same material is used as dusting and external walls of the well.
Minimum height of tapping plastic drainage pipe in the well wall is 40 cm. With this solution, the bottom of the tank in addition to the main task serves as a sand trap, which catches the settling of sand and other particles present in the water is turned on.
Rainwater storage tanks
The main function of rainwater wells - storage of wastewater prior to their evacuation, Export and Transfer of the treatment plant. The option "end point" depends on the degree of water pollution.
Since the storage tanks are designed to hold a ton of liquid, they have a rather impressive size.
Rainwater plastic tanks are completely sealed sides and bottom. One of the prerequisites of rainwater wells arrangement is to cover and sealed. This is necessary in order to prevent sewage overflow after heavy rainfall.
Criteria for selection of competent
Price wells polymer is composed of three basic parameters:
- Material quality and wall thickness.
- Dimensions of the design (internal diameter and height).
- Number of nozzles.
On sale meet monolithic and composite models. The price of solid product are much lower precast analogues.
Wells with monolithic body used in those cases where it is necessary to provide a high strength wall structures in compression.
In view of the internal structure of static volume when selecting wells with a monolithic body it is important to properly assess the volume of water that will flow into it.
Please note that there is a model in which the lead-in nipples are built. But there are options where you need to carry out a frame supply and return pipes.
Prefabricated structures allow the creation of wells of any height. They consist of components, each of which is equipped with a sealing ring, ensuring the tightness of the structure.
By purchasing a plastic well for removing technical waste, pay attention to the type of material used. It must be resistant to the aggressive environment, as in the operation will be exposed present therein of organic solvents.
Models made from polyvinyl chloride, are known for incombustibility and high resistance to chemicals. If, however, requires a high tightness and resistance to thermal shock, it is necessary to choose the model of polyethylene. They are well compensated earth pressure during the cold season.
On soft ground, where the probability of the load on the wall of the hydraulic structure, it is recommended to install a polypropylene wells. They have high wear resistance and ductility. They can be welded.
Do not try to reduce paper costs while refusing to purchase from the throw. The damage of such "savings" comes out in times greater than the direct financial benefit.
Lack tray portion sewage effluents difficult to remove from the well. It is in most cases results in frequent contamination of the coarse fraction debris system, whereby It creates a large resistance to the flow of waste water, as a consequence - the construction of quickly wears out and comes out system.
Wells polyethylene standard sizes can be purchased in DIY stores. Mine specified dimensions can also be ordered on an individual project.
Basic rules of installation
polymeric wells mount technology is not much different from the installation process similar sewer structures made of other materials.
Work is carried out in several stages:
- Excavation. By measuring the dimensions of the installed structure dug pit width 10-20 cm longer.
- Preparation of the base. When constructing the storage facilities of the bottom of the pit lining 20-cm layer of pebbles, and then cemented. For the construction of the drainage structure bottom concreted only at the perimeter and inside of the lining 40-cm layer of crushed stone or gravel.
- Installing a well. With tripod, ropes and cables container is lowered onto the bottom of the pit. In order to prevent displacement and increase reliability of fixing it in position secured metal chains or belts.
- Connecting sewer pipes. For sealing compounds and impart strength when connecting pipes of outlets are used seals.
- Performing backfill. Before backfilling, if the container is not protected from the outside, to prevent deformation due to its pressure drop tank filled with water is recommended.
- Installing the hatch. First mounted support ring, which has a technological holes, and then placed in the ring cap, so that it aligns with the corresponding notches.
Help information during the work should be incumbent on the SNP works on installation of sewerage systems.
Useful videos on the topic
Step by step installation technology clearly shown in the video:
Technology for creating manholes made of plastic:
The use of plastic manholes for sewer construction significantly easier and cheaper manufacturing works. This is a great alternative to the usual concrete. Heat-resistant, airtight and easy to install elements easy to assemble, quick to install and virtually maintenance free.