The content of the article:
Raspberry - self-pollinated by many gardeners, a long half-shrub, fruitful with fragrant, useful and tasty berries.
Aboveground part of the plant:
- Young twigs grown this summer;
- shoots with dense, stiffened bark, the second year of life, it is on them are formed berries.
- root system with buds formed on it, from which later shoots grow - offspring;
- part of the trunk, which is below the soil level with the formed buds. The branches emerging from such kidneys are shoots of substitution;
- subordinate roots.
Reference! In raspberry berries contain various active ingredients: fructose, glucose, fiber, pectins, coloring and tanning agents, B vitamins, carotene, potassium and copper salts, phytosterol, β-sitosterol. And also, there are acids: formic, lemon, salicylic, folic, and apple. In connection with such a rich composition, berries have pronounced antiseptic and antipyretic properties.
Agrotechnics for growing raspberries
The correct agrotechnics for growing raspberries presupposes not only direct cultivation of plants, but also the choice of a site under the raspberry, the preparation of soil, seedlings and seeds, the selection of the best fertilizers for a given crop and, of course, compliance with the regime glaze.
Important! Under raspberry are not suitable as dry high areas, and places with excessive moistening of the soil (lowlands, ravines). In the first and in the second case, plants suffer from various diseases, which significantly reduces yields. This culture grows well, develops and fructifies on light and medium drained loams, as well as sandy loamy soils with a reserve of humus, water and mineral elements.
The location and features of the site are important factors that gardeners should pay attention to in order to increase yields when growing raspberries:
- in the first place the place under the raspberry must be well ventilated, but not open to all winds. It is advisable to choose a site in the corner of the garden or where the bushes on one side will be closed by a fence or some wall, here, however, there is one caveat - the bushes are planted no closer than 50 cm to one-sided protection (wall, fence). In this case plants are freely blown by air masses, and they do not suffer from strong gusts of wind;
- when planning the raspberry agrotechniques, it is recommended to have rows of bushes from the north-east to south-west or from the north to the south;
- shading and lack of lighting, for example, when planting in the inter-row of trees, is also not good, since with such conditions, young branches (shoots of substitution and offspring) are extremely stretched to growth, obscuring fructifying branches. Accordingly, the period of growth, as well as the period of vegetation, is significantly prolonged and the plant does not have time to fully prepare for the colds, in addition, the risk of disease occurrence increases;
Advice! Experienced gardeners are advised to plant rows of raspberries along the paths in the front garden or near the gate. Here, as a rule, there is always enough light, and care for raspberries more because the plants are constantly "in sight".
The soil. Before planting raspberries, soil preparation includes digging, loosening and timely application of fertilizers:
- the selected site is dug to a depth of 32 cm (average length of the bayonet bayonet) or slightly larger;
- weeds are removed;
- fertilizers are introduced - on a plot of 3 m², a mixture of 12 kg of humus, 80 g of potassium and 170 g of superphosphate is prepared;
- the ground is again digged, then loosened;
- prepared trenches or holes under the bushes. The landing scheme can be different, this indicator depends on the selected grade and the arrangement of rows (one or several parallel to each other) ×, m ×, m.
Growing raspberries from seeds
Important! When growing raspberries from seeds, it is necessary to take into account that out of all planted material will germinate not more than 50%, and the characteristics of the resulting plants may differ significantly from parental. As a rule, this method is used by breeders to breed new varieties.
Production of inoculum
- In order to obtain a quality seed, and this increase the germination, it is necessary to select only ripe, and even better, overripe berries.
- Gently squeeze the juice out of the berries, for this purpose you can use a small strainer.
- The resulting mash can be put in a container and poured with cool water. Mix. After that, the seeds of the dummy will float, they can be safely thrown out. Repeat procedure 5.
- Dry the seeds in a ventilated, warm place. In this case, you need to ensure that direct sunlight does not fall on the seed.
- The technology of growing raspberries from seeds depends on the time of sowing, i.e. spring or autumn:
- autumn - sowing is carried out in the open ground, the depth of the closure is 2 cm, the seeds are covered with a mixture of sand and humus, the components are taken in equal quantities;
- spring - the best results give preliminary germination of seeds in a conventional seedling tank. The soil substrate is prepared from sand, garden soil and peat, all the components should be in the proportion:. Depth of sowing in a box 4-6 mm. Further, regular watering with water once every 4 days and fertilization with a solution of urea every ten days.
- Planting of seedlings sprouted at home in an open ground is made in prepared soil, according to the usual scheme.
Advice! Do you want to get good harvests, but live in the northern region, where the cold, short summer? - Try to grow raspberries in a greenhouse. Such a technique will make it possible to achieve the temperature regime as close as possible to the ideal for this culture.
Growing raspberries by Sobolev's method
The main difference between the cultivation of raspberries by the method of Sobolev, from the traditional method is the pruning of twigs, which is produced in two stages:
- Spring (late May) - the tops of last year's branches, in particular, lateral and central shoots, are cut off by 5-14 cm. This procedure promotes the formation of a greater number of peduncles, increased yield and a significant lengthening of the fruit bearing period.
- Autumn - the tops are cut to a well-developed bud (about 8-14 cm) near the germinated shoots of the first year, the length of the pruning depends on the variety.
Such agrotechnical reception, contributes to the formation of the bush, facilitating care and increasing the growth of the remaining branches. And it is important that additional buds wake up under the cut shoots, from which laterals (side branches) are formed.
How to grow raspberries by Sobolev's method - tips and nuances
Gardener often asked questions: How to grow raspberries by Sobolev's method? What difficulties and nuances can arise in this way of growing raspberries? What and when to do, and what can not be categorically?
And so, in order - advice and recommendations:
- The first, spring pruning is timeliness, that's the main word in carrying out this procedure. The best time is the last day of May, the tips at the shoots are cut off, which is in the range from half a meter to a meter. For the period remaining until the cold, 4-6 upper remaining kidneys, wake up and develop into lateral shoots, and it is very important that the buds that appeared on the laterals also have time to mature and prepare for the winter.
- Variety choice - you should know that the method is designed primarily for:
- varieties with a low ability to escape;
- 3-4-year-old plants;
- aging, poorly formed shoots, plants.
Varieties with intensive growth of a large number of offspring and replacement shoots, before applying the Sobolev method, require significant thinning. The thickening of bushes significantly reduces the effectiveness of the method and promotes the development of diseases, such as rot and purple spotting, as well as damage to plants by stem gall midges and raspberry fly.
The basic rules of care for raspberries according to Sobolev:
- Despite the fact that the culture prefers moist soil, excessive waterlogging is unacceptable, since this leads to rotting of the root system, the appearance of diseases and stretching into the growth of branches. To maintain the required water balance, mulching with fresh horse or cow dung is performed. A layer of mulch 15 cm thick, distributed along the soil near the raspberry bushes, after spilling with water, forms A dense crust that perfectly retains moisture and decomposes over time, serves as an excellent fertilizer for plants.
Advice! If there is no possibility to purchase manure, mulching can be done with peat, shavings, sawdust or compost.
- In the spring and early summer periods, the soil under the raspberry must loosen. Do this very carefully, affecting the soil layer to a depth of not more than 3 cm, otherwise you can damage the root system and young, tender shoots.
- In autumn, before wintering, all plants are bent to the ground (distance from branches to soil is 40 cm), they are pinned down with wooden slingshots and covered with covering materials.
- Every 2-3 years, it is necessary to add fertilizing to the soil, the most suitable for these purposes is humus, manure and mineral fertilizers. When combined, i.e. simultaneous application of organic and mineral fertilizers, agrotechnics advise the dose of both is reduced by half, per 1 m² - 3 g of nitrogen kg of manure, 4 g of potassium and 3 g phosphorus.