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In every house there should always be wood products made by one's own hands or bought from a master. These luxurious items create an atmosphere of home comfort and family warmth, so they never age. In addition, such things indicate the excellent taste of the owners. The combination of elegance and grandeur emphasizes the key idea of design. Of course, those who live near the forest, there is no need to worry about the supply of raw materials for carpentry. Another thing, if you need to buy it, then you should know some features of the materials. However, processing, drawings and installation will interest everyone.
Selection of timber
Often, wooden objects can swell, crack and break. The appearance of such defects on furniture made of wood indicates that the master incorrectly chose wood. This becomes obvious when processing the bars, when they "do not obey and as a result, a lot of marriage is obtained. Therefore, in the beginning it is important to determine what types of trees the carpenter wants to work with: soft or hard. The first group includes wood:
- pine and spruce;
- poplar trees;
- fir and cedar;
- and you;
Basically they are suitable for the production of facades, because they feel great in a humid environment. There are practically no problems with such raw materials. The cut image and color are very beautiful. These timber products will be suitable for creating children's furniture made of wood.
As for hard rocks, some of them require skill, as well as special tools / equipment. Starting carpenters are recommended to work with:
- apple and rowan;
- oak and beech;
A real professional is to give preference to white acacia, boxwood, cornel, yew or pistachio. Still, beech and oak boards are used most often. The strength and durability of such products captivates consumers.Beech is ideal in creating bent objects. But because of its hygroscopicity it is not relevant for outbuildings or kitchen structures. In this case, the alternative will be oak. Moreover, a bed, a chest of drawers or a bookcase from it will have a solid look. To make such furniture will need helpers, because oak wood itself is very heavy.
The favorite of many masters is the pine. Work with her is a pleasure. It is suitable for creating mini-lockers, doors, decorative elements and shelves. Nevertheless, this wood has low shock-resistant properties and does not withstand strong mechanical loads.
Competently matched material is half the case. Now you need to properly handle the wooden parts, and then collect them in one construction, guided by the drawings. Mold, rot and insects are ruthless pests, even for heavy-duty monoliths. Therefore, the surface of the polished boards / massif must always be treated with an antiseptic and antiperene.The following can also be taken as the starting material:
- OSB plate;
- a shielding board;
The boards and bars should be well dried, then it is easier to work with them. At home, the wood is dried naturally. The temperature of such a room is maintained within 12-18 ° C, and the period of this process lasts 2-3 years. Between the brushes there must be gaps that serve as ventilation. There is a more rapid method of drying. A log or an already made object is advised to be wrapped in paper / newspaper (every 48 hours it should be replaced) and wrapped in polyethylene film.
It is necessary to choose the right season for logging: end of autumn or winter months. During this period the plants are at rest, and moisture does not circulate in them.
If you want to make furniture from solid wood, then do not neglect the main stages of surface preparation:
- Grinding. Raznernernaya nazhdachka or polishing machine will help to conduct work quickly, and most importantly, qualitatively. It is carried out in several stages: before and after installation.
- Getting rid of the glue and resin. Such substances clog the porous structure of the wood, and the surface becomes dull. Cutting knots and wiping the resin, you need to treat these places with a special compound (a solution of shellac or white spirit).
- Application of disinfectants. After that it is necessary to soak up the most vulnerable areas with oil. When everything is dry, you can go to the next stage.
- Correction of depressions / cracks. This can be done with a thick filler (water or oil base), as well as special wax sticks. It is desirable to choose the color in the tone of the future product made of wood. After drying, it is necessary to clean the irregularities again.
- Painting. First, apply a primer or varnish / stain. The base layer is applied in a diluted form. To avoid streaks, it is well to rub the paint / lacquer well. Three layers - the most optimal option for any surface.
Alkyd and oil dyes are first applied vertically and then horizontally. Acrylic stain along the location of the fibers.
Dry the timber with the help of special installations (based on infrared radiation), microwave ovens or drying cabinets. In addition, some soak bars in boiling water (5 minutes) followed by rubbing with salt. And only after 7 days of drying the board will be ready.
Portfolio of work
First of all, you need to calculate the consumable material, how many leaves / boards for each product. Then they should be dried, treated with an antiseptic, removed defects and sanded. Now, when everything is ready, it is necessary to make a detailed drawing of the planned furniture or structures.
Instructions for creating a stool
Any man can easily make simple stools of wood. The structure of these structures is very simple, as are the stages of the work itself. The whole process is as follows:
- Cut 4-ri boards (60 cm), which will serve as legs. Using a chair, cut each edge (45 °). As a result, the length of each will be 48 cm.
- Pair the legs together in a cross way. To form a cross, it is worth making small grooves in the center. The depth is about half the side. After that they should be tightly fastened, then they will not protrude.
- Connecting bar for crosses. Its width depends on the dimensions of the stool. Screws are used as fasteners.
- The seat base. On each individual cross the bar is fixed. The seat consists of plywood and a thick piece of foam rubber (parameters 40X60 cm). From above all this is covered with a dense lining, and then with a finishing cloth, which is fixed with buttons.
- Assembly. Now it is important to connect everything reliably.
Screws of screws can be covered with wooden washers, making holes for them beforehand.
Painting details are recommended before attaching the seat. The color should be chosen in the tone of the fabric or the interior of the room. In the kitchen, many will want to make a stool with divided legs. The height and width of the product is determined by each master individually. The blanks consist of:
- legs (length 43 cm);
- the kings (30 cm);
- footsteps (29 cm)
- seat (35 centimeter).
Each type of parts is four pieces. From the beam should be cut support. The scheme details the dimensions of individual parts of the structure, as well as the parameters for creating grooves.In this project, there are spike connections, so they need to be cut with the utmost precision.
All the fixtures are first advised to lubricate with glue and only then screw the screws.
Chair with back
Particularly popular are chairs made of wood with a back. However, making them is much more difficult than stool.It starts with the following:
- Preparing the legs. Two bars of 44 cm in length will serve as the front bases, and the other 2 to 80 cm - the rear.
- Forming grooves (two on each side) for fastening. Depth or 2 cm, and width - up to 4 cm. They must be exactly opposite to each other.
- Upgraded items. The edge of the legs can be cut off a little in both the upper and lower parts. Sawing the beam can be an oblique way slightly above the center, connecting the pieces so that the angle turns out.
- Thrusters. At the ends of the prepared four slats (length - 35 cm) are cut out spikes (1 cm). This needs to be done in such a way that when assembling they are very tight.
- Back. It can be made of 2-3 vertical bars, 42 cm long. Be sure to form grooves.
By the same principle, you can collect and chairs from wood. A distinctive feature of the proposed accessories will be armrests and "skis" at the base of the legs, which are necessary for rocking. In this case, such elements are attached last.Many online stores sell ready-made parts that need only be collected.
During the operation, the table tops made of wood often become unusable. Stains, unevenness or defects spoil the entire interior of the kitchen. Then the owner gets a choice: buy new ones or make them yourself. The first option attracts with its simplicity, but the second - with economy and creativity. After all, a man needs only:
- Make gaugings by providing areas for the sink and cooker. It is also important to correctly calculate the angular zone.
- Determine the way the parts are connected. Some of them are simply glued, but this is unreliable in places where moisture accumulates. Therefore, it is worth using the spike-groove technology. Cuttings are cut from the front side. For thick structures, they should be from 10 to 12 mm, and for thin ones - up to 8 mm. In another case, for the basis, you can take the edge-groove, according to the principle of lining. On one side of the board, a depression is made, and on the other, a rake in the form of a ridge is glued.
- Protective rim. Take two bars on, m. They should give the desired shape on one side, and with an arc to make grooves in the size of the bar. When connecting, the plate should protrude 1 mm from the main shield.
- Finishing, priming and painting.
When the table top is installed on the base of the kitchen set, it is important to carefully seal the joint of the structure with the wall. A special plastic or wooden strip will look perfect in this place. This border is fastened with a sealant. The seal can be made in the form of a strip of silicone.From the remaining materials the master will obtain a vintage cutting board made of wood, which can be cut out in a bizarre shape. It is important that all the bends and corners are worn out.
The boards and flap are processed twice: before and after installation.
There is no more suitable place for a gazebo made of wood as a beautiful garden in the country. Especially amazing, it looks in the thick thickets of wild grapes or a climbing rose. To make this cozy corner for rest you can by the following plan:
- Determine the design and dimensions of the arbor (height, m, width 3 m, and shape - square).
- Design the roof, foundation and walls of the structure.
- Laying the foundation. It will consist of the bases located at the four corners. They should be added one to each side and one to the center. As a result, you should get 9 poles. For the strength of the structure in the angular masonry (5 rows of bricks), install 40 cm rods, which are only half deep into the soil. On the perimeter and in the central zone, you should arrive at the base of the bars (3 m), using a "half-tree" connection.
- Frame. In each corner, with the aid of reinforcing bars, the support pillars are fastened. Do not forget to adjust the level. In the upper part of the support is cut a depression (4 by 10 cm), on which the rafters will be fastened.
- Roof. The cross consists of two boards connected by a diagonal bunch. At the end of each board, a cut is made to the size of the cuts on the supports. After installing the base, the straps are made of bars, as well as the railing at a distance of 1 m from the ground. The shape of the roof can be made as two or multi-slope.
- Decor. Relief balusters made of wood look beautiful not only on the steps of luxurious mansions, but also in cozy gazebos. They are attached to the railing with the help of studs, screws or dowels. The table and benches are set on conscience, so that they do not move.
Then finish the finishing work. Each bend and detail of wood products must be treated with an antiseptic, and after drying, clean thoroughly. If we correctly carry out all these works, taking into account the above recommendations, then such constructions will last for several decades.