If you want to decorate your site, create an original hedge and at the same time harvest useful fruits,pay attention to the quince of Japanese..
Table of contents
- Description of decorative shrub, use in landscape design
- Landing in open ground and care
- Methods of reproduction of Japanese quince for transplantation
- By dividing the bush
- Horizontal layers
- Trimming rules for Chenomeles
- Pests and diseases
- Cultivars for cultivation in the Moscow region
- Harvesting in autumn, storage of fruits
- Preparation of jam
Description of decorative shrub, use in landscape design
Japanese quince is a dwarf ornamental shrub.It will decorate any garden in the spring, when it is full of huge (for its small growth) orange-red flowers up to 4 cm in diameter, which are strewn with all branches.
In summer the plant attracts the look of its glossy foliage with poured fruits.In autumn it is covered with small yellow fruits, reminiscent of small apples.
Blossom of bush in Mayand, because of uneven opening of buds, bright flowering stretches for 2-3 weeks.
Worthy partners in the garden compositions for her will be spires, forsytes and mahonies.
Aiva has the ability to expand in breadth due to abundant root cane, and this is its qualityvery often used to strengthen the slopes (it holds the soil).
With bush you need to be cautious, because on certain varieties there are sharp spines.
Chaenomeles (quince Japanese) due to its frost resistance (frosts to -25 ° withstand well)suitable for growing in the suburbs. At frosts below -30 ° C, the kidneys may freeze, but the bush will not die.
With proper cultivation, the shrub grows to 40 years.
Quince Japanese, or chaenomeles:
Landing in open ground and care
Quince is not exacting to the conditions of growth, but there are several conditions that must be taken into account when planting a seedling:
- The landing site should be sunny, as in the shading the bush grows and blooms badly;
- in order to avoid freezing of bushes in the harsh winters of planting to produce in sheltered from the northern winds of places;
- acidity of soil should not exceed, pH (weakly acid);
- having a deeply rooted root stem, transplanting from place to place the plant tolerates poorly, plant immediately and permanently;
- distance between bushes 1 m, with the formation of a hedge, -1 m.
Rules of landing:
- in a dug-out landing pit (60 * 60 * 50cm), pour out about a bucket of humus with wood ash (, kg) added and superphosphate (kg), shovel with a small amount of soil;
- We have a seedling in the hole in such a way that the root neck was at the level of the soil;
- we cover the roots of the plant with soil and water well;
- The soil around the bushes should be preferably defused (sawdust, crushed wood bark, peat).
Further care for the young seedlings is in watering, but soil moisture can not be tolerated in order to avoid decaying roots, regular loosening of the soil around the bushes.
Since during the landing all the necessary batteries were introduced,Within two years after planting, it is not necessary to feed a plant.
Adult plants in the spring, after the snow falls, are fed with ammonium nitrate about 20 grams per bush. In the summer give liquid fertilizing organic (diluted mullein or bird droppings). Autumn is superphosphate.
To do this, you can use spruce lapnik or cover small plants with cover material (spandbond or lutrasil) from above to put wooden or plastic boxes and sprinkle fallen leaves.
Fruiting in quince is annual, starting from the third year after planting.
Chanomeles cross-pollinated plant, therefore, for a better pollination and increasing yields, it is necessary to plant 2-3 shrubs nearby.
Features of planting chaenomeles:
Methods of reproduction of Japanese quince for transplantation
There are several ways of breeding quince Japanese.
Due to the fact that in the case of seed multiplication, varietal qualities are not preserved, it is used for the cultivation of rootstocks with further re-vaccination.
Collected from the fruit in autumn, the seeds are stored in moist sand at a temperature of about 0 ° C throughout the winter(thus they pass the stratification).
Seeds are sown in the landing tanks in February and March, after a month they are dived into separate tanks and in late May, early June, the seedlings are ready for planting in the open ground.
Until the fall, regular watering and feeding, for the winter, not yet fully grown seedlings are warmed by fallen leaves.
The germination capacity of such seeds is excellent, since they passed a natural stratification, in spring thick shoots need to be weeded out, leaving the strongest ones. By autumn the seedlings are ready for transplantation to a permanent place of growth.
In early June, the green cuttings are carried out. Cut one-year cuttings with a "heel" (a piece of last year's wood). Cuttings are processed by "Kornevin" for better rooting and planted in a schoolchild under a slope..
To maintain moisture, cover the planting with a polyethylene film. By the autumn, the seedlings are ready for transplantation to a permanent place, but it is better to do this in the spring.
You can cut the cuttings in the fall, dig under the bushat a depth of 20-30 cm, necessarily indicating a place.
During the winter on the ends of the cuttings a callus is formed and, with the onset of spring, the cuttings are planted immediately to a permanent place.
By dividing the bush
The easiest way to reproduce. From the mother bush (root shoot), shoots are separated with a well-developed root system and transplanted.
Quince often grows sprouting shoots, prikopav which you can get seedlings for the subsequent reproduction..
Trimming rules for Chenomeles
The shrub very well tolerates pruning, but most gardeners because of the thorns of the plant do not do it in vain.Avez pruning is necessaryto improve the growth and shaping of the crown for decorative purposes.
There are three types of pruning:
- Sanitary- in the early spring dry, frozen and broken branches are removed.
- Forming- it begins to do from the age of 4, when the branches begin to branch. Cut shoots growing inside the bush and thicken it, remove excess root shoots, leaving no more than 2-3 young shoots per year to avoid a strong growth of the bush in breadth. Stretchy shoots on the ground are also removed, they take food out on themselves and thicken the bush.
- Anti-Aging- it is produced from the age of 8 of the bush when the annual increment is less than 10 cm. Remove thin and elongated shoots, leaving in the bush the strongest 10-12. When thinning, remember that the most productive are shoots at the age of 3-4 years, older branches need to be removed.
In order to avoid penetration into the plant of diseases, all sections must be treated with garden varnish..
Pests and diseases
Chanomeles is not damaged by pests and has great resistance to diseases, but in a cool and rainy summer, it is possible to develop such diseases as:
- necrosis of leaves- the appearance of a gray plaque along the edge of the leaf with further spread over the entire surface of the leaf, the leaves wither;
- cercosporium- manifested in the form of dark brown round spots brightening with time;
- ramulary- formation of brown spots on the leaves.
Cultivars for cultivation in the Moscow region
In the central zone of Russia, low-growing varieties with a height of up to 1 m are grown, with arched branches and a sprawling crown.
Of the domestic varieties, the most common are:
- Fragrant- bush height up to, m, winter-hardy, fruit weight 50-60 g, with a pleasant aroma;
- Nikitskaya- early maturity, medium growth, winter hardy;
- Vitamin- winter hardy, compact shrub, bright yellow fruit weighing up to 100 g;
- Muscat- a large-berry variety (fruits up to 200 g), self-pollinated, winter-hardy;
- Teplovskaya- a grade of late maturation and long-term storage of fruits.
The most famous foreign varieties:
- Gaillardi- variety with large orange flowers;
- Malardi- magnificent pink with white border flowers;
- Pope- an interesting variety with yellow flowers and a pink border along the edge of the petal.
Harvesting in autumn, storage of fruits
The fruits of quince are small, firm and sour to taste, but very fragrantand with a high content of vitamin C. They are collected in September-October, before the onset of frost.
They are stored at an air temperature of 1-2 ° C for 2-3 months. As a result of lezhki they become softer, sweet aroma amplifies.
Another of the chenomelis fruit is jam, jams, and added to compotes. Sliced fruit quickly darkens because of the high iron content.
Japanese quince. Northern lemon:
Preparation of jam
For 1 kg of quince it is necessary:2 kg of sugar and, a glass of water. Ivu wash, dry, remove seeds and hard white partitions, cut into small slices.
In the boiling syrup put the slices, cook on low heat for 10 minutes, taking off the foam, then remove from heat and leave for 12 hours. Again, boil the jam for 10 minutes, etc. The lobes of quince do not become transparent.
We put the prepared jam on sterilized jars, leave it until winter. In winter, the fragrant jam will remind you of the beauty of a flowering shrub and the warm summer approaching.
Japanese quince is unpretentious in growing, it is undemanding in attention and easy to take care of, but at the same time it is beautiful in flowering and is useful in application..