Classification and application of mineral fertilizers


The earth, endowing us with generous harvests of fruits, vegetables, cereals, is greatly depleted. Cultivated land - fields, orchards, garden plots and country plots - do not have the opportunity to rest, restore their strength, preserve fertility. All this must be done by man, by applying artificial methods of organic and mineral elements to the soil. The sources of these elements are organic and mineral fertilizers. About their classification and species in the garden, we'll talk further in our article.


Table of contents

  • Complex mineral fertilizers in horticulture
  • The state of plants and soil as an indicator of a lack of minerals
    • Lack of nitrogen
    • Lack of potassium
    • Reduced phosphorus content
  • Nitric, phosphorous and potash fertilizers
  • Dolomite flour and instructions for use
  • The value of adding mineral supplements to the garden

Complex mineral fertilizers in horticulture

The composition of a good fertile soil must include a certain amount of micro and macroelements that ensure the full nutrition, development and fructification of plants growing on these soils. The lack of a useful substance, like a glut of water, has a very detrimental effect on the state of crops, their yield. To prevent this from happening, the soil and crops growing on it are fed with mineral supplements.

Mineral fertilizers are balanced mixtures of salts of minerals in the most accessible form for planting.

Often it happens that the absence of just one element prevents the full absorption of other nutrients present in the soil in sufficient quantities. To make up for the shortage, complex mono-nutrients are used. For example, sandy soils often need to be fed with magnesium, and manganese is lacking on chernozem lands. For all crops, regardless of the soil of growth, nitrogen is vital.

Mineral fertilizers are necessary for any kitchen garden

Most importantly, the chemical composition of salts and compounds, of which mineral fertilizers are composed, specially selected so that plants easily absorb nutrients and quickly react to their presence.For each there are certain norms and deadlines for making, and which is necessary for your land plot, can be determined by the state and appearance of landings, the quality of the soil, as well as the expected result.


The state of plants and soil as an indicator of a lack of minerals

The basis of plant nutrition is nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. These elements most influence the active growth and harmonious development of fruit trees, bushes, vegetables and flowers. And, accordingly, their shortage affects vegetation and the appearance of trees and grasses.

Lack of nitrogen

As you know, nitrogen is the main element that ensures the growth of garden and garden crops throughout the whole vegetative cycle, and it can only be absorbed from the soil (in the air 78% of nitrogen is inaccessible to plants form).

Therefore, it is necessary to maintain the norm of nitrogen content in the soil at all times. Its shortage is already evident at the very beginning of spring in the early stages of development of crops, seedlings: too weak stems, small leaves, very small number of inflorescences.Then the lower leaves begin to lighten - first the veins, and then the tissues around them, gradually die off, and the following leaves wilt.Plants lack the vitality for growth and formation of ovaries.

Due to a lack of nitrogen, the leaves of the plants begin to fade and yellow

Lack of potassium

You can notice closer to the middle of the vegetative development - the green mass acquires an unnatural turquoise-blue hue, the leaves become faded, the natural bright green does not please the eye. Then on the edge of the sheet appear brown spots, the tissue gradually die (wither).Stems are thin and prone to lodging, growth is slowed, there are few fruits and they develop very poorly.

Leaves on tomatoes, carrots get "curly fruit trees are too abundant in bloom, but the fruits are small and ugly. The lack of potassium also affects the development of the root system. Most often, acidic soils are poor in this element.

Leaves on tomatoes, carrots get "curly fruit trees are too abundant in bloom, but the fruits are small and ugly. The lack of potassium also affects the development of the root system. Most often, acidic soils are poor in this element.

Kurchavost leaves can indicate a lack of potassium

Reduced phosphorus content

Symptoms resemble a lack of nitrogen: a delay in growth, a thin lifeless stalk, late flowering and the formation of fruits, as well as their maturation, the fall of the lower leaves.

Only in contrast to nitrogen, the lack of phosphorus causes unnatural darkening of stems and leaves, partial coloring of them in violet and burgundy hues. Phosphoric fasting also indicates an increased acidity of the soil, and is most clearly manifested in tomatoes, black currants, apples, peaches.

Lack of phosphorus causes darkening of planting leaves

Nitric, phosphorous and potash fertilizers

All top dressing, mandatory for application to the soil and under the plants, can be divided into organic (fresh or rotted manure, compost, bird droppings) and mineral fertilizers. The latter, in turn, are divided into simple and complex.

Simple mineral preparations contain salts of only one necessary substance, in a form easily assimilated by plants and usually well soluble in water:

  • Nitrogen:the most commonly used forms - sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate alkaline nutrients used on acidic soils), ammonium nitrate (sour fertilizer for neutral and alkaline soils), urea (in the form of liquid top dressing is quickly assimilated by the root system of plants and acts very effectively);
  • Potassium fertilizers in the form of potassium sulfateare necessary for all horticultural crops to increase resistance to typical diseases, frost and heat, as well as the accumulation of starch and sugar in the fruit. The most acceptable form for plants is potassium sulfate. Potassium salt and potassium chloride contain a certain amount of harmful impurities, so it is advisable to use it only in the autumn, so that a significant part of harmful impurities is washed away by the spring and snow;
  • phosphoric top dressingare required in the period of flowering, the formation of ovaries fruit ripening. Phosphoric flour, simple or double superphosphate is used on acid soils, since they show positive properties only by interacting with acids. As auxiliary substances contain sulfur and gypsum, which neutralize acidic soils.
Complex mineral additives consist of two or more components, can include a number of microelements.

Naturally, such balanced additives are much more profitable, immediately saturating the soil with a whole complex of useful substances. But the choice should be approached more carefully, precisely establishing which elements are missing for your plants. The most common names are ammophos, nitrophos, nitroammophoska, diammofosca. Instructions for the use of these preparations are always printed on packages.

Phosphoric flour is a type of mineral fertilizer

Dolomite flour and instructions for use

Dolomite flour- a natural mineral fertilizer, which is obtained by grinding dolomite into the smallest flour. It includes such useful elements as:calcium andMagnesium in the form of carbonates (calcium and magnesium saltsCaCO3,MgCO3).This form saturates the missing nutrients, but prevents their excessive accumulation in fruits and vegetables.

Flour limestone dolomitic, deoxidizing the soil, promotes the assimilation of those elements that already in it, but because of the increased acidity are inaccessible to plants, not are split. Flour refers to a variety of mineral top dressing.In addition, fertilizer negatively affects some types of weeds and pests. The list of the positive qualities of this deoxidant is quite large:

  • improves the chemical, physical and biological (promotes the development of healthy microflora) soil structure;
  • promotes more complete assimilation of nutrients when introducing any other mineral fertilizers;
  • contributes to the formation of a more robust and developed root system of plants, its enhanced nutrition;
  • cleans plants from radionuclides;
  • promotes increase of keeping quality and preservation of a crop;
  • destroys terrestrial insects, dissolving their chitinous shell.
Another of the important advantages - a very low price and complete harmlessness to humans and other living organisms (except insects). To improve all the qualities of the soil, it is necessary to sprinkle the correct fertilizer from the dolomite every year, preferably 2-3 weeks before the beginning of the planting works.
Dolomite flour destroys terrestrial insects, dissolving their chitinous shell

The value of adding mineral supplements to the garden

Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are the most basic components for plant nutrition in gardening: nitrogen makes them strong, strong; Potassium makes the fruits appetizing and beautiful, and phosphorus stimulates the growth of the root system.These fertilizing make the land fertile, allow you to constantly increase crop yields on the same cultivated soils.Very quickly help plants restore strength, resume growth, abundant bloom and fruit. Therefore, their use is 100% justified.

Mineral fertilizers - food for garden crops, trees, berry bushes, vegetables, root crops in the country. We need to feed the earth so that it feeds us. And fertilize not only as necessary, but always: in spring and in autumn.

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