One of the most popular fruits that are grown by gardeners are apples. Among a huge variety of varieties, for a long time Melba is being distinguished. What is it like and what is its popularity?
In 1898Canadian breeders, by pollination of wild apple cultivars mackintosh, brought a new varietyNamed after the Australian opera singer Nelly Melba. A few years later, the variety was planted in Europe, and then in Russia. With the description and characteristics of this variety you can find out more..
Table of contents
- Characteristics of wood and fruit: how the maturation period
- Advantages and disadvantages of the grade melb
- Chemical composition and benefits of apples of this variety
- Rules for planting apple seedlings
- Care of the planted tree
- Diseases and pests: description and methods of treatment
- Reviews of gardeners
Characteristics of wood and fruit: how the maturation period
Adult tartan varieties are of medium size, as they do not exceed 3 m in height. Crown is thin, but wide, round in shape.
On young branches, leaves are oval-arched, on older branches they are slightly concave. Both those, and others light green color, on the edges are finely jagged. Lilac buds bloom in large flowers. White, towards the base turning into a gently pink color, the petals rather closely adjoin each other.
Fruit ripening is in August, but if the summer was not warm, harvest will be September. The distinctive property of the fruits is the round-canonical form and the mean value. The weight of one apple varies from 130 to 180 grams. The flesh of the fruit is thin and smooth, covered with a wax coating. Apples are light green, with stripes of red color to half the surface of the skin. They have a pronounced caramel flavor and sweet-sour taste.
Advantages and disadvantages of the grade melb
The popularity of the variety of apples melbah is high: it is preferred by many gardeners. Important is the fact thatthe first harvest can be obtained in 4 years. And apples will be full and tasty. In addition, the high yield of the variety is also referred to the merits. Fruits are perfectly stored and carry long transportation, without losing their presentation.
With all its merits, the variety can not be called ideal, since there are melbas and flaws in apple trees, among which the following can be significant:
- virtually no resistance to such a common disease of fruit crops asscab;
- frost instability, which leads to the freezing of apple trees in severe winters with a small amount of snow.
But gardeners have already learned how to deal with shortcomings, so with good care in time and increased attention, Melba is able to rejoice with its high yield for many years..
Chemical composition and benefits of apples of this variety
Apples grade melbas differ not only excellent taste qualities, but also famous for their usefulness. They, in practice, are universal. Jam, compotes, jam, juices - all this is amazing taste. Dried apples have a special aroma, and there are a lot of benefits from them. Vitamins, acids, sugar - all this has a beneficial effect on the human body.Experts have proved that in 100 grams of apple melbah contains:
- 10-11 gr. Sahara;
- from 10 to 13 grams. ascorbic acid;
- approximately 10 g. pectins.
Rules for planting apple seedlings
The best time for planting a seedling of an apple tree is a mill - autumn, 30 days before the first frost.Between seedlings, the distance should be at least 7 meters. If a tree is planted in rows, it is necessary to observe a distance of 3 meters between rows. The place should be chosen solar, without drafts. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the presence of groundwater.
The pit for planting (depth 80 cm, length and width 1 meter) is prepared well in advance, 15 days before planting.The earth, excavated from the pit, is mixed with peat taken in equal parts, humus. Add coarse-grained river sand, the dose should be 2 times less. This compound interferes with wood ashes, superphosphate and potassium sulfate. The bottom of the pit is laid with drainage..
From the prepared fertile land on the bottom of the pit a small mound is formed, on which a seedling is planted with a carefully spread root system. Cover the ground with a few steps, each layer gently ramming. After the pit is completely buried, the soil is again rammed and the seedling is tied to a pre-installed support.
Care of the planted tree
Apple trees are not very whimsical in care. The most important thing is not to forget that they do not tolerate the cold and frosts. Therefore,on the preparation of apple trees for winter should pay attention in the first place. The trunk and branches that make up the basis of the tree must be whitewashed. This will prevent attempts by rodents to bite the apple tree. With the same purpose it is possible to build an additional shelter: in several layers the trunk is wrapped with burlap or tarpaulin. Layers are shifted with straw and the entire construction is firmly strengthened on the apple tree. To insulate the trunk, you can use a special insulation material.In snowy winters around the apple tree you can build a snowdrift.
Earth around the apple tree should be digged regularly, in spring and autumn. If the soil is fertile, in the first year after planting, fertilizers do not contribute. In the following timeas a top dressing it is good to use nitrogen, humus and peat, wood ash, superphosphate, sodium chloride, potassium.
Crop the young apple mulberry tree should be the next year. Do it better in the spring, until the buds awaken.Approximately one-third cut the central branch, on the side shoots leave 3 budsand. At 2 and 3 years of growth, the crown is formed, reducing the length of the central shoot. Leave lateral shoots, growing up, the rest is cut off.
Further, annual sanitary pruning is carried out, removing all the dried and diseased branches, shoots that grow down and into the interior of the crown..
Diseases and pests: description and methods of treatment
Among the diseases affecting the variety of apple trees, it is worth paying special attention to such as:
- scab. In the beginning, small brown spots appear on the leaves, which gradually increase and shift to fruits. Apples stop growing, crack and cover with dark gray spots. As a preventive measure in the spring apple tree is sprayed with such preparations as Oxihom and Horus. The solution must be prepared strictly according to the instructions to the medicinal products;
- powdery mildew. A thin white coating on the leaves blocks the ingress of oxygen and moisture. The leaves turn yellow, twist and fall off. The same thing happens with the inflorescences, the fruits do not become tied. At the moment when the leaves just begin to blossom, they are sprayed with Topaz, and after the apple blossoms, use copper chloride;
- fruit rot. Brown and soft to the touch spots on the fruit, whitish growths. The fruit can not be eaten, as the pulp is soft and brown. Apples, infected with fruit rot, fall off. They should be immediately destroyed. In moniliolysis (the scientific name of decay) 3-fold spraying with Skor, Horus and Fundazol helps.
In addition to diseases that damage trees, apple trees suffer a lot from pests, which can also deprive you of the opportunity to eat delicious and healthy apples.The most common are:
- apple moth. From the insects will help sticky belts, put on the apple tree and processing of the ovaries with preparations Tsimbush and Fastak;
- apple tree shield. Pests suck the juice out of the tree, it dries and dies. Before flowering, the soil around the apple tree is treated with an acaroy, and the apple itself is washed with a hard brush with a tar soap solution with wood ash;
- apple tree. He lays the larvae in buds, which subsequently wither and fall. A solution of chlorophos helps well.
Reviews of gardeners
Has planted Melba in the past to year. The young apple-tree got accustomed well, in the summer it was green and bushy. I hibernated. But this year the branches began to grow not skyward, but somehow scattered on the sides. I tried to assemble them, tying them around (a small tree is good). Now it's worth it. I do not know what to do with it. I'll wait till spring, I'll see.
In our garden there are several Melba melons. They are no longer young, but always bear fruit. We really like these sweet apples. I make jam, make compote, juice. Very productive variety.
I think that of all the summer varieties of apples, Melba is the most delicious and quickly ripening variety. True, in our country, no matter how much they planted, not a single seedling grew: they did not at all begin, then they dried up, for some reason. But still I will plant more, someday, but I'll wait for my apples.
Despite the fact that the brand appeared more than a century ago, its popularity did not diminish at all.Apples of a grade melbas are tasty and useful fruits, and the apple trees themselves are unpretentious and have many advantages in comparison with other varieties..