In summer, vigilant summer residents start to think about what fertilizers to introduce into the soil in the autumn. From the correct feeding of soil directly depends the harvest of the next season. If you know what kind of additives are required for your garden, garden and, most importantly, when to make them, garden land will be optimally prepared, and vegetables, fruits, berries will please you with their quality, abundance. It is necessary to take into account a lot of factors: the level of acidity of the soil, the lack or, on the contrary, the excess of certain elements..
- Fertilizing the soil in autumn, the effect of fertilizing
- Fertilizers in the autumn for digging
- Nitrogenous, potassium, phosphoric
- What fertilizers to make under the fruit trees in the fall?
- Fertilizer for berry crops in autumn
- Fertilizer for raspberry in autumn
- Fertilizers for strawberries in autumn
- Planting mustard in autumn as fertilizer
Autumn extra fertilization, photo:
Fertilizing the soil in autumn, the effect of fertilizing
The addition of supplements in the spring helps to stimulate the growth of plants, to activate their internal functions. Autumnal fertilizing saturates the soil, helps restore its fertile resources, wasted during the spring-summer period. If this is not done, then the land will inevitably become scarce. Harvest or the state of green cultures eloquently will say this.
Fertilizer in the autumn for digging is usually introduced from the second half of September to 15-17 October numbers. During the digging, the fertilizing is mixed with the soil, all stages of splitting pass through the winter. If you have any cultures left to winter, then they must be fed with phosphorus or potassium supplements. They favorably influence the condition of the root system, activate its growth, positively influence the future vegetation of shoots, strengthen the immunity of perennial plants before the forthcoming colds. Autumn introduction of organic is also very important, because during its decomposition, the soil will absorb useful elements that increase fertility..
Fertilizing the land in autumn is done in two ways:
- Traditional "spreading" of useful components throughout the site after harvesting. Additives are scattered evenly, and then they dig through the soil.
- When autumnal transplantation of trees or bushes - while the diameter of the holes do a little more than required by the size of the root system. At the bottom are the necessary top-dressing mixed with the earth (layer 15-20 cm). After this, the roots of the plant are located inside the fossa, filled with soil. Sometimes the soil, in order to fill the roots, is mixed with the manure.
Fertilizers in the autumn for digging↑ back to content ↑
Substances of natural origin are simply irreplaceable. Often they are always available to the resourceful gardeners, truck farmers, because the fame of their useful properties has never been exaggerated. What fertilizers contribute to the soil in the fall, if we consider organic chemistry?
Manure + compost as fertilizer, photo:
The most basic of them:
- Manure of farm animals or littering of domestic birds perfectly improves the fertility of the soil. This traditional fertilizer can not be added fresh to plants, but in autumn it is an ideal additional fertilizer. Fresh products of life when they hit the ground begin to decompose, give off heat, so the root system of trees or shrubs can simply "burn". With the advent of autumn, it is recommended to spread manure (or litter) evenly over the site, immediately dig it up. At the same time, make sure that during the application process the organic material is not too deep (10-15 cm will be enough). If you dig it much deeper, then all the useful components will "go" deep into the soil, and plants will get only the smallest. You should know that this method of soil fertilization is used once in several years (4-5 years), for 1 square meter, 1 bucket of organic material is sufficient.
- Compost or humus - a well of useful elements for root crops, nightshade crops, onions, all kinds of cabbage. Compost reaches its "mature" state in about a couple of years. Unripe compost is not to the liking of a wide range of garden plants, but the introduction of raw compost in the fall is appropriate, even welcome. It is evenly spread over the site (the land should be without weeds or any plant debris), then dig through. Deep compost should not be approximately 10-15 cm, at a rate of 3-4 kg / 1 square meter. Also, you can successfully use humus as mulch - cover the wintering cultures with a layer of 5-7 cm.
Reparted compost in the autumn under a digging, use similarly, especially, the majority of truck farmers tend to this method. Fruit trees also respond well to composting mulching. With the arrival of autumn, the organic material is laid out in a fairly thick layer, covering the whole area of the near-trunk circle. As soon as the first spring rays of the sun are warmed, the earth with humus should be gently loosened, slightly drowning it.
- Ash is a natural source of microelements, which favorably influence the growth of all green cultures. The "rich" ash is obtained from the burning of potato leaves or branches of fruit trees. With the use of even ash from the weeds. As manure, in the fall under the digging is introduced approximately 1 time in 4 years. Potatoes, beets, strawberries, raspberries, cabbage crops, shrubs - everyone likes ash dressing. For 1 square meter of land, 1 kg of ash is usually used.
- Ciderates - an excellent, environmentally friendly means that will saturate the soil with nitrogen. By the end of summer, experienced summer residents are planting clover, mustard, rye, lupines, legumes on the liberated land - they are considered the best siderates. When autumn comes, the soil is plowed together with them, that is how the siderates are buried. For trees, bushes, they are also useful. The pristinal circle is planted with these crops, and then digested in a similar way. Mustard is generally one of the most useful siderates, but it will be discussed a little later.
- Wood sawdust in itself does not carry a significant value, fertilizer is not. But their application makes the soil more friable, helps subsequently to retain moisture better. When sawdust is rotted, they become compost, as well as a source of food for earthworms, soil fungi. Sawdust is very good for autumn planting in the ground, but they should be introduced approximately once every 3 years.
Also worth mentioning is an organic fertilizer like peat. It is not made in its pure form, but it is very effective as an additive to other fertilizing. Usually it is added to humus. Horse peat has a high pH, it retains moisture well, but it has a rather meager composition of nutrients. Lowland peat, on the contrary, contains many useful components, has a weakly acid reaction.
Nitrogenous, potassium, phosphoric
Fertilizing the soil in the fall with superphosphate allows the substance to fully dissolve to a new summer season. The main element disintegrates in about six months, so the land will be properly prepared by the beginning of seeding, planting of vegetable, fruit crops. If you take conventional superphosphate (mono), then 50 g of substance / 1 m2, double superphosphate - about 30 g / 1 m², and granular substance - 40 g / 1 m² will be enough. Along with superphosphates, it is highly recommended to use potassium - it will promote better absorption of phosphorus by the soil.
Such a fertilizer in the autumn for digging, like phosphorite flour, is also an excellent additive for enriching sod-podzolic soils, poor soils, leached chernozems. Best of all, it manifests itself with manure - they complement each other, the soil quickly absorbs phosphorus. This is a safe feeding, because it has a natural origin. Note that some plant species do not like calcium, and phosphorite flour contains it..
Phosphorite flour, photo:
Answering the question: what fertilizers are introduced into the soil in the autumn, it is also worth mentioning urea (carbamide). This nitrogen fertilizer, and nitrogen is contained in the amide form - that is, it has the ability to linger in the ground, and not to wash out of it during the spring melting of the snows. It is useless to introduce normal nitrogen in the autumn, because it is eroded, removed from the soil.
Experienced truck farmers recommend mixing urea with a phosphoric additive. The recipe is: mix 100 g of limestone, 1 kg of conventional superphosphate, take one part of the mixture obtained, add to it two of the same parts of urea. The resulting mixture should be spread over the area (approximately 150 g / 1 m²), dig.
For fruit trees, urea is better mixed with manure (or bird litters). Manure is rich in nitrogen by itself, so the percentage of urea is recommended to be reduced to 35-40 g / 1 m². To understand what it looks like, take a medium-sized apple tree, add 4 buckets of manure, 50 g of urea, 30 g of simple superphosphate to the area of its near-plate circle..
Potassium sulphate is one of the most important potassium supplements, which manifests itself in interaction with nitrogenous, phosphoric top dressing. This is an excellent fertilizer for raspberries in autumn, as well as strawberries, currants, gooseberries (30 g / 1 m²). If potassium sulphate is introduced into the soil, then berry bushes can comfortably survive even severe frosts.
Calcium chloride is well preserved in the soil, but it is calcium, as chlorine will erode over the winter months and be washed with melt water. Therefore, it can be used as an autumn dressing even where planting of plants not carrying chlorine is expected. Usually, about 20 g of substance / 1 m² of the site is used.
Fertilizing soil in the fall with ammonium sulfate helps it to release nitrogen, which is necessary for green crops. This feeding is especially suitable for heavy soils..
You can go on a simpler way - to consider ready-made, combined additives. They are sold in the appropriate shops, garden, garden department of supermarkets. Humic top dressing, in which the main active substance is humic acid, have a positive effect on the fertility of the soil.
Excellent fertilizer for strawberries in the autumn - "Berry "Tulip which scatter on the site before digging. For raspberries, currants, gooseberries, other berries, they are also relevant. Such a tool as "Biohumus in its characteristics, very similar to chernozem humus. But it is obtained with the help of red Californian worms: they process manure, all sorts of natural waste.
The "Biud" product is created from the cleared litter of domestic birds, as well as horse or cow dung. It contains a complex of amino acids, beneficial bacteria, natural growth stimulants. In a short period of time, the "Biud" is able to enrich the poor soil. Concentrated drug "Record" (silt base) is a complex fertilizer, consisting of organic, mineral elements, for berry crops recommended "Record-3". Integrated fertilizing not only increases the fertility of the soil, but also positively affects the quality of vegetables, berries, fruits.
Multicomponent autumn supplement "Agricol photo:
What fertilizers to make under the fruit trees in the fall?
For young trees, feeding is done by unfolding along the area of the near-barrel circle, and then digging through this zone. The depth of fertilization should be about 11-18 cm. For older trees, dig a hole near the trunk, its depth should be somewhere 40-50 cm. Such replenishment helps trees to survive the winter more comfortably, to please us with a generous harvest.
What fertilizers fall in the autumn under the apple tree? The answer can be foreseen - mineral and / or organic origin. Nitrogen additives are not recommended, because they can reduce the immunity of the tree before the coming cold. Organics are popular with gardeners, truck farmers, this is an effective method, however fresh manure, mullein, poultry dumpling can not be used for fertilizing fruit trees. The products of the life of birds or animals can only be used by repaired, dry or diluted water! Manure is diluted with soil (1 bucket / 1 m²), mullein or litter is diluted 1/10 or 1/20 with water. You can also use peat, compost, ashes - all additives crumble over the area of the near-trunk circle.
If we consider mineral fertilizing in autumn for fruit trees, then potassium additives will become the most effective ones (since nitrogen is introduced only in the spring). Over the winter, potassium sulfate, potassium chloride or potassium salt will have time to be recycled, give all the useful ingredients to the soil. Potassium top dressing is especially useful for young trees. Also important are phosphorus fertilizers - they have a strong effect on the roots, promote the active development of all parts of the tree, work on the formation of fruits (number, size of the fruit, its taste), prevent early discharge foliage.↑ back to content ↑
Fertilizer for berry crops in autumn
As for the widespread berry crops, which, probably, every summer resident grows, they are introduced between rows, by digging.↑ back to content ↑
Fertilizer for raspberry in autumn
If the raspberries begin to turn yellow, the lower leaves are wrapped, it can be supplemented with phosphoric, potassium or magnesium additives. They will prepare the culture for the winter, increase its immunity. Pay attention to the "Kalimag" (Kalimagnezia), bringing it under the root gives excellent results. You can also use siderates (lupines, oats, mustard), which are sown between rows in the middle of summer, and in the autumn they are dug with soil. Deepening of fertilizers: rows - about 8-10 cm, between rows - 15 cm. Once in a few years, you can feed raspberries with manure (3-4 kg / 1m² of land).↑ back to content ↑
Fertilizers for strawberries in autumn
The best fertilizers for strawberries in the fall are diluted mullein or poultry of domesticated birds (: 0). When watering, try not to get on the ground part of the plant. Also, the overgrown cow dung will be an excellent mulch coating for strawberries. Wood ash is also relevant (150 g / 1m²), it is scattered near the bushes, between rows. You can dilute it with water, pour the bushes (half a liter of solution for each). Ash is quite capable of replacing additives such as potassium salt or superphosphate. The main mineral fertilizers for strawberries in autumn are potassium, phosphorus. They are previously diluted with water or scattered dry.
Gooseberries and currants are also fed with superphosphate, but it is better to make a mixture consisting of potassium sulfate (30 g), 4 kg of manure (only not porcine!), Superphosphate (30 g). If you have sandy loamy soil, then this fertilizer can be used every year with the onset of autumn.↑ back to content ↑
Planting mustard in autumn as fertilizer
Mustard is an excellent sideret, inexpensive in cost, convenient, because it grows immediately on the site of the proposed burial, that is, it does not need to be delivered. It saturates the earth with phosphorus, nitrogen, fights against phytophthora, slugs, putrefactive fungi, scab. Mustard gives the earth useful elements, saturates plants with the vital forces necessary for growth, development. It grows rapidly, suppresses other weeds, positively affects the soil structure, stops the processes of leaching the earth (delays nitrogen). It can be planted next to any crops, it has a beneficial effect on potatoes, grapes, fruit trees, legumes.
Also, the mustard can be safely used as a mulching coating, preventing freezing, contributing to the preservation of soil moisture.
In order to improve the composition of the soil, it is better to sow the mustard in autumn in order to maintain a distance of about 10 cm between the seeds (and not deepen). Rows are best placed at 20 cm from each other - so the mustard will grow more spreading, it will have more green mass. The culture is emerging quickly - after 4-5 days you can already observe the growth. This method, of course, is good, but most gardeners do not trouble themselves with planting mustard on a separate plot, cutting off the ground part, transferring it to fertilized crops. It is much more convenient to sow it right there, where vegetables, fruit, berries grow or grow.
Thus, you can simply sprinkle seeds where necessary, lightly slash them with a rake (5 g / 1m²).
Cut mustard should be before it starts blooming, so that the stems do not have time to properly grind (coarse fibers are processed more slowly). After 5-6 weeks after sowing, it should be cut off, if desired, you can pre-water biofertilizer "Baikal EM-1 it will accelerate the subsequent process of splitting of organic green mass into soil.
Mustard is not afraid of frosts, does not require special care, more simply - it can be sown and forgotten about it a couple of weeks.
Autumn is the most comfortable time for soil fertilization. The crop is cleaned, the land is already preparing for rest, the microorganisms present can actively process the introduced fertilizing. Autumn feeds improve the soil for the next season, save time, the strength of truck farmers with the onset of spring. The main thing, do not forget about the correct ratio, dosage of nutrients..
Now you know what fertilizers are brought in the fall: some additives should be chosen taking into account the composition of the soil, but universal organic fertilizing will be appropriate always and everywhere.