Planting beetroots (Burak, Buryak) is often not always successful for beginners - seeds grow poorly or root crops grow small. And after all, it is one of the first among vegetable crops in terms of productivity, the presence of useful properties for human beings. Beets are well kept, almost all year round can be used for human consumption, has long been valued for dietary, taste, medicinal and useful properties. Beetroot is a real source of health, vitality. Many varieties of beets have now been bred.
- Features of planting beets
- Soil preparation
- When to plant beets
- Seed treatment before planting
- Row spacing and seeding depth
- Care of seedlings, thinning
- Top dressing of beets
- Beet watering
- Useful properties of beets
- Varieties of beets
Features of planting beets
Of the root crops, beets (in the Kuban it is often called a Burak or Buryak) is most demanding on the fertility of the soil. The best for it are loamy, sandy-loamy, chernozem soils rich in organic substances, as well as floodplain lands, drained peatlands. In boggy soils, beet growing is difficult, a prolonged excess of moisture depresses the plants. On such soils it is necessary to grow it on ridges.
One of the main reasons for low yields is the planting of beets on poor soils with high acidity. This culture does not like such soils. At pH and below there is a mass proliferation of shoots, growth slows down, the leaves turn very red. On very acid soils root can not develop at all. If the area grows wild sorrel, horsetail, then this is a clear sign of high acidity of the soil. It is necessary in this case to make lime, chalk or ash (200-500 g per square meter).↑ back to content ↑
When to plant beets
Sow beets begin in early April. You can sow it in several terms until the beginning of June. The first crops are better to start after planting potatoes, when the soil is warm enough, the seeds will be more friendly to climb, less will be attacked by pathogenic fungi and bacteria..
Very early plantations of borax can die from frosts. Temperatures -4-5 ° C are harmful for shoots of beets. In addition, with early crops, many flower plants can appear.
During beet planting, it is often hot and dry, the top layer of the soil can dry out a lot. A dense, lignified pericarp of beet, in which a seed is enclosed, requires a lot of moisture for swelling. Therefore, before planting, it is advisable to water abundantly the entire bed or sowing grooves. If this is not possible, then compact the bottom of the furrow, after sealing the seeds compact the soil, and mulch from above with peat or humus. You can cover the bed with cover material - it also keeps the moisture well.↑ back to content ↑
Seed treatment before planting
Seeds before sowing for acceleration of germination are soaked for 3-4 days in warm water (40 ° C). Water is changed daily. When the first sprouts appear (no more than 3%), beet seeds are dried and sown. Soaking with subsequent drying provides a friendly appearance of healthy shoots, since the microbes developed during soaking die during drying. You can soak seeds in solutions of microelements.↑ back to content ↑
Row spacing and seeding depth
With a good supply of plants with fertilizers and moisture, the maximum yield of beet can be obtained with the optimum number of plants per unit area. This is achieved due to the correct placement of plants in the rows, the reduction of row spacing, as well as through multiline sowing. Convenient 2-3-line tape with a distance between the lines of 15-20 cm, between the bands of 40-50 cm, between the plants in a row of 6-8 cm. Excessive thickening of plants, as well as thinning, lead to loss of harvest.
On light soils, the seeds are closed to a depth of 3-4 cm, for heavy soils - 2-3 cm. It is desirable to cover the crops with a film or cover it before emergence, especially it is important to do on heavy soils. Before sowing into the grooves, superphosphate can sprinkle superfluously, which will accelerate the development of the root system, and will promote better rooting of the shoots.↑ back to content ↑
Care of seedlings, thinning
Directly under the beetrootfresh manure can not be introduced, root crops become poor quality, poorly stored in winter.
Burak is very sensitive to lack of light. All the weeds should be destroyed as they appear. It is also impossible to allow thickening of sprouts, timely to make a break through the sowing.
The thickening of the beet shoots is inherent in the nature of its seeds. Usually truck farmers sow varieties with many seeds of seedlings (from 3 to 6). The first thinning is done with the appearance of the first pair of real leaves, leaving the plants 3-4 cm apart. The second thinning - 2-3 weeks after the first, the plants are placed 6-8 cm apart. If you delay the thinning for a week, it is lost to 45-50 g per square meter of harvest per day. To get rid of this work, it is necessary to purchase the single-seed and double-seed beet seeds that have appeared now, and sow them immediately to the required distance (taking into account the percentage of germination).↑ back to content ↑
Top dressing of beets
When the first real leaves appear after the breakout, it is possible to give fertilizing with mineral fertilizers in liquid or dry state. Approximate doses: for 10 liters of water 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 80 g of superphosphate, 35 g of potassium chloride. This volume of solution is used for 15 running meters of row. Superphosphate and potash fertilizers can be replaced by a triple dose of ash..
Possible top dressing solution Mullein or chicken manure. The second fertilizing is usually done 3 weeks after the first one. Top dressing is done only in the first half of the summer, later nitrogen fertilizing contributes to the accumulation of nitrates.
For increasesugar contentyou can feed beets with a one-percent solution of table salt.↑ back to content ↑
In the period of intensive growth of leaves, root crops usually are hot dry weather. Irrigation at this time will significantly increase the yield. In general, compared to other vegetable crops, the table beet is relatively drought-resistant, so it should be watered moderately. Excess moisture leads to a strong growth of leaves to the detriment of the root crop..
In late July - early September, some truck farmers stop active beet care, considering it useless. This is incorrect, since at this time there is an intensive outflow of nutrients from the leaves to the root crop, its mass is rapidly growing. Therefore, with sufficient humidity, deep loosening is also necessary, especially on heavy soils. One week before cleaning, if very hot, it is advisable to pour the beetroot. This increases the turgor of cells, promotes better preservation of fruits in winter.
Harvest it for winter storage before other roots (carrots, for example), as it does not stand the autumn frosts.↑ back to content ↑
Useful properties of beets
Since ancient times, beets have been used by folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It is just a storehouse of vitamins, minerals, it is ideal for a variety of diets, including medicinal ones.
Beetroot juice is considered one of the best vegetable juices. It contains sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, iodine, iron, copper, vitamins B1, B2, C and P. This juice is rich in easily digestible carbohydrates, but its caloric content is low. Due to the high iron content, it restores, activates blood cells, provides fresh oxygen supply, helps to normalize the functions of vesicular breathing. Adding a teaspoon of lime juice to a glass of beet juice increases its therapeutic value..
The most useful property of beet is that it contains more than 50% sodium and only 5% calcium. This contributes to the dissolution of oxalic acid salts in the body, which accumulate in the blood vessels. Beetroot juice is an excellent solvent for inorganic calcium deposits. Therefore, it is a useful product for the treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart disease, varicose veins.
It is important to know that pure beet juice can lead to a large load on the pancreas and stomach. Therefore, it is recommended to mix beet juice with other juices: carrots, cucumber, etc. Beetroot juice mixed with carrot juice, cucumber, is one of the best cleansers for the kidneys and biliary the bubble.
Pectin substances that contain beets protect the body from the effects of radioactive, heavy metals, delay the development of harmful bacteria in the intestines, help to eliminate excess water and cholesterol.
In it, a large amount of betaine is a physiologically very important compound for metabolism. Another specific substance of beet - betanin - is a red pigment that restores the respiratory capacity of the cell. It is believed that it has a depressing effect on the growth of malignant cells. The more intense the color of the pulp of the root, the more it contains vitamin C, betaine and betanine.
In the table beet contains 8-15 percent of sugar, protein, fiber, minerals. Useful are leaves that contain 2-3 times more protein, 3 times more mineral salts than root crops. Beetroot is useful for anemia, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, with cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, obesity.
100 g of beet juice contain 42 kcal g protein, 0 g fat, g carbohydrates.
It promotes weight loss. There is a special mono-diet. It lasts two days. These two days you can only eat beets - boiled or baked. From liquids these days it is recommended to drink green tea, fresh vegetable juices, mineral water without gas. It should be remembered that beets can be eaten no more than 2 kg per day. Fluids should be drunk at least, liters per day.
Beets can help you reduce blood pressure, as well as the associated risks, such as heart attacks, strokes. The daily dose is 250 ml of beet juice, but do not forget that the beet juice is too concentrated, it is better to use it mixed with other juices - carrot, apple, cucumber.
Beets contain folic acid, which is necessary for normal growth of body tissues. Folic acid is important for the development of the infant's spinal cord in the first three months of pregnancy, can help prevent fetal developmental defects in the fetus, premature birth. Beetroot also contains iron - this is a terrific tonic for expectant mothers suffering from fatigue during pregnancy. Future moms should remember, however, that boiled or baked, she has a lower level of folic acid than raw. For more information on the importance of folic acid during pregnancy, be sure to consult your doctor.
Beets contain mineral silica. This helps the body to better absorb calcium, which is very important for reducing the risk of osteoporosis.
If you put a few mayonnaise jars of water on the window in winter, insert small beets there (in the fall you they could be thrown away when harvesting), then soon you will be able to harvest fresh vitamin leaflets for salads and soups.↑ back to content ↑
Varieties of beets
The most common varieties are:
- Bordeaux 237- yielded medium-early variety with round oval roots, pulp of maroon, high taste qualities;
- Unicolored(similarity to Bordeaux);
- Egyptian flat- yielding, more early-ripening than Bordeaux, variety, roots are round-flat or flat, the flesh is dark red with a purple hue;
- Gribovskaya flat A-473- yielding variety, morphologically close to the Egyptian flat, but earlier;
- Unparalleled A-463- root crops are flat or round-flat, the pulp is intensely dark red, the taste is high, requires highly cultivated soils, the poor sharply reduces the yield;
- Two-seeded ТСХА- a new high-yielding variety. Roots are rounded, lined in shape, size, flesh is dark red, burgundy, tender, juicy, taste high, rosette of leaves is small. The variety can be grown more neglected than Bordeaux or others - 6 cm in a row between plants. It does not require thinning. This variety of beets can yield a high yield in most regions of the country.
For podzimnih crops it is better to use special varieties -Sub-A-474, Cold resistant 19.