Felted cherry is a fruit bush, which deserves the close attention of gardeners and breeders. This tree is of East Asian origin and only in the middle of the 20th century it was recognized as a cultivated plant by gardeners of Europe and America. The popularity of felt cherry among gardeners is easy to explain - an extraordinary taste of fruits and high decorative bush.
Table of contents
- Description of cherry cherry varieties
- Selection and preparation of the site for planting
- How to plant and care for a tree seedlings in the suburbs?
- Care of the seedlings
- Reproduction by cuttings in autumn and spring
The natural habitat of felted cherry mountain slopes of China, Korea and Mongolia. There are historical facts that representatives of this species previously met on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. But they did not find recognition among gardeners and were not introduced into culture.By assumption, because of the poor quality of the fruit.
Felt cherry - a shrub with several trunks, reaching a height of up to 2 m and a sprawling crown. It is very rare to find tall plants up to 3 m or more. Perennial shoots are brown light, thick and thick. Annual shoots of greenish-brown light with collected on three lateral fruit buds. Fruit formations are active for 3-4 years.
A characteristic feature of the bush is the pubescence of trunks, leaves and fruits. It is a protective function of the plant against external factors. The hairs (trichomes) reflect the sun's rays, preventing overheating of the bush. In addition, this makes the fruit resistant to transportation and storage. Soft light hairs in the aggregate resemble felt, which explains the species name - felt cherry.
Small oval leaves with a corrugated surface.In summer they are painted in dark green light, in the fall they acquire an orange shade. Blossom at the same time as flowers.
Flowers - pale pink, gradually acquire a white color. The flowering phase begins at the end of May and lasts from 10 to 15 days. During this period the decorative of the shrubbery reaches its maximum. Located on a very short peduncle flowers densely stalks the stems, and the shrubbery looks like a large blossoming ball. The flowers tolerate a decrease in temperature to-3 ° C.
The fruits of the shrub are polymorphous - they differ greatly in different varieties and seedlings within the species. The average weight of one berry varies from 1 g to, g. Color of fruits from pink to dark cherry, less often you can find shrubs with white berries. The pulp is juicy and has a sweet to sweet-sour taste. Inside is an inseparable small stone.
The phase of fruiting of different varieties varies from mid-June to mid-August. The average lasts up to 10 days. Stability of fruit on branches is high. Depending on the variety from one bush, you can collect from, kg to 14 kg of berries.
Frost resistance of a felt cherry is high - a shrub can withstand a temperature drop of -40 ° C.Winter hardiness is average, the weak point of the bush is the deflection of the root neck.Life expectancy of cherries is small, from 8 to 10 years..
Description of cherry cherry varieties
For better pollination and a stable annual harvest, several varieties of this species should be planted on the site. An interesting option: combining varieties with different periods of maturation, you can harvest fresh crops within 40-45 days.
- The princess.Compact (, m) and high-yielding shrub. Fruits ripen in the third decade of July. From one bush it is possible to collect 10 kg of berries. The mass of fruit is 3-4 g, the taste is sweet with a slight acidity. Fruits ripen after July 20. Pluses: lack of rooting, resistance to coccomicosis. Disadvantages: self-fertility and instability to moniliosis.
- Firework.Shrub, reaching a height of up to, m. Fruits in early July, berries from 2 to 4 g, the taste is sweet. Yield of 11 kg from the bush. A characteristic feature of berries is the transverse suture on the surface. Pluses: self-fertility and high decorative. Disadvantages: susceptibility to moniliasis.
- Fairy tale.Low shrub till, m. Full ripening of fruits in the end of July. Berries from 3 to, g, yield up to 10 kg. The taste of the berries is sweet-sour. Pluses: winter hardiness, semi-dry fruit separation. Disadvantages: self-infertility, low stability of moniliasis, grinding fruit in a volume crop.
- Natalie.A bush shrub that reaches a height of up to 2 m. The fruit ripens from 10 to 15 July. The average weight of berries is 5 g, the flesh is dense, the taste is sweet and sour. The yield of an adult shrub is 6-7 kg. Life expectancy is 18 years. Advantages: durability of the bush relative to other varieties of this species. Disadvantages: grinding fruit at a high yield, sensitivity to high humidity.
- Damanca. A tall shrub up to, m in height. The fruits are shiny, almost black in color, weighing about 3 g. The average yield is 8 kg per bush. Full ripening of berries occurs in late July in early August. Advantages: taste qualities of fruits, which are considered the best among varieties of this species, the relative stability of moniliasis. Disadvantages: self-fertility, sensitivity to drought.
Despite species affiliation, felt cherry genetically differs from cherry trees and steppe, by all indications it is much closer to other cultures: plum, apricot and peach.
This feature must be taken into account during the cultivation of shrubs of this species.
Selection and preparation of the site for planting
Felt cherry loves intense and diffused light. In thickened plantings or in shaded areas, shoots are stretched, and fruiting decreases.
This damage often occurs in winter, when a dense snow cover lies on the unfrozen soil. If the root collar is damaged, the development of the root offspring stops, which leads to the death of the bush.
Therefore, you need to choose a site on the dais where the snow cover lies a thin layer.To minimize the risk of deforestation in the autumn, it is necessary to scratch the soil around the root neck to a depth of 7-10 cm and fill it with coarse-grained sand.
The shrub develops well in loamy and sandy loamy soils with a light texture and high aeration with a depth of groundwater not exceeding 3 m. The main roots of cherry felt are located at a depth of 35 cm, so this layer of soil should be structured and rich in nutrients elements.
The selected site is dug and simultaneously fertilized for each 1m2:
- manure or compost 15 kg;
- potassium chloride 120 g;
- superphosphate 250g.
After this, a landing pit with sheer walls 50 cm wide and 45 cm deep is formed. The upper part of the soil is deposited for the future filling of the pit. The site and the planting pit for spring planting are prepared in autumn, for autumn during the summer.
How to plant and care for a tree seedlings in the suburbs?
Felt cherries can be planted in spring and autumn. Given the average winter hardiness of the bush, experienced gardeners recommend this in the spring, when a stable temperature of + 15 ° C is established. In this case, the plant will maximally strengthen the root system and surface coverings. This gives more guarantees of survival than when planting in the fall.
For planting, choose a seedling for up to two years.Quality seeding material is a seedling up to 1 m in height, with a healthy root of at least 25 cm in length and with a mass of overgrown rootlets.
To fill the landing pit will need:.
- manure or compost 3 buckets;
- superphosphate 40 g;
- potassium chloride 20 g;
These components are mixed with deposited soil. If the acidity level of the soil is high, 300 g of lime should be added to them. A good option is a drainage layer at the bottom of a pit of limestone crushed stone, which will regulate the acidity of the substrate, and provide a drainage of water from the pit. At the bottom of the pit you need to stick a stake (, m) for the garter of the seedling. The recommended scheme for planting shrubs 2х1м.
In the center of the pit, you need to form a mound and straighten the roots of the cherry on its surface. It is important that the root neck remains above the ground level by about 5 cm. This will save from its burial after shrinkage of the soil. The roots of the seedlings are filled with soil and the soil is compacted.
Seedling should be poured with 2-3 buckets of warm water and after settling the soil add voids to the soil.After that, the round bar is mulched with peat or sawdust.
Care of the seedlings
While caring for a felt cherry, it is important to remember the weaknesses of the bush: thickening of the crown, susceptibility to fungal diseases and rooting of the root system. In the rest the cherry is unpretentious and does not require special works of the gardener.
Basic rules of care:
- Watering.Irrigation is done only in very dry weather, constantly monitoring the level of humidity.
- Liming.Cherries are sensitive to the acidity of the soil. If there is a strong deviation from the average value of the alkaline reaction, the metabolism is disturbed in the bush. This immediately affects the fruit bearing, so the liming of the soil is carried out every 5 years.
- Prevention of diseases.Fungicides must be treated in autumn and spring. This procedure is carried out in September and before bud blossoming in the spring. For this, the tree is sprayed with a Bordeaux liquid.
- Top dressing.In the first two years, the seedling does not need to be fed. Adult shrubs are fed twice a season. In the autumn, after harvesting, a superficial phosphate (15 g), potassium chloride (20 g), in the spring before budding - ammonium nitrate (20 g) is added to the trickle-bar per 1 m2.
- Preparation for winter.Young seedlings are bent to the ground and covered with lapnik or straw. The stalk is mulched by peat (30 cm).
- Pests.The shrub is rarely affected by pests. The danger for the cherry is only a massive lesion of the site of aphids and scabs. In this case, chemical insecticides are used.
Shrubs of all varieties of cherries of this species are prone to thickening of the crown. This significantly reduces their productivity, so it is necessary to form the crown and in the following years to maintain the optimum degree of density.
Formation of the crown of the bush is carried out for the third year after planting. To do this, you need to choose a sunny day in mid-March, prepare a sharp pruner and garden var.
Pruning is carried out before the onset of sap movement, which is activated at the beginning of the awakening phase of the kidneys. If these terms are missed, it is better to wait until autumn, when the tree will leave in a state of relative rest. Otherwise, the shrub will spend energy on restoring injuries, and slow down the development process. Often, while cherry is sick.
- select 10-12 strongest branches;
- completely removed diseased, damaged and dry branches;
- increments of more than 50 cm are shortened by 1/4.
In subsequent years, you always need to adhere to these parameters, controlling the growth of increments. The task of annual pruning is the maximum access of light to the crown.
As the bush ages, rejuvenating pruning is performed. During this procedure, several lateral shoots are removed. As a result of this, an annual shoot will appear near the cutoff point. After this, it is necessary to cut off all the old shoots located above them.A similar pruning is carried out to strengthen the growth and restore the frozen bushes.
Cherry felt is propagated by seeds, cuttings and cuttings. Each method has its own characteristics, from which it is necessary to choose the most acceptable option. Reproduction by seeds
During the selection of planting material, it is important to pay attention to the condition of the bush. The best seed qualities are the bones of fully ripened fruits, compact shrubs without drooping diseased branches with a shiny healthy bark.
Bones are separated from the pulp, washed with water and dried on a dry surface in a shaded room.After that, they are placed in layers of moist sand and put into a cool room.
They sow seeds for the winter. For this purpose, a ridge is prepared in advance from the air-permeable and well-cultivated soil. Bones are sown in the soil 15 days before frost.
Stages of landing:
- on the surface of the ridge form a furrow 2 cm deep and 30 cm between rows;
- bones are planted together with sand at a distance of 50 cm from each other;
- the surface of the crops is mulched with sawdust or peat;
- after the appearance of the fourth leaf, the plants are thinned, leaving only strong sprouts;
- when seedlings grow to 30 cm, pinch 1/3 of the main root;
- till the end of the growing season, three fertilizing with nitrogenous fertilizers;
- watering only in dry weather, twice a week.
The seedling is transplanted to a permanent place in two years. Planted in this way, shrubs enter into fruiting in 4 years.
Reproduction by cuttings in autumn and spring
The main vegetative way of reproduction of a felt cherry - green cuttings. Planting material is harvested in the first decade of June from young growths, when they reach 15-20 cm.
Stages of the method of reproduction:
- from the growth cut with a stalk with 3-4 buds;
- the lower cut is done under the kidney, observing a 45 ° angle of incline, the upper one above the kidney - horizontally;
- Cuttings are placed for 12 hours in a growth stimulator - a solution of heteroauxin (30 ml) and water (1L);
- In the greenhouse, calcined sand (4-5 cm) is poured onto a layer of rich soil;
- cuttings are planted in a substrate at a distance of 15 cm at an angle of 60 °, leaving two buds on the surface.
Cuttings will take root in 25-30 days. During this period, it is necessary to maintain a high humidity in the greenhouse and regularly moisten the substrate. Before planting on a permanent place, shrubs grow one year in a greenhouse or on a ridge. With this method of reproduction, the shrub begins to bear fruit after three years.
Cultivation of a felt cherry causes interest not only for lovers of quality culinary preparations.The bush fruits have high dietary qualities and are successfully used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and hypertension.Appreciate the bush and landscape designers, often using in the formation of hedges or as a tapeworm plant.
And finally a small video how to care for a felt cherry (including a burgundy) in the suburbs:.