The goal of each horticulturist in planting a fruit tree is stable yield and high quality of fruit. It is these qualities that the cherry cultivar "Lubskaja" possesses, which is considered to be a Russian variety.
Table of contents
- Characteristics of cherry varieties "Lyubskaya"
- The structure of the tree
- Leaves and flowers
- Root system
- Advantages of the variety:
- Disadvantages of the variety:
- Planting cherry "Lubskoy"
- Selection of seedlings
- Selection and preparation of the site
- Planting a seedling
- Basics of cherry care "Lubskoy"
- Pests and diseases
- Harvesting and storage of crops
Characteristics of cherry varieties "Lyubskaya"
Cherry "Lubskaja" is obliged to the long-term labor of gardeners-lovers, who gradually adapted it under the climatic conditions of the central part of Russia. Historical facts indicate a more accurate place of origin - Kursk province, where this sort of cherry tree was passed down from generation to generation.
The first scientific description of the cherry was made in the 30s of the XX century. In this period, the distinctive qualities of the fruit tree drew the attention of the doctor of agricultural sciences and natural scientist N. AND. Kichunov. In 1947, selection studies were conducted, according to which the cherry "Lubskaya" was introduced into the state variety register of the USSR.
Cherry variety "Lubskaja" refers to the species of cherry tree.Representatives of this species have many common morphological features with characteristics specific only for a certain variety.
The structure of the tree
This bush-shaped tree, reaching a height of up to, meters. Cherry bark "Lubsko" gray-brown color with numerous cross lenticels - holes for gas exchange.
The crown of the cherry tree is spherical and of medium density. A characteristic feature of the variety is the drooping annual branches, covered with a brown bark with a silvery coating. The stable average angle of branch deviation from the trunk is 45 °.
Every year the cherry "Lubskaja" under favorable conditions gives 30-40 cm of growth,where the next year the fruits are formed. After harvesting, these branches are bare, and the fruiting gradually passes to the periphery of the crown.
Leaves and flowers
The leaves of a tree of this variety have a narrowed oval shape with a pointed end. There are numerous notches along the edges. They have a rather dense texture and a dark green color. At the place of transition to the petiole, yellow streaks can be seen. The average size of an adult leaf is 87 mm by 50 mm.
The cherry flowers "Lubskaja" are white and collected in umbrellas for 2-3 pieces. They are formed by five sepals and petals, planted on a pedicel 25 mm long.
The main light of the ripe cherry fruit "Lubskoy" is dark red, which can vary depending on the intensity of photosynthesis. Under the thin glossy skin is a juicy pulp, the color of which often repeats the shade of the skin. Stone is small, occupies 6-8% of the total volume of the fetus. Pretty easy to separate from the pulp.
The fruit has an oval-round shape and an average weight of 4 grams.They mainly grow in groups of 2-4 berries, fastening to the shoot with sturdy pedicels. Cherries cherries "Lubsko" are valued for a balanced taste and rich mineral composition, which allows them to be considered as a dietary product.
The root system of Cherry Ljubska is formed from horizontal and vertical roots. The horizontal roots extend from the root cervix at a depth of 10-30 cm and, at times, exceed the projection of the crown. Vertical roots can reach up to 2 m in depth. The bulk of the growing roots is concentrated to a depth of 40 cm.
Advantages of the variety:
- Fertility. The ability to fertilize your own pollen. This gives the Ljubska cherry a great advantage: independence from the natural conditions that affect the cycle of life of pollinating insects.
- Mid-late flowering.Fetting starts only when a stable climate is established, when there are no temperature changes and the threat of sudden frosts is minimal. This contributes to the stability of the crop.
- Timing of fruiting.If all the recommended rules of farming are observed, the first harvest of "Lubskaja" cherry can be enjoyed 2-3 years after planting. Despite the relatively late flowering cherry "Lubskaja" is an early fruit variety. Full ripening of fruits occurs in late July and early August.
- Productivity.This indicator is growing rapidly and is stable. Under the conditions of the middle belt, 25 kg of berries can be harvested from each medium tree, up to 35 kg in the southern regions.
- Ease of care. The compactness of the bush makes it easy to prune and harvest.
Disadvantages of the variety:
- Frost resistance.The average frost resistance makes it possible to cultivate this type of cherry only within the middle band and in the southern regions. When planting in the northern areas, trees do not survive.
- Winter hardiness.Because of the peculiarities of the structure of the bark on the trunk of the cherry, cracks often appear after the temperature drops. This makes the tree defenseless in front of fungal and viral diseases. Damage to the cambium leads to a general weakening of the cherry.
- Life expectancy.The constant expenditure of domestic resources to ensure a stable and high yield leads to rapid wear of the fruit tree. Therefore, the life expectancy of the cherry "Lubskaja" is low and is inferior to many varieties in this indicator. In the middle belt the tree lives up to 15 years, in the more southern regions up to 25 years.
- Acidity of fruits.Cherry berries have an increased acidity. Therefore, they are mainly used only for culinary preparations.
Planting cherry "Lubskoy"
You can buy quality seedlings for planting in nurseries or garden centers. The best survival rate for seedlings is up to two years.
Selection of seedlings
When choosing a seedling, it is important to pay attention to the quality indicators. The vertical root must have not less than 30 cm and the mass of the overgrown rootlets. The health of the roots can be judged by the elasticity, the absence of traces of mechanical damage, rot and build-up.The crown of the seedlings should be sufficiently developed with healthy skeletal branches. The bark is elastic without cracks, flaking and damage.
After buying a seedling, it is important not to allow the roots to dry out. To do this, they are wrapped in wet sackcloth and several layers of thin paper. Also, you must not allow direct sunlight on the seedling.
Selection and preparation of the site
Proper selection of the site and careful preparation of the soil saves gardeners from many problems, ensures healthy growth and balanced fruiting of cherries. For the fruit tree choose a lighted area, protected from the northern winds and drafts. The occurrence of groundwater should not be more than 3 m.
The ideal option is an elevation facing south or south-west. In such areas moisture does not stagnate and good air exchange. After selecting a site it is important to prepare it in advance. For spring planting in the fall, and if planned to plant under the winter, then in early summer.
For all varieties of cherries, sandy loam soils with neutral acidity are preferred. Plants planted without taking into account the alkaline reaction of the soil, poorly digest trace elements and often get sick. Therefore, every horticulturist must know the level of acidity of the soil on his plot and, if necessary, adjust it to different plants.
Particularly painful are this indicator of cherries. Therefore, if the acidity is high, limestone is applied to the plot at the rate of kg per 1 sq. Km.The site is fed with organic and minerals, 1 m2 is contributed by:.
- manure or compost 10 kg;
- superphosphate 100 g;
- potassium sulphate 100 g.
The optimum pit depth is 60 cm, the diameter is 80 cm. Walls are important to form sheer - this reduces the degree of shrinkage. The soil from the top of the pit is laid aside, it will be used to mix the substrate.
After digging the pit into the bottom, a layer of limestone crushed stone is placed, which will serve as drainage and acidity regulator. For the garter of the seedling, a stake is stuck, the height of which is 1 m above the ground level. After that, prepare the substrate:
- humus 3 buckets;
- phosphorite flour 1 kg;
- potassium sulfate 150 g.
All these components are mixed with piled ground.Thus, the soil mix prepared beforehand is structured, and the minerals and nutrients take on the forms assimilated by the young roots.
Perhaps you are interested in the following articles on fruit trees:
- The healing properties and characteristics of pears.
- Why do they rot on a tree?
- How to care for a pear and prepare it for the winter?
- When to remove a pear from a tree?
Planting a seedling
For planting in the southern regions choose the autumn season - October or the first ten days of November. In the middle lane Cherry "Lubskaja" is planted in September or in the middle of April.
Before planting, the roots of the seedling are inspected once more. A sharp pruner removes damaged parts. Dried roots are important to hold in warm water for 12 hours.
Stages of seedling planting:
- In the center of the landing pit, a mound is formed from the prepared substrate, orientated to the root collar. It should remain above the soil level by 5 cm when the seedlings are planted on the surface of the mound.
- The roots of the seedlings are evenly spread over the substrate. It is important to avoid unnatural bends. After that, they are covered with soil, avoiding the formation of voids.
- The circumferential circle is rammed and poured with two buckets of warm water. After full absorption of water into the voids, soil is added, and the surface is mulched with peat or sawdust.
Thus, the young cherry is provided with all the comfortable conditions for rooting and recruiting forces before the first winter..
Basics of cherry care "Lubskoy"
The rules for caring for a fruit tree are tailored to the varietal characteristics, but the gardener should always be guided by the climate in the region.
- Watering.Abundant irrigation during the formation of shoots, flowering and ripening of fruits. One average tree will require 30 liters of warm water. If the autumn is dry, it is important to carry out water recharge after frost.
- Top dressing.The first fertilizers begin 1-2 years after planting. Organic fertilizing is carried out twice during the vegetation period, using manure or compost for this. In the fall, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are introduced into the near-well circle, and in spring - nitrogen fertilizers. Immediately after flowering, the tree is fed with mineral complexes.
- Loosening.In order to increase the aeration is carried out three times during the growing season.
- Mulching.Constantly you need to monitor the condition of the layer of mulch. It can hide pests or form spores of fungi. Therefore, mulch should be changed periodically.
- Pruning.It is carried out before bud opening. During this procedure, excessively overgrown and damaged branches are cut, the shoots are removed. In autumn, rejuvenating pruning is carried out.
- Shelter for the winter.Stamp cherries are wrapped with warm material and covered with lapnika. The stubble circle is mulched with a dense layer of peat (30 cm). In winter, the snow is pulled up to the tree.
Pests and diseases
Most often cherry "Lubskuyu" affects the fungal disease of coccomicosis. This is manifested by the appearance on the outside of the leaves of red-brown spots and the formation of pink-gray pads on the reverse side. This is a dangerous disease that leads to loss of crops, and without the lack of treatment and fruit tree.
Treatment of coccomicosis:
- Spraying of a tree and a circumferential circle with a copper-containing fungicide during the phase of kidney swelling. The preparation "Abiga-Peak diluted in water (50 ml / 10 l) is used.
- Processing of cherries with the preparation "Horus" (3g / 10l) in the phase of tying buds.
- If the measures did not help, two weeks after the end of flowering, all affected branches of the tree are cut and burned. Cherry is treated with the drug "Skor" (1 ampoule / 10 l).
- After harvesting the tree is treated with Bordeaux liquid (1%).
Most often cherry colonies and different gnawing pests will settle on the cherry. With a moderate amount of them you can cope with folk remedies. To do this, use an ash-soap solution (400g / 50g / 10l), broths of onion husk, tomato tops or chamomile.
In case of mass damage, it is necessary to use chemical preparations: "Carbophos "Fufanon" for piercing-sucking pests. "Bancol "Actellik" against gnawing insects..
Harvesting and storage of crops
Harvest harvesting is carried out in one step. This will save you from loss of harvest, which is very attractive for birds. Cherry berries do not ripen after separation from the tree. Therefore, you should not collect them in advance, counting on ripening in boxes. Such fruits are practically unsuitable for consumption.
Harvesting is best done in the afternoon, when the morning dew evaporates and the sunlight is weakened.
The coincidence of the fruit ripening phase and the rainy season can lead to the loss of part of the crop. High moisture content in the soil and external impact affects the quality of the fruit and promotes the formation of rot. Therefore, it is important to process this batch of berries as quickly as possible.
If you plan to transport berries, then cut them together with petioles. This greatly increases the shelf life. Fruits collected without petioles are important to process within a day.
The harvested crop is stored in boxes or baskets with good aeration at temperatures from 0 ° C to-1 ° C. and humidity 85%.Such conditions allow preserving the quality of the fruit up to 10 days. Hermetic packaging in polyethylene bags extends the shelf life in half. Fruits can be deep frozen, which allows you to preserve flavor and useful qualities for a long period..
Natalia:In my garden, this sort of cherry grows since 2010. The first time blossomed for the third season, but the harvest was very poor. But the cherry quickly went into growth and today it is a full-fledged tree. This year we harvested 12 kg of harvest. Berries are great for compotes and jams.
Alexandra:I took a seedling from relatives, and he surprisingly quickly took root. Cherry began to bear fruit after 3 years, and with each year the harvest increases. The only difficulty is the winter period, for warmth I carefully wrap the tree and cover it with lapnik. Despite this, still you can see certain damage in the spring, especially frost.
Successful cultivation of fruit trees is possible only with a full understanding of varietal features. The weak side of the cherry "Lubskoy" is winter hardiness and susceptibility to fungal diseases. It is necessary to pay attention first of all to the prevention of these deficiencies. In return, the fruit tree will be rewarded with a stable and high yield for many years..