Almost every gardener and gardener dreams that his garden always be fertile and high-yielding. But in addition to the right care, you need to choose varieties with good characteristics. This applies to cherries. After all, it's good when in summer all trees are strewn with a red large berry, which attracts with its beauty and pleasant aroma. In addition, it is important that trees withstand the severe frosts that are typical for many regions of Russia.
Of course,ideal varieties of cherries do not exist, but there are more optimal ones that have good yield, and are also able to adapt to any weather conditions. One of these varieties is the Urals ruby cherry. Below is a description of this variety..
Table of contents
- Characteristics of the cherry varieties Ural ruby
- Breeding history and regions of growth
- Description of the tree
- Winter hardiness
- Flowering and maturation period
- Yield and life time
- Fruit characteristics
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Planting and care
- Features of this variety
- Diseases and pests
Characteristics of the cherry varieties Ural ruby
Breeding history and regions of growth
Firstbreeding of this variety began to engage the breeder of the Urals region N. Gvozdyukova in 1950. During this period, she was engaged in her professional work at the experimental gardening station of the Ural SRIS in the city of Sverdlovsk together with S. Zhukov, who was a representative of the Central Genetic Laboratory. I.V. Michurin.
Breeder N. Gvozdiukova in those yearsproposed to use as the basis of the tree of the unknown Michurinsky cherry variety, which later became the basis for the derivation of the Ruby variety. For the crossing of these seedlings, the seed of the local steppe variety Ideal was sown.
As a result, a variety was obtained, which was bred and zoned in 1965. In the same year, the variety was included in the State Register of varieties for the Urals, Vyatka and West Siberian regions of Russia.
Today the Urals ruby variety grows in the following regions:
- In the Chelyabinsk region;
- In the Perm region;
- In the Sverdlovsk region.
Description of the tree
Main qualities of the tree:
- itsmall bushwith spreading branches;
- Size of tree heightis about, a meter, in rare cases can reach up to -2 meters;
- Crown of average neglect. At the time of formation, it forms an entire shape with medium sprawling branches;
- Characteristics of shoots. Annual growths and bouquet branches are considered to be fruitful;
- The leaves have a distinct shine. They have a wide-laced, leathery type, resembling a boat in shape.
This sort of cherry is a part of self-fertile varieties. Self-fruit variety means that the cherry has flowers with a structure of a specific type that interferes with the development of the cherry due to the self-fertilization of its own pollen. thereforeif pollinators do not grow on the site, the tree will blossom beautifully every spring, but it will not yield a crop.
For this reason, planting a cherry of this variety, it is necessary to take care that beside also the pollinators specially designed for this variety also grow.
However, in spite of this, thisthe variety itself acts as a good pollinator. It has been used for several decades for the cultivation and selection of various high-yield varieties of cherries.
Has increased resistance to frost. This quality is the main condition for the cultivation of cherries in the Urals, where a cool and changeable climate is observed.Especially high resistance to frost has wood and kidneys.
Low and almost unpretentious trees can safely settle down to unfavorable climate and weather conditions.
In the process of breeding, it was possible to breed a variety that provides protection not only due to its increased resistance to frost, but also its flowering time. UsuallyThe flowering time begins in the spring period after frosts. Flowers appear in late spring, so they do not intersect with spring fluctuations in temperature conditions.
Flowering and maturation period
The flowering time of the varieties of the Ural ruby cherry usually begins from May 30 to June 7-8. Just in the period when all the frosts pass and the warm summer begins.
Ripening of fruits on a tree occurs simultaneously, therefore on a tree at the moment of ripening it is possible to see all red berries.Maturation occurs after August 15-17.
Yield and life time
As soon as this variety was bred, everyone who grew it, was convinced of its high yield. Usuallyfrom one small tree of bush type it is possible to get almost 6-7 kilograms of cherries.
But there are some cases when in experimental stations, especiallyin the central strip of Russia, yields up to 14-15 kilograms were recorded from a single tree.
The period of full-fledged life of the Cherry Urals Ruby is about 24-30 years..
Ripe fruit has an attractive appearance. In form they are round with an average value. In the area of the suture and the stalk there is a slight flattening.
The diameter of one ripe cherry is approximately 15-17 mm. The average weight of one berry is about, -4 grams. Sometimes specimens weighing 5 grams can grow. The color of the skin of the ripe fruit is dark red, the same color is the structure of the flesh of the ripe fruit..
In addition, the flesh of ripe fruits has an average density and high juiciness.Ripe berry exhibits an increased level of resistance to cracking. Inside the fetus there is a small bone, which easily lags behind the flesh of the berry. All the fruits are held firmly on the branches due to the slightly long pedicels..
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The merits include quality:
- Previously fructification. A full crop can be obtained already for 3 years after planting the seedlings;
- Long service life. One tree can grow for 24-30 years;
- High resistance to frost. The tree can withstand frost to -35 degrees Celsius;
- You can growin regions with a cold climate;
- Delicious fruit. The taste of cherries is sweet and sour, and also it has a high juiciness;
- Fruitcan be used for cooking jam, juices, compotes, wine and other domestic preparations.
However, in addition to the merits are disadvantages:
- Later fruiting. Harvest can be obtained in the middle or end of August;
- Low yield. From one tree you can remove only 5-7 kilograms of cherries;
- Self-Freedness. Therefore, next to this sort of cherry on its site, it is required to plant pollinators for the tree;
- Highsusceptibility to fungal disease- coccomicosis.
Planting and care
It is advisable to plant seedlings on a site with good ventilation and high solar illumination.
BesidesIt is important that in the place of growth there is not a close location of groundwater. In the spring period, there should be no stagnation of groundwater, which during this period protrude from the ground.
Soil structure should have important qualities:
- High lightness;
- The soil must have a loamy structure.
Plant a cherry Ural ruby recommended in the spring, before the budding buds, or in the autumn period, preferably not later than October.
- Planting seedlings from each other is recommendedat a distance of at least 2 meters;
- Hole for plantingdigging out to a depth of 50 cm, and the diameter should be 50 cm;
- Fertile mixture is necessarily placed on the bottom, which should consist of 20 grams of potassium chloride, 30-40 grams of superphosphate, as well as ash. If the soil is clayey, then it should be poured into a bucket of sand;
- In the holeit is necessary to drive a peg. He will keep the still-grown tree;
- Before landing, you need tosoak the roots of the seedlings in the waterand hold there, about 3 hours;
- Further, the seedlings descend into the well and are filled with soil.Everything is well trampled;
- Near the base of the treeFormed a round roller from the grounddiameter of 50-60 cm;
- Fills the treestanding waterin the amount of 2-3 buckets;
- At the end the bottom of the treeis filled with mulch from sawdust and compost.
Care consists of the following recommendations:
- It is necessary to conduct regularsoil irrigation;
- Looseningthe basal circle;
- Heldcircumcisiondead and very long branches;
- It is doneperiodic top dressingand soil fertilization at the roots of the tree;
- In the fall, right during the digging of the soilpotassium and phosphorus fertilizers are introduced;
- Organic Fertilizer Mixtures- manure, compost must be applied at least once every 4 months;
- In the springNitrogenous fertilizer mixtures are introduced under the tree trunk.
Features of this variety
The characteristics of this class include the following characteristics:
- Early fruiting. A good harvest is obtained for the third year after the landing;
- Small trees in the form of shrubs. The height of an adult tree is from, to 2 meters;
- Long life, almost 30 years;
- Frost resistance, trees can withstand frost to -30 degrees Celsius;
- Late maturation, fruits ripen in the second half of August.
Diseases and pests
Cherry of this variety has a high resistance to pests such as cherry mucous sawfly and cherry.
However, the Cherry Ural Ruby variety is subject to such a fungal defeat as coccomicosis. This defeat has a high risk, with an untimely appropriate treatment the tree can die.
The main characteristics of the affected plant are coccomicosis:
- The presence of brown spots on the leaves;
- Leaves can become lethargic;
- Another factor that indicates the presence of this disease - a friendly shedding of leaves.
After all the leaves are showered the tree becomes weak, nutrient components do not arrive to it and after a certain period it dies.
To prevent this damage, the tree is treated with fungicides. Treatments are conducted three times per season. The first treatments are done before flowering, the second during flowering and the last after flowering in 2-3 weeks.
Cultivation of the Urals ruby cherry requires great responsibility.It is important to choose a suitable place with fertile soil, and also you need to observe timely care - watering, fertilizing, pruning. If you meet all the requirements, then you can get a good harvest of good quality, which can be used to prepare various winter billets..