Detailed description of the cherry variety Ural ruby

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Almost every gardener and gardener dreams that his garden always be fertile and high-yielding. But in addition to the right care, you need to choose varieties with good characteristics. This applies to cherries. After all, it's good when in summer all trees are strewn with a red large berry, which attracts with its beauty and pleasant aroma. In addition, it is important that trees withstand the severe frosts that are typical for many regions of Russia.

Of course,ideal varieties of cherries do not exist, but there are more optimal ones that have good yield, and are also able to adapt to any weather conditions. One of these varieties is the Urals ruby ​​cherry. Below is a description of this variety.

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Table of contents

  • Characteristics of the cherry varieties Ural ruby
    • Breeding history and regions of growth
    • Description of the tree
    • Pollination
    • Winter hardiness
    • Flowering and maturation period
    • Yield and life time
  • Fruit characteristics
  • Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
  • Planting and care
    • Care
  • Features of this variety
  • Diseases and pests

Characteristics of the cherry varieties Ural ruby

Breeding history and regions of growth

Firstbreeding of this variety began to engage the breeder of the Urals region N. Gvozdyukova in 1950. During this period, she was engaged in her professional work at the experimental gardening station of the Ural SRIS in the city of Sverdlovsk together with S. Zhukov, who was a representative of the Central Genetic Laboratory. I.V. Michurin.

Cherry variety Ural ruby

Breeder N. Gvozdiukova in those yearsproposed to use as the basis of the tree of the unknown Michurinsky cherry variety, which later became the basis for the derivation of the Ruby variety. For the crossing of these seedlings, the seed of the local steppe variety Ideal was sown.

As a result, a variety was obtained, which was bred and zoned in 1965. In the same year, the variety was included in the State Register of varieties for the Urals, Vyatka and West Siberian regions of Russia.

Today the Urals ruby ​​variety grows in the following regions:

  • In the Chelyabinsk region;
  • In the Perm region;
  • In the Sverdlovsk region.

Description of the tree

Main qualities of the tree:

  • itsmall bushwith spreading branches;
  • Size of tree heightis about, a meter, in rare cases can reach up to -2 meters;
Bush-cherry Ural ruby
  • Crown of average neglect. At the time of formation, it forms an entire shape with medium sprawling branches;
  • Characteristics of shoots. Annual growths and bouquet branches are considered to be fruitful;
  • The leaves have a distinct shine. They have a wide-laced, leathery type, resembling a boat in shape.

Pollination

This sort of cherry is a part of self-fertile varieties. Self-fruit variety means that the cherry has flowers with a structure of a specific type that interferes with the development of the cherry due to the self-fertilization of its own pollen. thereforeif pollinators do not grow on the site, the tree will blossom beautifully every spring, but it will not yield a crop.

For this reason, planting a cherry of this variety, it is necessary to take care that beside also the pollinators specially designed for this variety also grow.

The most ideal varieties for the pollination of Cherry Rubin Urals are varieties Mayak, Zagrebinskaya, Polevka, Zvezdochka, Alatyrskaya, Shchedrai.

However, in spite of this, thisthe variety itself acts as a good pollinator. It has been used for several decades for the cultivation and selection of various high-yield varieties of cherries.

Winter hardiness

Has increased resistance to frost. This quality is the main condition for the cultivation of cherries in the Urals, where a cool and changeable climate is observed.Especially high resistance to frost has wood and kidneys.

Low and almost unpretentious trees can safely settle down to unfavorable climate and weather conditions.

There is a lot of evidence that this variety has grown up in a cold environment. Trees and kidneys can withstand frosts below 30-35 degrees Celsius.

In the process of breeding, it was possible to breed a variety that provides protection not only due to its increased resistance to frost, but also its flowering time. UsuallyThe flowering time begins in the spring period after frosts. Flowers appear in late spring, so they do not intersect with spring fluctuations in temperature conditions.

Flowering and maturation period

The flowering time of the varieties of the Ural ruby ​​cherry usually begins from May 30 to June 7-8. Just in the period when all the frosts pass and the warm summer begins.

Ural ruby ​​cherry in the flowering period

Ripening of fruits on a tree occurs simultaneously, therefore on a tree at the moment of ripening it is possible to see all red berries.Maturation occurs after August 15-17.

Do not wait for a good harvest right in the first year after planting the tree. A full crop can be obtained only for the third year after planting the tree.

Yield and life time

As soon as this variety was bred, everyone who grew it, was convinced of its high yield. Usuallyfrom one small tree of bush type it is possible to get almost 6-7 kilograms of cherries.

One tree of cluster type Ural ruby ​​cherry can yield up to 7 kg of berries

But there are some cases when in experimental stations, especiallyin the central strip of Russia, yields up to 14-15 kilograms were recorded from a single tree.

The greatest yields are usually obtained from the trees of the Cherry of the Ural Ruby variety at the age of 13-16 years.

The period of full-fledged life of the Cherry Urals Ruby is about 24-30 years.

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Fruit characteristics

Ripe fruit has an attractive appearance. In form they are round with an average value. In the area of ​​the suture and the stalk there is a slight flattening.

Ripe berries of the Ural ruby ​​cherry

The diameter of one ripe cherry is approximately 15-17 mm. The average weight of one berry is about, -4 grams. Sometimes specimens weighing 5 grams can grow. The color of the skin of the ripe fruit is dark red, the same color is the structure of the flesh of the ripe fruit.

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In addition, the flesh of ripe fruits has an average density and high juiciness.Ripe berry exhibits an increased level of resistance to cracking. Inside the fetus there is a small bone, which easily lags behind the flesh of the berry. All the fruits are held firmly on the branches due to the slightly long pedicels.

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Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

The merits include quality:

  • Previously fructification. A full crop can be obtained already for 3 years after planting the seedlings;
  • Long service life. One tree can grow for 24-30 years;
  • High resistance to frost. The tree can withstand frost to -35 degrees Celsius;
  • You can growin regions with a cold climate;
  • Delicious fruit. The taste of cherries is sweet and sour, and also it has a high juiciness;
  • Fruitcan be used for cooking jam, juices, compotes, wine and other domestic preparations.

However, in addition to the merits are disadvantages:

  • Later fruiting. Harvest can be obtained in the middle or end of August;
  • Low yield. From one tree you can remove only 5-7 kilograms of cherries;
  • Self-Freedness. Therefore, next to this sort of cherry on its site, it is required to plant pollinators for the tree;
  • Highsusceptibility to fungal disease- coccomicosis.
. . Damage of berries with cherry coccomicosis.. Cockcomycosis of cherries.
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Planting and care

In order for the tree to develop normally in the future, it yielded good harvests, did not hurt, choose a suitable site with fertile soil on which it will be grown.

It is advisable to plant seedlings on a site with good ventilation and high solar illumination.

BesidesIt is important that in the place of growth there is not a close location of groundwater. In the spring period, there should be no stagnation of groundwater, which during this period protrude from the ground.

Soil structure should have important qualities:

  • High lightness;
  • Friability;
  • The soil must have a loamy structure.

Plant a cherry Ural ruby ​​recommended in the spring, before the budding buds, or in the autumn period, preferably not later than October.

Many gardeners recommend planting a cherry of this variety in the spring. In autumn, it's cold enough, and a seedling that has not grown stronger can not get along well and with the onset of the first frosts it will just freeze.

Arrangement scheme:

  1. Planting seedlings from each other is recommendedat a distance of at least 2 meters;
  2. Hole for plantingdigging out to a depth of 50 cm, and the diameter should be 50 cm;
Preparation of a pit for planting cherries
  1. Fertile mixture is necessarily placed on the bottom, which should consist of 20 grams of potassium chloride, 30-40 grams of superphosphate, as well as ash. If the soil is clayey, then it should be poured into a bucket of sand;
  2. In the holeit is necessary to drive a peg. He will keep the still-grown tree;
  3. Before landing, you need tosoak the roots of the seedlings in the waterand hold there, about 3 hours;
  4. Further, the seedlings descend into the well and are filled with soil.Everything is well trampled;
  5. Near the base of the treeFormed a round roller from the grounddiameter of 50-60 cm;
  6. Fills the treestanding waterin the amount of 2-3 buckets;
  7. At the end the bottom of the treeis filled with mulch from sawdust and compost.
After planting, the cherry seedlings are mulched

Care

Care consists of the following recommendations:

  • It is necessary to conduct regularsoil irrigation;
  • Looseningthe basal circle;
  • Heldcircumcisiondead and very long branches;
  • It is doneperiodic top dressingand soil fertilization at the roots of the tree;
  • In the fall, right during the digging of the soilpotassium and phosphorus fertilizers are introduced;
For seedlings of the Ural ruby ​​cherry, additional fertilizing is necessary
  • Organic Fertilizer Mixtures- manure, compost must be applied at least once every 4 months;
  • In the springNitrogenous fertilizer mixtures are introduced under the tree trunk.
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Features of this variety

The characteristics of this class include the following characteristics:

  1. Early fruiting. A good harvest is obtained for the third year after the landing;
  2. Small trees in the form of shrubs. The height of an adult tree is from, to 2 meters;
  3. Long life, almost 30 years;
  4. Frost resistance, trees can withstand frost to -30 degrees Celsius;
  5. Late maturation, fruits ripen in the second half of August.
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Diseases and pests

Cherry of this variety has a high resistance to pests such as cherry mucous sawfly and cherry.

However, the Cherry Ural Ruby variety is subject to such a fungal defeat as coccomicosis. This defeat has a high risk, with an untimely appropriate treatment the tree can die.

The degree of resistance of a plant depends on the state of climatic conditions and geographical location cultivation - the more south this plant grows, the higher it is prone to this fungus disease.

The main characteristics of the affected plant are coccomicosis:

  • The presence of brown spots on the leaves;
  • Leaves can become lethargic;
  • Another factor that indicates the presence of this disease - a friendly shedding of leaves.

After all the leaves are showered the tree becomes weak, nutrient components do not arrive to it and after a certain period it dies.

Cherry is affected by coccomicosis

To prevent this damage, the tree is treated with fungicides. Treatments are conducted three times per season. The first treatments are done before flowering, the second during flowering and the last after flowering in 2-3 weeks.

Cultivation of the Urals ruby ​​cherry requires great responsibility.It is important to choose a suitable place with fertile soil, and also you need to observe timely care - watering, fertilizing, pruning. If you meet all the requirements, then you can get a good harvest of good quality, which can be used to prepare various winter billets.

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