Cherry, perhaps, is the most traditional culture in Russian gardens. It exists a variety of varieties - both ancient, popular selection, and modern. The times of noble nests and Chekhov's cherry orchards have sunk into oblivion. On small, as a rule, plots of land, a modern gardener should try to accommodate other fruit trees.And yet there is a way to get a whole collection of cherry varieties - vaccination.
Vaccination refers to vegetative ways of plant reproduction.It can be used in the following cases:
- old variety does not suit, and I want to replace it, without wasting time on growing of the seedlings;
- caught a self-fertile variety- the planted cherry blooms, but does not bind fruit;
- some kind ofthe tree in the garden broke, but there was a living root;
- I want to have several different varieties, but the plot area is too small.
Table of contents
- What can be planted with cherries?
- Compatibility of cherries with different rootstocks
- When to inoculate, in the spring or in the summer?
- Where to take cuttings for grafting
- Overview of the main ways to inoculate a cherry
- Cherry sizing: procedure
- Inoculation in cleavage
- Simple copulating
What can be planted with cherries?
Even the beginning fruit growers have heard the terms "graft" and "rootstock".A rootstock is a plant, which is being vaccinated.Privovo is a stalkor an axillary bud of a plant that will be grafted.
The procedure always begins with the selection of the rootstock. It depends on it not only the productivity of the tree, but also the size and taste of the fruit. The first thing that they pay attention to is the compatibility of plants.Here is a simple rule:The closer the kinship, the better.
Compatibility of cherries with different rootstocks
|Rootstock||Degree of compatibility||Features|
|Wild cherry||Very high||One of the best variants of the stock. To get a seedling of a wild cherry is not difficult, and the risk of rejection of the scion is minimal. The plant receives endurance and adaptability to climate conditions from the stock, but it can produce root shoots.|
|Cherry cultivar||Very high||An excellent option for growing several varieties on a common stem. But in this case it is necessary to watch, that the terms of flowering of varieties coincide.|
|Cheryomukha||High||On the cherry-sucker, the hunting stock almost always gets along beautifully. Particularly beneficial is the manipulation in the northern regions: cherry whitens informs cherry of frost resistance and resistance to diseases.|
|Plum||High||As a rootstock, it is better to take semi-wild seedlings, but you can plant a cherry and a varietal plum growing in the garden.|
|Turn||Good||Very good, but a bit uncomfortable for cherry. The turn throws out many root offspring, and to struggle with them it is rather troublesome.|
|Alycha||Good||Universal rootstock for stone fruit. Good for his exceptional endurance.|
Some experimenters-fruit growers try themselves in the role of Michurin and try to plant cherry on an apple tree or a pear. Indeed, these plants belong to the same botanical family - the Pink. However, the relationship between them is "cousin".Apple and pear - from the subfamily Applewood(popularly called "seed"), andcherry and cherry - from the subfamily Plum("Stone"). Therefore, such a transplantation will not lead to success.
When to inoculate, in the spring or in the summer?
The optimal term for the operation is dictated by the physiology of the plant. Inexperienced "transplantologists" it is better to choose the time before the beginning of the sap movement - early spring. This is due to a small nuance: if a little late, the juice on the slices will be oxidized, which will prevent the cuttings or the kidney from starting.
You can plant a cherry tree later.It is quite successfully practiced inoculations with green cuttings in summer. However, firstly, they should be performed very quickly and accurately to prevent the formation of an oxide film. This requires dexterity and skill. Secondly, it is important to choose the right weather and do not delay with the procedure until the end of the summer..
Where to take cuttings for grafting
It is usually advised to harvest cherry cuttings in the fall, after the fall of the fall, before the arrival of frost. However, keeping them until spring is a difficult task for beginning gardeners.It is necessary to ensure such conditions that the branches remain moderately moist, but not rotten; They did not freeze, but they did not awaken before the time. To rid yourself of these worries, there are two ways: to buy inoculum in the garden center or to cut yourself in the spring.
In nurseries there are special rooms where cuttings are kept at optimal temperature and humidity. Before the vaccination, you will only need to refresh the sections. The economical option: to buy one cutting and remove a few eyes from it.
You can independently cut the material by negotiating with neighbors or relatives.According to the experience of many gardeners, grafting with fresh cuttings is often more successful than "autumnal even stored in ideal conditions.
In the spring cherry cuttings are cooked like this:
- Inspect the uterine plant and choose a good shoot of last year's growtha. To distinguish them is easy: the bark on them is reddish, thin, glossy-shiny.
- Check thaton the shoot were only leaf (pointed) kidneys. The fact is that cherry fructifies most often on last year's growth, so they can be laid with floral (rounded) buds.
- Cut shoot with pruner, remove the apex bud and cut "pencils" 25-30 cm long. On each cuttings should remain on 3-4 kidneys.
The harvested material can be wrapped in wet gauze, so that cuttings do not dry up..
Overview of the main ways to inoculate a cherry
Garden "surgeons" have developed many methods of vaccination.The simplest and most accessible for beginners- ocularization, simple copulation and inoculation into a cleft..
Cherry sizing: procedure
The essence of the method is the transfer of the axillary bud of the cherry on the rootstock. The graft material is called the "eye". To perform the operation, you need an ideally sharp, clean knife (you can have a clerical, but it is desirable to have an eyepiece) and polyvinylchloride insulating tape.Eyes are best cut right before the procedure.
- On the cut is chosen a good kidney. It needs to be cut along with a part of the cortex (scute). The length of the scute is about 2 cm. The graft material is placed on a clean, moistened cloth so that the cut does not dry out.
- On the selected part of the stocka T-cut is made with a knifeon the bark.
- The incisions are carefully pushed back,The peephole is inserted and tightly pressed with leaflets from aboveso that only the kidney looks out.
- The structure is wrappedthe back side of the tape, so that when removing it, the bark is not torn.
Some gardeners, fearing recurrent spring frosts, create a vaccine around a guy from plastic bags. Here you need to weigh everything well.The risk of "boiling" your vaccine under the active sun may be higher than the risk of freezing it.
Grafting is the least traumatic method of inoculation. Even if something goes wrong and the peephole does not take root, the plant will quickly tighten a small superficial wound.
Inoculation in cleavage
This method is not only uncomplicated, but also gives the highest percentage of survival rate.According to observations of gardeners, out of every ten inoculations, nine are taken into the cleavage.
In contrast to ocularization, here the inoculum is the whole stem.From the tools you needsecateurs or a garden file, sharp clean knife (it is better copulating, but it is possible to manage and usual), an insulating tape and garden var.
- A stalk is preparedwith 3-4 good kidneys. Its lower end is cut with a knife on a double wedge. The length of the cut must be three times the thickness of the shoot. The handle is wrapped in a damp, clean cloth.
- If the diameter of the rootstock is large,is made to the right level. If the graft and the stock are approximately equal in thickness, a pruner is used.
- A knife is placed along the diameter line of the saw, andan incision is made to a depth of 3 or 4 cm. To ensure that the splinter does not close, you can insert a temporary spacer-peg into it.
- The stem is wound in a split into the entire depth. If the stock is thick, you need to insert the stalk at the very edge, so that the crust coincides with the bark and the cambium with cambium. If there is a possibility, one can get two grafts in one splash - from two edges.
- The stock is wrapped tightly spirally with the back of the tape. It is important to ensure an ideal fit of all the tissues of the scion and rootstock.
- The end area of the cleavage is hermetically sealed with garden varnish. The tops of the cuttings are also processed.
This method is suitable when the diameters of the stock and the scion are the same. To work, you need a secateur, a copulating or a conventional sharp knife, an insulating tape and a device for correcting the cutting angle. The latter can easily be done by one's own hands. A metal or plastic tube of small diameter is cut at an acute angle (about 30⁰) - and ready.The vaccination is carried out according to the scheme:
- The shank is inserted into the tubeso that its lower end peeps out a little.
- Knifea cut is madeexactly along the cutting line of the tube.
- The stock is shortened by the pruner at the desired height. A tube is put on it and a similar cut is performed.
- The stalk is applied to the rootstock with a cut to the cut. All fabrics should completely match.
- The junction is strongwrapped in electrical tape.
Simple copulation is good for its simplicity and a good percentage of survival. But it has a drawback: insufficient strength in the place of adhesion.The cherry has a fragile wood, and the strength of the joint with the stock is extremely important when carrying out the vaccination. In this sense, the method of incision is much more reliable.
The vaccine was successful or not visible in a week or two.If the kidneys are moved to growth, then the material is taken over normally. You do not need to remove the tape. In the next year, a callous influx will form in the place of growth, a thickening similar to corn. Next spring, you can remove the remnants of tape and wait for harvests.
Cherry graft is a fascinating activity, akin to a scientific experiment. It gives a lot of scope for creativity and the strength of even a beginning gardener..