A garden without cherry, like a Russian hut without a stove: it does not feed and the eye does not please. Therefore, breeders bring out hundreds of varieties, so that in each garden there is a cherry tree. Such as, for example, cherry "Turgenevskaya or simply "Turgenevka"..
Table of contents
- Description of Cherry Turgenevka
- Characteristics of fruits
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Selection of seedlings
- Place of planting
- Stages of landing
- Collection and storage
- Crown formation
- Diseases and pests
- Reviews of gardeners
Description of Cherry Turgenevka
Let's start with the description of the variety. The cultivar of the "Turgenevka" cherry was excavated since 1972. to 1979 in the All-Russia Research Institute of Fruit Crop Selection. The tree reaches a height of 3-3.5 m. Its crone is elevated, pivot-pyramidal. Sprouts straight, medium length, brown. The bark of the trunk and the main branches also have a brown tint. Dark green leaves near a tree with a pointed tip and jagged edges.
In the middle of May the tree blossoms abundantly with white four-flowered inflorescences.
This variety begins to bear fruit for 4-5-th year. From one young tree it is possible to collect up to 12 kg of fruit, from an adult - up to 25 kg. The maturation period depends largely on the weather, but usually it falls on the 2nd decade of July. The regularity of the harvest, i.e., whether the cherry will bear fruit every year and for how many years in a row, depends on care.
"Turgenevka" is regionalized in Bryansk, Lipetsk and Voronezh, Kursk, Orel and Belgorod regions, as well as in the Republic of North Ossetia. However, it grows not only in these areas. Here, the variety was tested and described. If you create all the necessary conditions for growth, cherry will bear fruit in other regions. But first you need to familiarize yourself with such conditions..
Characteristics of fruits
The fruits of "Turgenevka" are large (up to 4-5 g), broad-heart shaped. Fruits are dark red both outside and inside. From juicy and dense pulp, small pits are well separated. Sour-sweet taste of fruits makes them indispensable for the preparation of jam, juices and compotes.
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Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
"Turgenevka" is distinguished by winter hardiness, yield and quality of fruits. However, due to the average frost resistance of flower buds under unfavorable conditions, the yield may decrease. In addition, this is a partially self-fertilized variety, which means that if you have one cherry, it will bear fruit, but there will be few fruits. Therefore, even samoplodnye trees should be planted in pairs with a tree of another variety, for example, with Favorit, Molodezhnaya or Lyubskaya..
Selection of seedlings
The choice of seedlings is a responsible business. To purchase a healthy tree, follow these rules:
- buy one- or two-year-old seedlings from a trusted seller or manufacturer;
- pay attention to the appearance: the healthy tree has no spots, the branches and roots must be entire;
- When buying in the spring, choose seedlings with still sleeping buds.
Place of planting
Cherries love sunny windless places. However, the "Turgenevka" should be planted on the south side carefully, because here the snow melts faster in the spring, which means that the sap flow begins and the buds swell faster. Recurrent spring frosts can ruin the future harvest.
The acidity of the soil for the cherries should be at pH 5.5-7. The soils themselves are light loamy or sandy loamy.
Plant the cherry better in the spring, until the leaves bloom on it. Plant it can be among other fruit trees, but not in place of the old cherry orchard. Groundwater should lie 1.5-2 m below ground..
Stages of landing
- Dig a hole 60 cm deep, 70 cm wide;
- In the middle of the pit, fill a mixture of humus (up to 2 buckets), ash (up to 1 kg) and mineral fertilizers (30 g superphosphate, 20 g potassium nitrate);
- Set the landing stake, which then tie the tree;
- Put the seedling in a pit, straighten the roots and fill with earth;
- Tightly tamp the earth so that all airy voids are gone;
- Form a hole with bumps for irrigation;
- Sow a lot of sapling.
With due care, the cherry "Turgenevka" begins to bear fruit for the 4-5th year. With poor care of fruits, too, you can wait, but they will be few..
After planting, the cherry requires frequent watering: at least once a week, 2 buckets of water. Adult tree water only during the drought period.
Feeding is also necessary for regular and fruitful fruiting:
- In the spring, before the flowers are blown into the soil, nitrogen (urea, ammonium nitrate) is introduced;
- In the spring, during flowering, nitrogen and organic fertilizers (chicken droppings, green fertilizers) can be introduced into the soil;
- In the spring after flowering, organic substances (manure, compost) are added to the soil to fill berries;
- in summer, make foliar top dressing with nitrogen and add organic matter to the near-stump circle;
- In autumn cherries need calcium, potassium and phosphorus.
Collection and storage
Cherries are a perishable product. No wonder they say: there were cherries, but everyone left.
Collection "Turgenevka" usually occurs on July 5-15. A dry, windless day is the best day for harvesting. In the rain, fruits absorb a lot of moisture and are subsequently poorly stored.
If you need to keep the cherry fresh for a few days, but at the same time it has nowhere to store, collect the fruit along with the peduncle: so the pulp does not run out of juice.
In the refrigerator, the cherry collected is about 20 days. If there are many cherries, and you have a basement where the temperature is 8-12 ° C, spread the unwashed fruits without "barrels" in different containers. The layer should not exceed 5 cm. So it will be possible to keep the harvest fresh for 10-12 days.
And also the cherry can be dried for the winter. Do this in three ways: dry the berries in the sun, in the oven or in the electric dryer.
Crown formation is an important component in the life of a tree. Cherries grow quickly, and therefore require the annual thinning of the crown:
- after planting, determine the 5 strongest branches, remove the rest;
- treat the wounds with garden gauze;
- for the second year cut off all the branches growing inside the crown;
- the length of the branches is shortened and make the same;
- As you grow, form new skeletal branches, they should be 13-15 pieces.
- when the length of the trunk reaches 3.5 m, it should be cut so that the cherry does not grow any more.
Diseases and pests
Cherry "Turgenevka" has an average resistance to the most common stone diseases - coccomicosis and moniliosis. However, with poor care, the tree can suffer from any disease or pest.
In order to minimize the fight against diseases and harmful insects, it is worthwhile to conduct preventive spraying. From various pests, a biological insecticide "Fitoverm" or "Aktara" is suitable. Resistant to illnesses will help strong immunity, and strengthen its preparations "Zircon "HB-101" and "Energen". And with the disease, and with pests help to cope with the preventive remedy "Green soap".
However, prevention is not only the timely spraying of trees, but also in their cleaning:
- remove infected leaves, as well as dried and damaged branches;
- remove and burn the remains of fruits, fallen leaves and branches;
- treat all damaged areas of the bark with a garden hive;
- regularly loosen the soil in the near-barrel circle.
Reviews of gardeners
Every man to his own taste. This statement refers to any side of life, but to the taste of fruits and berries and even more so.
Most gardeners positively assess the cold and frost resistance of the Turgenevka, as well as the opportunity to grow this cherry in the central part of Russia and even in the north-west of the Moscow region. However, not all gardeners are satisfied with the yield and taste of the fruit. For example, a gardener from Michurinsk of Tambov region notes a large size and good taste of cherry, but is not satisfied with a rare crop (once in several years). A gardener from Kiev indicates a rich dark color of fruit and sour taste.
Cherry "Turgenevka" - unpretentious tree. With proper care shows a high yield. However, the saturation of its fruits with sugar is low, so they have a sour taste. Large dark red berries with a small bone perfectly suited for canning, drying and freezing..