Pear is a fruit tree, more capricious and susceptible to unfavorable weather conditions, than an apple tree that is related to it. Despite thisits fruits deserve recognition and honor from the gardeners. This article gives a detailed description of the Belarusian late sort..
Table of contents
- Description of the Pear variety Belarusian late
- Fruit characteristics
- History of selection, the region of growth
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Rules of landing
- Growing conditions
- Harvesting and storage of crops
- Features of this variety
- Diseases and pests
Description of the Pear variety Belarusian late
Pear is a variety of Belarusian selection, it is a medium-sized tree, which belongs to the group of winter fast pears.
The crown is rounded, dense, formed by small, oblong-elliptical foliage. Sheet plates are smooth, have a light green color. On the edge of the sheet are small denticles.
Large skeletal branches almost at right angles are articulated with the trunk. The ends of the branches rise. The cranial shoots are medium thickened and have a light brown color with a light pubescence. In the section form a circle. The bark of the shoots is covered with a lot of lentils.
The kidneys are not large, in turn, are not covered with pubescence and have a conical shape. Slightly bent from the shoots.
The formation of fruits occurs on the rings:
Pear flower "Belarusian late" white with petals of oval shape.
The possibility of harvesting the first crop is available as early as the 4th year of life. Fruit ripening occurs usually at the end of September.Yield of pear is high. But the positive impression of the abundance of crops is reduced by their periodicity.
The fruits of the "Belorussian Late" variety are not very large, reaching a mass of only 110 - 120 g.Upon reaching maturity, they have the correct wide-pear shape. The fruit on the tree is mostly of the same size.
Rough, light-colored peel of pears is covered with light brown dots.The color at the time of removal from the tree is green, by the time of consumption, acquiring an orange-yellow color. Covering color from red-brown to crimson shades.
Pears juicy with white pulp of medium density. They differ in their oiliness and tenderness.Taste is estimated from, to, points. Fruits are sweet with a little sourness. Pears varieties "sit" on the shortened flat peduncle.
Fruits, taken from the tree in the last days of September, can be kept until February, sometimes longer.
The "Belorussian Late" sort is considered self-fertilizing (self-pollinated), but in order to get a bigger harvest, it is recommended that the "Oily" and "Bereloshitskaya" pears are present on the site.
History of selection, the region of growth
Pear tree of "Belorussian Late" sort refers to the winter varieties of selection of the Belarusian Research Institute of Horticulture. The variety was obtained by sowing seeds of uncontrolled pollination of the pear "Good Louise".
The variety was introduced into the State Register of Selection Achievements, allowed before breeding in the North-West and Central regions.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
To the positive qualities of this variety, gardeners include:
- Fertility, that is, getting the first crop only 3 or 4 years after planting;
- Long-term fruit preservation(in some cases pears can be kept until April);
- High ratewinter hardiness.
- Periodicity in fruiting;
- Exposurescab and bacterial burn;
- Melting of fruitsat large yields;
- The requirement of periodic trimmingbecause of the tendency to thicken the crown.
Rules of landing
The most favorable time for disembarkation on the site is late spring. After three days, and also within fourteen days, after the snow cover has fallen, the optimal time for planting a pear tree. It is possible to land in the autumn period: before the first frost, but after the fall of the fall.
When choosing a seedling, it is necessary to pay attention to the condition of the planting material.A young tree should have elastic branches and a dense crown with healthy leaves. In the root system of the seedlings there should be no dry and ragged roots.
4х4 meters - the minimum size of the plot under the pear tree, which guarantees its normal development. In addition, the pear prefers well-lit places with fertile soils. The soil for planting the fruit tree should be well aerated and moderately moist.It is not allowed to plant the Belorussian late on soils with regular stagnation of moisture or on too heavy clay soils, which will lead to a slow growth and development of the tree. Growth on sandy soils is accompanied by similar symptoms.
- Before planting, preliminary soil preparation. The most suitable substrate for a young seedling is a mineral-rich, loose soil.
- Landing pit for Belorussian Late pearshould be a depth of up to 80 cm, and a diameter of 100 cm. Under the seedlings with a closed root system, the planting pit is prepared according to the size of the earth coma.
- Planting of the seedling is carried out in dry, warm weather conditions. First of all, all leaves are removed from the young tree, and broken branches and broken roots are cut off. Before planting, it is necessary to sustain the root system of the seedling in water for 3 hours;
- In the center of the seat is a hole, where a young tree is being planted. In doing so, care must be taken to ensure that the root neck is not buried in the soil - it is optimally placed at a height of 7 cm from the ground;
- After filling the pit with prepared soil,the landing site is rammed;
- Watering after plantingmust be at least 30-40 liters per tree;
- After full absorption of moisture, the stem circle is mulchedwood chips or crushed bark of fine fraction.
Caring for the "Belorussian Late" sort is simple and consists in timely carrying out of additional dressing, pruning, and also processing against diseases.
The first few years of the pear-root circle of the pear must be completely cleared of weeds, while the soil is not to be dug. Planting under the tree clover, red fescue and meadow grasshopper will enrich the soil with the necessary substances.
The pear of the Belarusian selection is drought-resistant, but in specially dry periods a volume of water up to 70 liters per plant is applied twice a week.
The purpose of pruning young pear trees- Formation of the future tree crown. The trunk for this is cut to a quarter of its total height, and on the stem are left from 3 to 4 strong branches. Pruning of adult trees is carried out in the spring. At the same time, all damaged, contiguous large branches are removed from the crown.
The first fertilizing is carried out only for 2-3 years after disembarkation.Fertilizers for pears can be applied by root and foliar methods. In the future, autumn and spring top dressings are carried out on a regular basis, summer foliar ones - if necessary.
Preparing the fruit tree for winter, despite its frost-resistance, is necessary. It is recommended to tie the trunk with paper, and cover the trunks with a layer of wood shavings..
Harvesting and storage of crops
Harvesting of fruits for storage is done 2-3 weeks before the average harvest date. Pears are removed from the branches by hand.During the transfer of fruit in a container must be careful:Avoid strokes and damage to the pear peel, detach the stalk.
Fruits are stored in containers or wooden boxes in well-ventilated rooms, with a temperature regime ranging from +2 to +9 degrees.In a container pears fit no more than two layers.In this case, it is desirable to wrap each fruit in a separate newspaper sheet..
Features of this variety
A pear of the "Belorussian Late" variety slopes to a strong and rapid thickening of the crown, which negatively affects the fruiting.To avoid this, regular rejuvenating scraps.
Pears that have not gone to storage, sent for processing - in jams, juices and jam.From pears "Belarusian late" often make dried fruits..
Diseases and pests
Pear of Belarusian breeding is content with pests and diseases. Most often there is a defeat of her scab.
To protect the tree from insect pests, processing is carried out in three stages:
- Spraying with "Rogor-S" before flowering;
- 5% solution of Bordeaux liquid is applied after flowering;
- During the growing season it is permissible to spray the tree with "Fitoverm" or "Aktara
- As a prophylaxis, a urea solution of 5% is used.
Prevention of diseases:
- Before the bud blossom begins, the plant is sprayed with a 3% Bordeaux liquid. In the period of bud budding - "Tilt
- After flowering, it is recommended to treat the trees with "Fundazol and after two weeks - with a solution of urea;
- 1% Bordeaux fluid is allowed to be processed during fruit growth.
Due to its taste qualities, as well as long shelf lifethe "Belorussian Late" variety is firmly entrenched in the hearts of many gardeners. The small area occupied by a tree, is supplemented by considerable on volumes harvests that favorably distinguishes a variety from many others..