All summer residents want to see on their garden plot a variety of fruit trees. But what to do when the territory is small and it needs to be distributed as rationally as possible? In this case, a perfect solution will be the colonial trees.
Table of contents
- Description and history of selection of the columnar pears
- Varieties of the Column Pear
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Care and trimming
- Exposure to diseases and pests
Description and history of selection of the columnar pears
The breeder Kachalkin brought out the colonial pears. The main differences from other types are:
- small size;
- greater fertility.
By the way, despite the fact that in all descriptions this bonsai, its height in individual cases can reach 2 meters.
Colon-shaped pears are of two types:
- natural (from seedlings);
The trunk of the colony-shaped pear is larger than that of the fruit trees that are habitual to us. And branches with fruits are on all length of a trunk. Extra twigs are removed without difficulty..
Varieties of the Column Pear
Sapphire. The first fruit brings in 3 years. Fruits can be harvested in September. The features of the fruit are considered to be an elongated shape and a greenish-pink hue. Pears are usually large, the weight of one reaches 250 g. Sapphire does not like frost, so storage in the basement will not suit her. It is possible to grow in the suburbs.
Carmen. Fruits very quickly they are singing, they are ready to be assembled in the summer. Ripe pears are brightly burgundy and very large, about 300 g. Sweet.
Tenderness. This grade refers to the autumn. Weight of fruit is middling, up to 150g. Features: ovoid shape, rich green color. The pulp is juicy and tender, the taste is sourish.
G-2. Fruits ripen in late November. The fruits of the standard pear-shaped form are hummocky. Color green-pink. Pears smell nice and sweet enough.
Decor. Fruiting at the end of summer, the beginning of autumn. The first pears can be obtained for the 2nd year of planting. Fruits are yellow, oval in shape.
G-4.Harvest is brought in 3 years. Autumn variety. Pears are richly yellow, in the sun can get a pink shade.
Honey.Fruits ripen in the summer, towards the middle of August. Fruits have a yellow-green color. One of the largest, the weight of one pear reaches 400 g. The taste is very sweet and juicy, the pulp with a pleasant light aroma.
G-3. The variety can be harvested in September-October. Fruits of a normal pear shape, but broad and bumpy. The skin is bright yellow, very juicy. As well as honey, big - 400 g. Varieties easily survive frosts.
Knight Werth.The first fruits can be obtained in 2 years from the moment of planting. Pears are big and pink. Normally survives at frost to -20 degrees.
Pavlovskaya.Fruits appear on the 2nd year, in October. The fruits are large, sweet and juicy. Rind is thin, yellow-pink in color.
G-5.I ripen in August - September. Externally yellow, weight reaches 250 g, the pulp is sweet and sour and juicy. Resistant to diseases and perfectly tolerates frosts.
Sanremi.Fruiting in October-November. The main feature is a tender and sweet taste of fruits. They are fragrant and large, weight is more than 400 g. Do not require special care and without difficulties are experiencing winters.
Favorite is Yakovlev.Fruit in September, sometimes in early October. Fruits of medium size about 200-250 years. Wide pear-shaped. The skin is thick and dense, the color is dull green with a shade of yellow. Pulp is sweet with a delicate quince aroma.. .
Advantages and disadvantages
First, consider the merits of disembarking colon-shaped pears on the site.
- Small size.Trees are very compact and will not take up much space, even in the smallest garden.
- Fertility. In the second year, after the landing, it is possible to obtain a full-fledged harvest, rather than wait 4-5 years, as in the case of an ordinary pear.
- Diversity. There are many varieties. Their variety makes it possible to choose the one that will take root and will bear fruit in each, a separate region.
- Transportability of fruits.Due to the small size, you can reach out to all the fruits and collect the whole harvest, and not leave the crowns for eating birds.
In spite of the list of pluses, there are also minuses in the column-shaped pears.
- Short life expectancy. With normal care, this tree lives up to 10 years.
- Care. It requires more care than an ordinary pear. You need to be careful about fertilizers and other organic materials.
Initially, before landing, it is necessary to properly prepare the soil. A large hole is pulled out, up to 80 cm deep and, m wide. It pours out 20 liters of water. We must wait until the liquid is completely absorbed. After that, add the composition of: potassium sulfate, sand, superphosphate and humus.
Fill this mixture half of the pit. We plant a seedling and cover it with soil. Well, compact the sapling.
The landing takes place either in April or May, or in September-October. Immediately after the planting, the seedlings require a lot of water. Therefore, you need to water 3-4 times a week. The first fertilizer should be carried out before the appearance of the sheets, each rest with an interval of 3 weeks.
The roots of the colon-shaped pears are, as a rule, close to the surface, do not forget about this when you are working on the soil around the tree.
Also, in addition to the seedling, a colon pear can be obtained by grafting. This method also gives excellent results. Fruits become many times larger and much faster, but the life forces of a tree are wasted twice as fast. If you take good care of the grafted tree, then the flowering will be in a year, and the first fruits, you can get two.
Below we suggest watching a short video, which says how to plant a column-shaped pear:.
Care and trimming
Unfortunately, proper care of seedlings requires both material and time costs.But in 2-3 years all expenses will be repaid with a good harvest.
Do not neglect pruning a column pear. If the trees are cut right, then they grow 10-12 cm in a year. And besides the growth up, 3-4 new branches grow.
If in the second year they noticed that the tree is well established and normally grows, leave 4-5 fruits on it. Further, increase the number of fruits every year. Every year follow the size and quantity of fruits, because the fruit load for each variety and each individual tree is individual. For example, if last year the pears were larger, then the tree is overloaded and the number of fruits should be normalized.
To obtain the expected harvest, the tree should be regularly fertilized. It is important to do this at the right time. According to the rules, feeding takes place during the course of spring and summer.It is best to use chicken manure and slurry as a fertilizer, urea or saltpetre is also suitable.The first fertilizing takes place in the spring, after the appearance of the first leaves, the second after a two-week pause, and the third, after 4 weeks, after the first.
Proper preparation for winter is a serious stage. Of course, the column-shaped pears are resistant to frost, but young seedlings require additional care. It is necessary to build protection from improvised materials, to track that it would be dry and inside did not hit the mouse or any other rodent. Inside, you can leave pine needles or make straw..
Exposure to diseases and pests
The main problem for the colony pear is fruit gall midges. When it appears the shoots gradually darken, the ovary dries and falls off. The umbellate and greenish aphids can also damage the tree. As a result of the appearance of white scab, a white precipitate begins to appear on the leaves. Then they dry up and fall off.
The best and easiest option to propagate a column-shaped pear is the planting of ready-made seedlings. Still, it is possible to grow from a seed or a method of cuttings. Seeds are used quite rarely, since the method requires a lot of time.
For cuttings, green cuttings are needed.
- Initially, the cuttings are cut off. They must have more than five sheets.
- A couple of days cuttings are impregnated with a root-forming solution.
- The stalk is sprinkled with soil.
- If it has taken root, it will grow rapidly.
A very popular and easy method of breeding pears is grafting. Gardeners comment that this way the tree grows much better than in other variants. An ordinary pear can act as a stock.
All the fruits of the pear-shaped pear are distinguished by their special taste and delicate aroma. They can be stored for a long time, and the tree itself is not afraid of frost. If you provide pears with the care that they need, then you can collect a good harvest. In addition to practical properties, column-shaped pears can be an excellent addition to the design, for example, serve as a hedge or an original decoration..