For a stable supply of water with the required pressure values, it is not enough just to buy a pumping station. Equipment must still be configured, run and properly operate. Admit it, not all of us are familiar with the subtleties of customization. And the prospect of spoiling devices with incorrect actions is not too tempting, do you agree?
We are ready to share with you valuable information on how to adjust the pumping station. Our article describes the techniques and rules for the elimination of violations in the work associated with insufficient high pressure.
You will learn about the causes of pressure drop and learn how to eliminate them. Graphic and photo applications will explain how to properly configure the pumping equipment.
The content of the article:
- Features of the pumping station
- Causes of equipment problems
Correction of errors in the work
- Violation of operating rules
- Malfunctions in the engine
- Problems with water pressure in the system
Audit of storage tank
- The role of the hydroaccumulator in the system
- Air pressure control
Using relays to adjust pressure
- # 1: The principle of the pressure sensor
- # 2: Adjustment and calculation of required pressure
- # 3: Setting Recommended Settings
- # 4: Selecting non-standard pressure values
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Features of the pumping station
The pumping station, completed by the manufacturer, is a mechanism for the forced supply of water. The scheme of its work to the limit is simple.
The pump pumps water into an elastic container located inside the accumulator, also called a hydraulic tank. When filled with water, it stretches and presses on that part of the hydraulic tank, which is filled with air or gas. The pressure, reaching a certain level, causes the pump to shut down.
During water intake, the pressure in the system drops, and at a certain point, when the values set by the owner are reached, the pump starts to work again. For switching off and turning on the device is responsible for the relay, pressure level control is carried out using a pressure gauge.
Disruptions in the operation of a household pumping station may cause damage to plumbing equipment.
More with the principle of operation, variations and proven installation schemes pumping station will introduce our recommended article.
Causes of equipment problems
The statistics of malfunctions in the operation of household pumping stations says that most often problems arise due to the violation of the integrity of the membrane hydroaccumulator, pipeline, leakage of water or air, as well as due to various contaminants in the system.
The need to intervene in its work may arise due to many reasons:
- Sand and various substances dissolved in water can cause corrosion, lead to malfunctions and reduce equipment performance. To prevent clogging of the device, you must use water purifying filters.
- The decrease in air pressure in the station causes frequent pump triggering and premature wear. It is recommended to measure the air pressure from time to time and adjust it if necessary.
- The lack of tightness of the suction pipe joints is the reason that the engine is working without shutdown, but it cannot pump the liquid.
- Improper adjustment of the pump station head can also cause inconvenience and even damage to the system.
To extend the life of the station, it is recommended to periodically conduct an audit. Any adjustment work should be started by disconnecting from the power grid and draining the water.
You should periodically check the power consumption and maximum pressure. Increased energy consumption signals friction in the pump. If the pressure dropped without leakage detected in the system, the equipment is worn out.
Correction of errors in the work
Before embarking on a more serious interference with the operation of the equipment, it is necessary to take the most simple measures - clean the filters and eliminate leaks. If they did not produce results, then proceed to further steps, trying to identify the root cause.
The next thing to do is to adjust the pressure in the reservoir of the accumulator and adjust pressure switch.
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To maintain the equipment in normal technical condition and flawless system operation, it is not recommended to exceed the limit values specified by the manufacturer of the unit.
It is not allowed to start the pump station without filling the working cavity and the suction pipe with water. Otherwise, in a few minutes of "dry running", seals protecting the engine from water may burn, followed by the engine itself.
It is prohibited to use the pumping station in the water supply of the house without consuming it in the water intake points. Do not operate the unit "to a standstill"
To preserve the resource intake equipment, it is necessary to exclude the ingress of air into the suction pipe
In order to avoid pressure drops in the water supply and suction branches and excessive load on the unit, it is not recommended to narrow the pressure pipe.
The capacity of the pumping station installed in the circuit must correspond to the maximum number of simultaneously used water intake points.
The pumping station cannot produce a water intake with a temperature below + 1º and above + 35º C. Units of open areas for the winter are preserved: from them and the pipes connected to them all the water is completely drained, the equipment is recommended to be transferred to the premises
It is not allowed to operate the pump station in the winter in an unheated room. The location of the equipment should exclude flooding and freezing
Conditions for normal operation of the pumping station
Filling the suction pipe and working cavity with water
Ban on use without water consumption
Elimination of air entering the aspiration tube
Pumping equipment in a dry basement
Installing the unit in the back room
Pumping from an open reservoir
Operation of the station in winter
The following are the most common violations in the operation of a household pumping station, which the user may try to solve on his own. For more serious problems, please contact the service center.
Violation of operating rules
If the station is continuously operating without shutting down, the improper adjustment of the relay is a likely cause - high shutdown pressure is set. And it also happens that the engine works, but the station does not pump water.
The reason may be as follows:
- When first started, the pump was not filled with water. It is necessary to correct the situation by pouring water through a special funnel.
- The integrity of the pipeline is broken or an airlock has formed in the pipe or in the suction valve. In order to detect a specific reason, it is necessary to ensure that: the receiving valve and all connections are tight, there are no bends, contractions, or hydraulic locks along the entire length of the suction pipe. All malfunctions are eliminated, if necessary, replace damaged areas.
- The equipment works without access to water (dry). It is necessary to check why it is not there or to identify and eliminate other reasons.
- Pipeline clogged - need to clean the system from contamination.
It happens that the station is often triggered and turned off. Most likely this is due to the damaged membrane (then you need to replace it), or there is no system pressure required for operation. In the latter case, it is necessary to measure the presence of air, check the tank for cracks and damage.
Before each start it is necessary to pour water into the pump station through a special funnel. It should not work without water. If there is a possibility that the pump will work without water, automatic pumps equipped with a flow controller should be purchased.
Less likely, but it can happen that is open and locked check valve due to ingress of debris or foreign object. In such a situation, you will have to disassemble the pipeline in the area of possible clogging and fix the problem.
Malfunctions in the engine
The engine of the household station does not work and does not emit noise, possibly for the following reasons:
- The equipment is disconnected from the power supply or there is no line voltage. It is necessary to check the wiring diagram.
- Blown fuse. In this case, you need to replace the element.
- If you can not turn the fan impeller - then it is jammed. Need to find out why.
- Damaged relay. He should try to adjust or, if not, replace with a new one.
Malfunctions in the engine often force the user to use the services of the service center.
Problems with water pressure in the system
The lack of water pressure in the system can be explained by several reasons:
- The pressure of water or air in the system is set to an unacceptably low value. Then you need to adjust the operation of the relay in accordance with the recommended parameters.
- Pump piping or impeller blocked. Cleaning the elements of the pumping station from contamination may help to solve the problem.
- Air enters the pipeline. Inspection of pipeline elements and their connections for tightness will be able to confirm or deny this version.
Poor water supply is also due to the fact that air is being drawn in due to leaky water pipe connections or the water level has dropped so much that when it is taken in, air is pumped into the system.
Poor water pressure can create significant discomfort when using a plumbing system.
Audit of storage tank
Starting work on adjusting the equipment, disconnect the system from the network, close the pressure valve on the water intake side. Turn off the faucet and drain the water, and the remains down through the discharge hose, disconnecting it from membrane tank. First check the air pressure in the tank of the accumulator.
The role of the hydroaccumulator in the system
The diaphragm tank of a pumping station is, in fact, a metal tank with a rubber bulb inside, which is designed to collect water.
Air is pumped into the free space between the rubber bulb and the walls of the tank. In some models of hydroaccumulators, the tank is divided in half by a membrane, which divides the container into two compartments - for water and air.
The hydroaccumulator tank maintains the pressure in the system and creates a small supply of water. Once a month, the pressure in the hydropneumatic tank should be checked with the pump off and the water drained from the supply pipe.
The more water enters the device, the more it compresses the air, increasing its pressure, which tends to push water out of the tank. This allows you to maintain a stable water pressure even during pump inactivity.
The accumulator requires regular maintenance, removing air from the pear, which enters it with the water in the form of small bubbles and gradually accumulates there, reducing the net volume.
For this, a special valve is provided on top of large tanks. With small tanks, you have to trick to remove air: de-energize the system and drain and fill the tank several times.
Selection of hydraulic tank by volume is made taking into account the highest value of water consumption for a specific consumer. The permissible number of inclusions per hour specified by the manufacturer is taken into account, as well as the nominal values of on-pressure, off-pressure and user-defined pressure in the hydraulic tank
Air pressure control
Although the manufacturer conducts adjustment of all elements of the pumping station at the production stage, it is necessary to recheck the pressure even in the new equipment, since at the time of sale it may to decline. A device that is operated, inspect up to two times a year.
For measurements using the most accurate pressure gauge possible, because even a small error of 0.5 bar can affect the operation of the equipment. If there is an opportunity to use the automobile manometer, with a scale, with the least graduation - this will provide more reliable results.
The indicator of air pressure in the membrane tank must correspond to 0.9-fold switching pressure of the pumping station (set using a relay). For tanks with different volume, the indicator can be from one to two bar. Adjustment is carried out through the nipple, pumping or bleed excess air.
For normal operation, the station is equipped with obligatory control and regulating devices:
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Mandatory components of the pumping station are a pressure switch that allows you to adjust the pressure in the system, and the pressure gauge necessary to control it
To adjust the pressure parameters in the system, the relay is equipped with two springs, which allow to set the upper and lower limits of pressure in the water supply circuit
In order to raise the upper limit of the pressure parameters, at which the pump operation is automatically interrupted, the nut 1 is rotated clockwise. In this case, the nut 2, which is responsible for the lower limit, must be raised by the same amount
All actions for setting the pressure switch must be carried out with a parallel change control gauge. Differential upper and lower pressure limits recommended in the range of 1.2 - 1.6 bar
Mandatory components of the pumping station
Springs for setting the pressure switch
The specifics of the pressure change with a relay
Using a gauge when setting up a relay
The less air is pumped into the system, the more water it can accumulate. The water pressure will be strong when the tank is full, and more and more weakened when the water intake.
If these drops are comfortable for the consumer, then you can leave the pressure at the lowest acceptable level, but not less than 1 bar. A lower value may lead to friction of the pear filled with water against the walls of the tank and its damage.
To install in water supply system strong water pressure, it is necessary to fix the air pressure in the range of about 1.5 bar. Thus, the difference in pressure with a full and empty tank will be less noticeable, ensuring an even and strong flow of water.
Using relays to adjust pressure
Responsible for system automation pressure switch - a device that controls the pump station, performing the function of switching on and off the device. It also prevents the system from creating excessive pressure.
The pressure switch controls the on / off cycles when the user reaches the working pressure value. The performance of the pressure switch is controlled by a pressure gauge
# 1: The principle of the pressure sensor
The main element of the relay is a group of contacts, which is fixed on a metal base and is responsible for switching the device on and off.
Nearby are two springs of different sizes to adjust the pressure inside the system. Below to the metal base is mounted a membrane cover, under which is placed the membrane itself and the piston of metal. On top, everything is covered with a plastic cap.
Products of different manufacturers and the principle of its operation are almost identical, they can differ only in minor details.
In the process of operating the device can be divided into several stages:
- When you turn on the tap, water for some time goes to the sanitary point of the filled tank. When this pressure is present in the system, gradually begins to fall, and the membrane ceases to press on the piston. Contact closure occurs, the pump is turned on.
- The pump works by pumping water to the consumer, and when all taps are turned off, it fills the tank with water.
- With the gradual filling of the accumulator tank, the pressure increases, and it begins to act on the membrane, and that pressure on the piston. As a result, the contacts open and the pump stops.
On how the relay is configured, depends on the frequency of switching on the station, water pressure and even the service life of the equipment. If the parameters are incorrectly set, the pump will not operate at all or will work continuously.
The piston of the pressure switch and the sensitive metal plate, which reacts to the pressure created by the membrane of the hydraulic tank, are hidden under the body - access to them is completely closed
# 2: Adjustment and calculation of required pressure
The new device already has the factory settings of the relay, but, nevertheless, it is better to check them additionally. Starting the adjustment, it is necessary to find out the values recommended by the manufacturer for setting the permissible pressure threshold (for closing and opening of contacts).
When pump station breakdownsdue to improper adjustment, the manufacturer has the full right to waive its warranty.
The manufacturer calculates the allowable pressure when switching on and off the device, taking into account the expected features of operation. They are taken into account in the development of operating parameters for different models of pumping stations.
The inclusion value is equal to the sum:
- The required pressure at the highest point of the plumbing system where water is taken;
- The difference between the height of the highest point of the water intake and the pump;
- Pipeline water pressure losses.
The shutdown rate is calculated as follows: to the shutdown pressure, plus one and take away one and a half bar. In this case, the shut-off pressure must not be allowed to exceed the maximum allowable pressure that occurs at the exit of the pipeline from the pump.
A common mistake affecting the operation of a pumping station is not taking into account the entire amount of horizontal and vertical sections, as well as hydraulic losses during the transportation of water to the points of water discharge.
# 3: Setting Recommended Settings
Before you change the settings, you must fix the previous figures with a pressure gauge. Turning on the pump, record the pressure at the time of switching off and on. This will help determine which way to adjust - in the direction of reduction or increase.
It must be remembered that any change in the set pressure threshold in the relay also requires corresponding changes in the air compartment of the accumulator
Further actions have the following sequence:
- Disconnect the station from the power supply, lower the water and open the relay cover with a wrench.
- The pump turn-on pressure is adjusted by turning the nut that holds the large spring (P). By twisting it in the direction of the clockwise movement, the compression of the spring and the setting of the necessary switching pressure are achieved. In various device models, the permissible values can vary from 1.1 to 2.2 bar.
- By rotating the small nut (∆Р) in the direction of the clockwise movement, you can increase the gap between the value of the disconnecting pressure and switching on the device, which is usually 1 bar. Thus, the pressure off can be fixed at values in the range from 2.2 bar to 3.3 bar.
An important nuance is that the small spring does not regulate the cut-off threshold, as some mistakenly understand.
It sets exactly the delta between the values of switching on the station, and its shutdown. That is, a fully weakened spring will not create a difference — the delta will be zero and the on and off values will be the same. But the more it tighten, the greater will be the difference between them.
The small spring of the pressure switch is more sensitive and must be compressed very carefully.
Check the correctness of the indicators set using a pressure gauge. If it was not possible to reach the required values on the first attempt, the adjustment is continued.
# 4: Selecting non-standard pressure values
You can set a different pressure level in the device, different from the manufacturer's recommendations, by adjusting the equipment to individual user requests. By increasing the range when switching on and off, they achieve more rare station triggers.
This makes the service device longer, but makes the pressure of the water uneven. Reducing the difference, achieve a stable pressure, but the pump will operate more often.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to adjust the pressure of the station, will demonstrate the video:
Video about what to do if the station often triggers:
When conducting independent adjustment of the pumping station, it is necessary to take into account that sometimes changes to the factory recommendations can worsen the operation of the water supply system. Pump, hoses, plumbing fixtures - all have extreme pressure values, the violation of which will lead to breakdowns. Therefore, before embarking on independent actions, it is better to seek advice from an experienced specialist.
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