Every seasoned gardener knows that dacha labor is not simple. A serious problem of the summer resident are the ailments of fruit trees, especially apple trees. Instead of juicy fruits, we get sick trees with healthy pests.
Unfortunately, in our time there are many diseases affecting apple trees.The main thing is to find out the disease as soon as possible and start treatment in time, so that later you do not regret the fact that the tree died. Let's talk about the most common diseases of apple trees..
Table of contents
- Ways to control pests
- Preventing the appearance of dark spots
- Mouzased - dots on apples
- Elimination of the disease
- Powdery mildew
- Prevention of occurrence
- How to get rid of white plaque
- Fruit rot - why appeared and what to do?
- How to deal with this problem
- Pathogens of the disease
- Prevention and treatment
- Control measures against bacteriosis of apple trees
- Milky shine
- Symptoms of milky gloss
- How to fight?
- Black apple carcinoma
- How to treat?
- Root Cancer
- Appearance of the root cancer
- Measures to combat root cancers
- Rust on the apple tree
- Signs of rust on the apple tree
- Brown spot (phyllosticosis)
- Protective measures against leaf disease
- Disease control measures
- Prevention of diseases of apple trees
Apple tree scab - one of the most common and harmful diseases for your fruit favorites
Ways to control pests
Parsh can and should be treated.There are several options for fighting:
- The main method of struggleIs the destruction of the affected leaves of the apple tree.
Every autumn, summer residents rake the fallen leaves, sending them to the compost, they cover the ground with 7-8 cm. It is also necessary to harvest all rotten fruits from the plot. It is useful to spray trees with stimulants of growth, thus maintaining the health of trees.
- Chemical treatmentscab.
Scientifically proven medicines of chemical origin: fungicide "Rajok system fungicide "Strobi contact preparation "Abiga-Peak solution "Phytolavin".
Preventing the appearance of dark spots
- Removal of all available weeds;
- Selection of extremely resistant varieties of apple trees;
- Regular removal of deeply affected, fallen, rotten fruits;
- Collection of high-quality fruits intended only for seasonal storage;
- Separate storage of absolutely all collected fruits.
Mouzased - dots on apples
The name is exactly becauseThe black dots on apples that appear with an ailment resemble the biological waste of flies.
Elimination of the disease
When this type of disease, apple trees need to be sprayed, and also, if possible, capture land cover. Such preparations as copper sulphate, oleocupritum can be safely used. All this must be done before the spring. This will be the first stage of treatment.Later (second stage) spraying is done with the help of copper chloride, phthalane. In a couple of weeks, the third final spraying time will come. It takes already used drugs of your choice. It is worth knowing that it is necessary to sprinkle apples several times per season. Also, solutions can be alternated with each other.
Fungal disease, which is characterized by its transient spread throughout the dacha massif.Mushroom spores quickly spread through rain, wind and human factors(through the summer inventory).
The disease is detected by summer residents in the spring during active budding.The virus spreads to the entire surface of the apple tree, settling in a white bloom.. Fruits spoil, lose taste, often die. When the tree falls ill completely, the ovaries begin to fall off, the branches dry and die. Thus, the dew becomes an expressive brown color.
Prevention of occurrence
- For better prevention of disease and protection from dewtriple spraying of still healthy trees with fungicides.
- Usefullpollination by sulfurat least four times, but only in the summer.
- The room with seedlings must be ventilatedsufficient number of times, performing a clear regime of humidity and avoiding strong drafts.
How to get rid of white plaque
- Observance of key techniques of agricultural technology, that is,soil drying prevention.
- Execution of all itemsdisease prevention.
Fruit rot - why appeared and what to do?
Fruit rot of apple trees is one of the most common diseases of fruit trees in general.Scientific name - apple tree monolysis.
Rot rotates the scab by its severity several times, because it has the ability to massively infect trees.
Foci of the disease occur immediately in several places, spreading over the surface of the entire fetus. The flesh of the fruit becomes soft, not suitable for nutrition. A week later the brown spots are transformed into vague yellowish circles. This is the oppressive fungus spores, through which the infection and got into the garden.
The branches and rotten fruits left on the apple tree are also sources of infection. If the sanitary treatment of the tree is not properly performed, the damage to the fruit is increased. Later, the formation hardens, they are followed by the multiplication of bacteria. Fruit rot can stay in your garden several times a season.
- Damage and cracks in the bark of the tree;
- Interrelation of infected fruits with healthy individuals;
- Damaged apple peel;
- The presence of other diseases in the apple tree;
- Susceptible varieties of apple trees.
How to deal with this problem
- Trimmingdried branches, bad fruits and dry leaves;
- Recyclingfrom the apple tree;
- Appropriate seasonalharvesting of fruits ;
- Treat other diseasesapple trees;
- Trytreat all existing infections;
- Protect apple treesfrom mechanical and chemical damage.
Cytosporosis is a common mushroom disease, which affects mostly only weak and old apple trees. It causes individual focal drying of the tree bark.
Already dead cortical pieces are covered with a viral fungus, which appears as small tubercles. The old branches are also not insured, which cease to be a part of the tree, if the disease does not prevail.Slack from frost and the scorching sun, the tree dies in about 5 years of fighting the disease.
Pathogens of the disease
Cytospores fungus is the main causative agent of this disease. Its size is very small, no more than an ordinary bacterium. The virus hibernates in cracks in the cortex or in clots, the so-called spores.Rain and wind carry it to other trees, where he also settles in the blink of an eye. A person can infect his tree with cytoplasm by simply applying a garden shears.
Prevention and treatment
It is important to observe a number of rules in the treatment of cytoplasm of apple:
- Man needs to maintain the health of his trees,increasing their resistance to disease.
- Fertilize with potash and phosphorus fertilizerstrees that are susceptible to disease
- Prophylactic sprayingtrees with fungicides.
- Usingresistant varieties of apple trees.
For the prevention of cytosporosisit is necessary to whitewash trunks and skeletal branches (for 1 liter of water: 3 kg of lime, 300 g of vitriol and 1 kg of clay)..
Bacteriosis is a very serious disease caused by specific types of bacteria. It can hit the tree abruptly and unexpectedly, killing it for one season.
In diseased trees, the bark is covered with dark spots, which later will cause the death of the bark. The depressions formed by the disease guarantee cracking and peeling of the bark. The kidneys begin to blacken, completely taking on the color, the leaves are framed along the edges. All the foliage, after all, is twisted, withered and hanging on the tree with black icicles. The disease can proceed quickly and chronically.
In a quick scenario, the tree perishes in one summer. With a chronic variant, the tree becomes ill and dies off gradually over the next several years.
Control measures against bacteriosis of apple trees
- At the very beginning of the development of this disease is recommendedtreat the tree with 50% zinc chloridethree times with an interval of 3-4 days.
- In autumn and springcut out the affected brancheswith the capture of 7-8 cm of healthy tissue.
- Disinfect the slice1% solution of copper sulfate, or 3% solution of ferrous sulfate, or 5% carbolic acid with a mandatory coating of garden putty.
- The best option -prevent bacterioses in early spring, then when the hated disputes actively multiply.
Milky shine is a little studied disease, the methods of fighting it with scientists and breeders are little known. There is a version that the shine appears due to the freezing of the tree trunk or the acute starvation of the plant (water or mineral).
It is believed thatinfection occurs through a poisonous fungus, whose spores penetrate inside the tree through cracks or other damage in the cortex. The very shine is a gray metallic color, but it's only on the top side of the sheet. With the bottom the same color changes from purple to brown over the period of the illness.
Spores of the fungus infect wood mainly in wet, wet weather. At such a time it is better to refrain from trimming, so as not to replenish the mechanical wounds of the apple tree trunk. The disease diverges from one branch to whole hollow parts of the tree in a few years.
Symptoms of milky gloss
At the same time, science does not know exactly what kind of fungus affects trees and what methods of fighting to use against it. It is known that the virus penetrates into the wood, destroying it.Outwardly, the disease is imperceptible until the leaves are covered with a metallic veil. The fruits of this disease become tasteless, unsuitable for storage and consumption..
How to fight?
It is necessary to grow zoned trees, acquire disease-resistant breeds, monitor the winter hardiness of the individual, that is:
- Do not grow trees on wet, swampy terrain;
- do not deprive the apple tree of the spectrum of fertilizers to enhance immunity;
- abundantly watering trees only in the first half of the vegetation period;
- autumn and spring should be coated with lime with lime milk (2 kg of lime per 10 liters of water) with the addition of copper sulfate;
- cut and burn heavily affected parts of the tree;
- to clean the bark from mechanical damage and cracks, disinfect them with a solution of copper sulfate (10-20 g per 1 liter of water).
Black apple carcinoma
Recently, in a garden, more and more the phenomenon is spreading like black cancer. The most susceptible to this disease is the apple tree. Black cancer can ripen whole arrays, poets are considered as extremely dangerous and serious accidents.
"Antonov fire" - the second name of black cancer is the basis of a fungal disease, which affects the weakened and old trees, slowing its development by so much so that it could not heal itself.
First, in the painful area, brown spots are formed, pressed into the bark. At the very beginning of the development of the disease, the tubercles are quite small. Them, just do not notice the gardeners, missing the opportunity to early cure the tree. In the future, the crust begins to crack, become charred and, in the end, disappears.
- Stains on the leaves.In early spring, during the opening of the leaves, strange stains are found on them. The defeat looks weak, but later increases in size. Purple spots are covered with a black crust, the bodies of black virus.
- The leaves fall early.Shortly before the fruit ripens, the apple tree begins to discard the cancer-affected leaves. Harvest declines, quality deteriorates - changes are immediately apparent.
- Fruit rot.Instead of the long-awaited harvest, you get rotten fruits covered with brown spots.
Why does a black apple grow black with an apple tree trunk?
- The large age of the garden.The virus rarely affects a healthy tree, because the old tree is weakened, it does not have the strength to fight. Such plants become prey for diseases.
- Poor care.Lack of attention to the tree attracts illness. The lack of watering and fertilizing makes the plant susceptible to cancer.
- Solar and frost burns.The bark of trees, not protected by whitewashing, terribly suffers from the scorching sun and steep frosts. Temperature jumps also harm trees.
- Incorrect trimming.Conducting late pruning is a risk of entering black cancer, so disinfection of garden tools is required.
- Unsustainable in your region varieties.First of all, those trees that are not adapted to the climate in which they grow grow sick. Therefore, it is necessary with special care to buy new seedlings.
- Pests of apple trees.All parasites and pests of dachas carry viruses and spores of bacteria.
Symptoms of black cancer:
- The formation of brown spots on the crust, which at first are invisible,
- Black carbon black on the bark,
- Charring of the affected area on the tree trunk,
- The healthy bark rises, exfoliates,
- Cracks and other damage are located throughout the surface of the cortex,
- Over time, the condition of the tree only worsens.
How to treat?
- High agricultural engineering- is an effective protection against black apple carcinoma
The main thing is not to forget about:
- Regular watering,
- Soil fertilization with various mixtures,
- Elimination of the peduncle,
- The fight against parasites and pests,
- Seasonal whitewashing of trees.
- Healing measures.
Therapeutic measures are based on item 1 (agricultural technology). Preventing the disease is easier than curing a tree.
Root cancers are a bacterial disease. On the roots of the tree are formed nodules, growths of different sizes, which begin to rot.Penetrates bacteria through soil pests.
Appearance of the root cancer
It looks like a whitish hue, soft in texture. The growths can reach 12 cm in diameter, compacting to a solid wooden state.
Root growths create a nutritional deficiency for the tree, reduce its resistance to medium and longevity, and also delay sap movement, reducing productivity.
Measures to combat root cancers
- Before planting seedlings they needcarefully inspect for defectsor external signs of the disease.
- If growths are found, they should be removed, and place on the root disinfected.
Rust on the apple tree
Rust on the apple tree is a common and very dangerous disease of plants in the garden. Uncover rust is easy - on the apple tree there are formations (pustules). They have a variety of sizes and shapes, but are cracked and crumbled with rusty powder. This is the viral fungus.
Signs of rust on the apple tree
- Convex spots and streaksrusty color with a characteristic powder.
- Drying and fallingleaves.
- Star-shaped growthson leaves of a yellowish shade.
What is dangerous rust?
- Causes complete death of leaves, and then other parts of the tree.
- Decrease in winter hardiness, the quality of the fruit, the yield in general, the loss of the tree as a whole.
- Loss of moisture, and thus slowing down photosynthesis in plants.
- To protect the apple tree from juniper in general or green plantations.
- Delete all diseased parts of the tree if it is already infected.
- Spray the chemicals with damage sites.
- In spring, renew the cleaning of the affected areas with subsequent disinfection.
Brown spot (phyllosticosis)
It affects the leaves not only of apple trees, but also pears, plums, quinces.On the leaves appear angular, rounded spots with a brown rim.
Stains can blend with the color of the leaves, covering the entire surface. In the center of the pigments are clear black dots, the mushrooms themselves. Affected tissue (leaves) exfoliate in the form of a transparent film, and then dies.
The defeat of the brown spot comes at the time of processing the trees with concentrates, so summer residents think that the spots are a specific reaction of trees to pesticides. More young leaves are infected, which later lose their elasticity and juicy color.
The disease develops in conditions of humidity and poor ventilation, where the air is stale.
Protective measures against leaf disease
- Preference is given to disease-resistant breeds of apple trees;
- Compliance with agrotechnical, chemical rules of care;
- Application of fertilizers, fertilizing, spraying and natural solutions.
Disease control measures
- Cultivation of resistant varieties.
- On private plots - the collection and burning of fallen leaves.
- In industrial gardens - plowing to destroy the affected leaves.
Prevention of diseases of apple trees
It is necessary to prevent all diseases, both in young and in adult plantations.Particular attention should be paid to apple trees that do not have a biological defense against pathogens. And, of course, it is important to purchase new garden crops that are full of health and beauty. To the apple orchard was pleased with the harvest, you need to know the general rules of caring for it, as well as the dangers that can be avoided.
For early warning of viral diseases, a system for protecting apple trees from pests is being implemented. It includes spraying against aphids and cicadas. For this, insecticides available in your stores are used.
- When to spray the apple tree?
In the beginning of spring, before budding, and also in the middle of autumn until the first colds. This prophylaxis destroys insects and fungal plants that encroach on the health of apple trees or, conversely, develops against them the immune system of the tree.
- Natural immunity.
The main prerequisite for normal growth and development of the tree is the presence of a stable immune system. This can be achieved by observing the rules for caring for apple trees: fertilizers, fertilizing, watering, pruning, weeding, soil cultivation, spraying against bugs. All these procedures will guarantee the sound health of your garden pet.
To ensure that your garden is not exposed to small-leaved trees among trees, you can plant alfalfa near the apple plantation, which provides nearby plants with phosphates, zinc and copper.
- Whitewashing of the apple tree.
Apple whitewashing schedule - 2 times a year. At the same time, remember that you need to whiten not only the tree trunk, but also the branches of the lower tier.
- Top dressing of apple-tree.
Top dressing is carried out 3-4 times a season. Root top dressing is designed for soil penetration, and external top dressing is a method of spraying. The rule is that in dry weather we use liquid top dressing, and in wet - dry.
- Trimming branches and trimming.
Sanitary pruning is the removal of broken and diseased branches. Cleaning of the bark is mandatory, after which all the cracks on the bark are treated with a var.
- Soil digging.
After removing the weeds and excess plants, start digging the soil to a depth of 10 cm. Try not to injure the roots of the tree. During the digging around the perimeter, spread out mineral fertilizers, which are perfectly absorbed by the roots in this period.
Diseases and parasites of our apple trees - a real problem in the garden. But if you grow a young apple orchard wisely, be able to provide timely help to your favorite tree, then you will not only cure it, but, perhaps, save your life..