For a long time, the pear was cultivated only in the southern regions, where this process has an industrial scale. This is isolated by the high demand of the tree for growing conditions. But, specially developed agrotechnics and the emergence of regionalized varieties have significantly expanded these boundaries. The correctness and timeliness of planting is of particular importance in the development of the fruit tree.
In this article we will learn when to plant a pear, how to plant a pear in autumn, how to transplant a pear to another place, and also give the most detailed instructions for this.
Table of contents
- Advantages of autumn planting pears
- Terms of planting
- Requirements for the landing site
- Preparing a landing pit
- Selection of seedlings and preparation for planting in September
- How can I plant a seedling in the open ground: a step-by-step guide
- Proper preparation of a young pear for winter
- How to transplant an adult pear into a new place?
- Dug out an adult pear
- Transplanting and caring for a tree
Advantages of autumn planting pears
Autumn season is characterized by the opportunity to choose a quality planting material. Most nurseries dig out seedlings in autumn, so the tree roots are preserved in the most natural form. In addition, seedlings in autumn cost much less.
During the autumn planting, the young seedling manages to develop the root system.In spring, in such trees, the main forces go to the growth of the vegetative mass. Therefore, the seedlings, planted in autumn, outstrip the development of spring planting trees for 20 days. This is an important factor for the overall formation of the pear.
Autumn planting is relatively simple. During this period, the main thing is to properly plant the pear and take care of the winter shelter of the seedling. All other actions will make nature. Autumn rains will provide the root lump with the necessary moisture, and it will develop until the soil cools down to + 4 ° C.
The planting of a pear in autumn has its drawbacks. These are rodents who, with the onset of cold weather, like to eat young seedlings.Sudden cold can ruin a fragile tree.Therefore in the northern regions the pear is planted only in the spring. If you listen to the recommendations of experienced gardeners, the risks of these negative moments can be minimized..
Terms of planting
Autumn planting of the pear is performed during the period of rest of the seedling. At this time, all biochemical processes in the tree are aimed at adapting the root system to severe climatic conditions. Outwardly this is manifested by a massive leaf fall.
Determining the timing of planting, it is necessary to focus on the regional climate. For the middle band this is the third decade of September and until the middle of October.In southern regions, they plant from October to mid-November.When deciding to plant a pear seedling, it is necessary to follow the weather forecast and orientate by the average temperature optimum.
It is very important to plant a seedling for 2 to 3 weeks before the onset of stable frost. Otherwise, constant temperature changes will cause periodic freezing and thawing of the soil. The roots of the pear will be pushed out of the soil, freeze and dry out. All this leads to the inevitable death of the tree.
Requirements for the landing site
When choosing a place for a pear it is necessary to take into account its genetic features - thermophilic. Therefore, the site for the tree should be protected from the effects of cold northern winds and drafts. Also the place should be maximally illuminated, this raises the level of photosynthesis, respectively, the quality and quantity of the crop. FROMThe ideal ideal option for a pear is the elevated southern or southeastern side of the site.
In heavy and infertile soil, the pear will develop well only in the first years, until its roots grow into the substrate introduced into the planting pit. For the fruit tree, water-intensive, cultivated loamy and sandy-loam soils are preferred, the humus horizon of which is not less than 20 cm. Acidity from, to,.
Preparing a landing pit
For the autumn planting, the selected site should be prepared in late spring or early summer. So the necessary elements introduced into the soil are naturally mixed, and a favorable microbiological environment will arise for the roots of the seedling. During the digging for each 1m2 add:
- compost 6 kg,
- superphosphate 60 g;
- potassium salt 30 g.
The quality of the planting hole depends on the development of the seedling, which will receive food from the substrate contained in it in the first years after planting. The depth of the pit should be 60 cm, to this size the stem roots of the pear grow in the first 2 years. The diameter of the pit is on the average 80-100 cm.
The walls of the pit must be vertical - this ensures proper ground shrinkage. During the excavation of the pit, it is necessary to divide the excavated soil into two parts. Surface primer will be used during planting, the lower part is not useful. After this, having retreated 30 cm from the center of the pit, it is necessary to stab a colt with a height of -2 m, a seedling will be tied to it.
Composition of soil mixture for filling the fossa:
- compost 2 buckets;
- river sand 2 buckets;
- superphosphate 30 g;
- potassium sulfate 20 g.
The rest is supplemented by prepared surface soil. If the soil is acidified, add 300-500 g of limestone.
In the well prepared in advance, the ground will settle at the time of planting. This prevents the shrinkage of the soil after planting the seedling, which leads to the penetration of the root neck, and as a consequence, to the improper development of the tree as a whole..
Selection of seedlings and preparation for planting in September
To be completely confident in the quality of planting material, to acquire a seedling is better in nurseries and garden centers. In the autumn, seedlings with an open root system are mainly implemented.
Determine a quality seedling can be by external features:
- The central root must have at least 30 cm and 4-5 brancheswith a lot of overgrown rootlets. Roots should be elastic and not over-dried without mechanical damage, traces of rot and painful seals.
- It is important to pay attention to the proportionality of the roots and crowns.If the seedling has a large surface part and there is no mass of overgrown rootlets, this indicates a violation of the technology of excavation.
- A healthy seedlings have a uniformly developed crown and pronounced skeletal branches.The bark is dense without any traces of flaking, swelling and cracks. By the state of the outer part, one can also judge the fortress of a seedling with a closed root system.
Before planting, the seedling must be inspected once more. If traces of damage or rot are found, they should be removed. Do this only with a sharp pruner, the slices must be transverse. Do not cut the roots unnecessarily. Especially overgrown rootlets, it is on them that the main load is due to the absorption of water and nutrients..
If the roots of the tree have dried, they need to be held in water for 12-24 hours.Before planting, the roots of the seedling must be lowered into a solution of clay, mullein and water( 5) and allow to dry for 30 minutes. On the seedlings, all leaves must be removed..
How can I plant a seedling in the open ground: a step-by-step guide
Next, consider a step-by-step guide to planting pears. Focusing on the size of the roots in the landing pit, you need to dig a hole and form a dense mound. Such a height that, after placing a seedling on it, the root neck of the tree remained 5 cm above the ground level. The roots of the tree are evenly distributed over the mound. It should be ensured that there are no bends upward, this leads to a delay in growth and a poor supply of seedlings with moisture.
When backfilling the root system with a substrate, it is important to control the formation of voids. For this, the seedling is periodically shaken. After that, the soil must be densely packed.Seedling tie to the cola with soft material, it is inadmissible to use twine and wire.
After this, a hole is made around the trunk, and the seedling is watered with 2-3 buckets of warm water. The round bar is mulched with peat or sawdust.
Proper preparation of a young pear for winter
To survive the winter, a pear seedling needs the help of a horticulturist. It is necessary to group all branches of the tree together and tightly fix to the cola. Once again check the layer of mulch, its thickness should be 30 cm.
It is important to protect the trunk of a young pear from frostbite.This must be done before December, the boundary of autumn and winter is characterized by sharp temperature changes. This leads to the appearance of frostbites destroying the cambium - the basic structure that supports the life of the tree.
To protect the trunk well suited cotton fabric or other covering materials that let in air. They wrap the tree trunk.
You can treat the trunk of a young pear with a mixture of Mullein and clay (1: 1), a sharp odor which scares off rodents. Experienced gardeners wrap the trunk of the seedling with a fine mesh.
A snow, known for its thermal insulation properties, will help to overwinter well the seedling. Therefore, it is necessary to pull it to the tree as much as possible. It should be borne in mind that in Siberia and in the Urals, a different amount of sediment falls out. Therefore, the preparation of pears for the winter will be slightly different in these regions.
How to transplant an adult pear into a new place?
Now let's talk about transplanting a pear into a new place. An adult pear painfully undergoes a transplant. Especially destructive is the process for trees older than 15 years, they are not recommended to be transplanted. This is separated by the fact that the pear has a rooted root system that is deeply buried. thereforeThe pear is transplanted only in case of acute necessity.
Dug out an adult pear
Preparation for the autumn transplantation of an adult tree should start in the spring.To minimize the stress level for the fruit tree, you must follow certain rules:
- spring excavation along the perimeter of the crown with chopping off the opposing roots;
- In autumn, before planting, the round-bar circle is abundantly spilled;
- for trees up to 5 years, the circumferential circle is dug around in a circle, at a distance, m from the stem, forming cone-shaped earth com 70 cm deep (for older trees 130 cm from the trunk and 1 m in the depth);
- around the earth coma and to its full depth a trench 50 cm wide is digging;
- roots that extend beyond the earthen cone are cut off, and which go into the depths - are cut with a sharp shovel;
- The tree is removed with an earthen lump and laid on cellophane, which is tightly tied around the trunk.
If the pear is transported, the roots are laid on a layer of sawdust, this minimizes their damage during shaking. Now you know when you can transplant the pear into another place.
Transplanting and caring for a tree
The prepared pit for planting an adult pear should be 40 cm wider and deeper than an earthen coma. At its bottom lay a substrate of fertile soddy soil and humus (peat), well tamped.
Concerning the sides of the world, the pear is similarly placed with the previous place. The tree in the planting pit is set taking into account the root neck, it should not be buried. The gap between the walls of the pit is covered with an earthen lump with fertile soil and rammed.
The sapling should be watered generously, the ground covered with earth should be covered and the surrounding circle surrounded.Before the winter season, it is necessary to protect the tree from frostbite.
After the transfer of the transplanted pear from the state of rest to the swelling of the kidneys, it is important to rejuvenate the pruning. A greatly reduced root system of the tree can not provide the former vegetative mass with the necessary nutrition. At branches of trees till 5 years 2-3 years increase is cut, and at more adults from 3-5 years old.
Care for the pear must be carried out in spring and summer. In the first half of summer, the tree is fertilized with a solution of nitrofoss (250 ml) and water (10 l). For foliar top dressing, a% urea solution is used. In dry weather, the tree must be watered regularly. Crop pear before August in the summer is not worth it.
In the first year on the transplanted pear, there will be a minimal increase,but the following years the tree will develop according to the standard regime.
And at last we propose to watch a video about how to plant a pear in autumn: