Cherry is a rather capricious culture, and even recently it seemed that it was impossible to grow it in central Russia. But the grade Fatezh is distinguished by increased frost resistance and drought resistance.
Table of contents
- Description of sweet cherry Fatezh
- Characteristics of fruits
- Planting and care
- Growing conditions
- Reproduction of sweet cherry
- Features of this variety
- Diseases and pests
Description of sweet cherry Fatezh
The cherry of Fatezh variety was bred in 2001 by the breeder A.I. Evstratov on the basis of the All-Russian Selection and Technology Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. As a method of excretion, free pollination by the Leningrad yellow was used.
This variety is regionalized for the Central region, perfectly suited for the Moscow region. The frost-hardiness of the sweet cherry allows it to survive the changeable climate of the central strip of Russia, but it will not be able to withstand the severe cold of Siberia in Fatezh. The least hardy are the buds of the tree.
Trees reach a height of 3-5 meters.Crown spherical, rounded, spreading, branches grow either at right angles, or directed downward. Sprouts straight, thick, brown.
The leaves are of large size, characterized by a pointed, elongated shape. At the edges of the sheet is framed with shallow serrations. The surface is smooth, glossy, dark green in color.
The flowers of the Fatezh cherry are painted white. Bottom ovaries are formed on annual shoots and on bouquet branches.
This variety belongs to the medium-early variety, the first crop can be obtained already for 4-5 years of tree life. Full maturity fruits reach in mid-July. With a young tree, whose age does not exceed 10 years, get up to 30 kg of berries, then this figure increases to 50 kg.
Characteristics of fruits
The berries of the Fatezh cherries have a rounded shape, large enough, on average, their mass varies from 4 to 6 grams. The skin is smooth, shiny, red-yellow in color. The flesh of such berries is dense, juicy, light pink in color. The stone easily separates from the pulp, has an oval shape and a light tint.
The taste of the fruit is dessert, sweet and sour. The tasting score is, points.The berries of the variety Fatezh are characterized by a long shelf life and good transportability.Also, when heat-treated, the skin of the fruit does not crack.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The tree quickly grows and begins to bring the harvest already in the 4-5th year of life;
- In adulthood "Fatezh" cherry can bring up to 50 kg of harvest:
- Increased frost resistance:
- Immunity to fungal diseases;
- Such berries transport transport well, can be stored for a long time, besides, they differ in excellent taste.
- The tree is self-fertile, for the reproduction of the crop it will need a pollinator;
- Propensity to gum.
Also you may be interested in the following varieties of sweet cherry:
- Leningrad cherry: features and care.
- The fullest description of the sweet cherry Iput.
Planting and care
Before you plant a sweet cherry on your plot, you need to select the seedling correctly. In order that a tree could quickly settle down in a new place, the following recommendations should be adhered to:
- It is best to purchase seedlings in proven nurseries, located in the area where the cultivation is planned. Otherwise, the plant will have to undergo acclimatization.
- The main indicator of the health of the seedling is a powerful, ramified root system. The cut location must have a light beige color;
- Crown seedlings should consist of 3-4 branches, about 40 centimeters long;
- With the greatest probability successfully take root seedlings at the age of 1-2 years.
The correct choice of a landing site is the key to a successful landing.
- Cherry Fatezh needs good lighting and protection against gusty winds. It is best to choose the south or south-west side of the site.
- Also, this variety grows well on the hills, but not on the hills. Raise the level of the soil can be independently, sprinkling a layer of land to 50 centimeters.
- In order to avoid stagnation of moisture, it is recommended to choose places with a deep groundwater table.
Planting pit for cherries are prepared since autumn, so that the soil could infuse during the wintering period. The pits break out at a distance of 3 meters from each other, their diameter is 80 centimeters, and the depth is 50-60. Then the bottom is loosened and 2 pails of humus mixed with the top, fertile soil layer are poured into it.
Before landing in the pit, add:
- 1 kilogram of ash;
- 400 grams of superphosphate;
- 100 grams of sodium sulfate.
Sowering cherries, gardeners usually follow the following algorithm of action:.
- For starters, a peg is installed, which will serve as a support for the seedling.
- In the center of the pit, you need to build a mound and place a seedling on it, gently spreading the roots.
- Then the tree is tied to the support and gently covered with earth, gradually ramming it. Root neck should be on 3-5 centimeters above ground level.
- At the final stage, a roller is built from the ground and the cherry is abundantly poured, then the soil is mulched with peat or humus.
- Sprinkle cherries 3 times per season, a young tree consumes 30-40 liters of water, and on an adult 50-60.
- Cherry Fatezh is characterized by an active growth of shoots, and in order to prevent the crown from becoming heavily thickened it needs to be cut off annually. This procedure is carried out in the spring, before the kidneys begin to swell on the tree. Annual branches are cut into 1/5 part.
- After the tree reaches the age of 5, the phase of intensive growth stops, and in The time of crown formation will need to remove the branches growing inside the crown or unnecessarily thickening shoots.
- In autumn it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, during which all patients, dry or damaged branches will be removed.
- Cherry Fatezh, as well as other trees, needs timely and proper top dressing.
- Before budding the tree, 2 tablespoons of carbamide, potassium sulfate and the Agricol mineral complex diluted in 20 liters of water should be added.
- After flowering cherries need strength to ripen the crop.Pristolevy circle watered 30 liters of water with 6 tablespoons of mineral fertilizer and 6 glasses of organic.
- After harvesting, 200 grams of superphosphate, 100 grams of mineral fertilizers and 100 grams of potassium sulfate are poured under each tree, then the cherry is watered abundantly.
- During the appearance of flower buds, the crown is sprayed with a growth stimulant.
- Also Fatezh needs regular weeding and loosening of the soil.
Reproduction of sweet cherry
The qualitative reproduction of cherries, that is, with the preservation of all the characteristics of the desired variety, is possible only by vaccination. When growing a tree from a stone it will not inherit the characteristics of the parent tree.
Most often, the cherry is planted on the cherry, but in this case the stock, that is the tree on which the vaccine is made, must be stable and hardy. It is also possible to inoculate a cherry, this method is very popular among gardeners, because in most cases ends with success, besides, it becomes possible to collect different crops from one tree.
The inoculation of the sweet cherry can be done from the beginning of March and through the middle of September.When carrying out the procedure, it is necessary to calculate the time so that the vaccine has time to settle down before the onset of colds. The best time is considered to be the spring period, when active sap movement occurs in the bottom.
There are several ways to inoculate the sweet cherry, but the best results are obtained by grafting (cuttings).
For the grafting by copulating, it is necessary that the stock and the graft are of equal thickness. Best of all, cuttings, whose age does not exceed 2 years, take root.
- On the prepared shoots with a sharp knife, an oblique cut is made, approximately 3 centimeters long.
- In the center of these sections, tongues (clefts) are made, which will allow the cuttings to tightly connect.
- The fastened bead and graft are wrapped with tape, tape, plastic wrap or other similar material.
- Then, a plastic bag is put on the grafted stalk and tied just below the place of vaccination. In this state, the tree should be 2 weeks. During this time, the vaccination should take root and all the auxiliary materials can be removed.
Features of this variety
- The main distinguishing feature will be the color of the cherries "Fatezh it is significantly different from other, popular varieties of such trees. Instead of the usual, bard or purple color, the fruit has a light red shade with yellow specks.
- Also Fatezh is also distinguished by its crown, which has a spherical shape, and branches grow in the direction to the bottom. This structure is not typical for cherry trees.
- The growth of the tree most often stops at a mark of 3 meters, while other varieties on average, grow to -5 meters.
- The yield of the variety remains at the highest level, an adult tree can bring up to 50 kilograms of fruit.
Diseases and pests
The sort of sweet cherry Fatezh is characterized by good resistance to pests and many diseases, in particular to moniliasis and coccomicosis. But such trees are prone to gum.
Gum is a thick, sticky substance of amber color that stands out from the bark of a tree.There are several reasons for its appearance:
- Wounds and damage to the tree;
- Not neat trimming of branches;
- Excessive amount of moisture;
- Fungal diseases;
- Overabundance of nitrogen fertilizers or phytohormones.
As prevention it is necessary to keep the old bark on the tree, because it serves as a reliable protection. It is also recommended to spend the spring and autumn whitewash of the trunk, it will help to avoid the occurrence of sunburn.And to protect the sweet cherry from winter cold and the appearance of cracks will help wrap the skeletal branches and the bast with paper or matting.
If the disease does appear, the wound is cleaned with a knife until a healthy area appears, then this place disinfect with a solution of copper sulfate and clean hands apply a thin layer of nigra putty.
Fatezh is a find for a gardener who wants to grow cherries in central Russia. This variety is characterized by good stability and unpretentiousness to the climate. In addition, its fruits have excellent taste qualities and are perfectly suitable for commercial activities..