Plum is a fairly common plant that can be found in every garden. You can get a good harvest of delicious and useful fruits only from a healthy tree. However, gardeners often face growing problems such as plum disease and pests, which can lead to the death of the entire garden.
Table of contents
- Fungal and viral diseases of plum: diagnosis and treatment
- Plum blossom or sprouting
- Dwarf plum blossom
- Pockets of plum
- Klyasterosporiosis or perforated mottling
- Smallpox on the sink
- Cockcomycosis of plum
- Root Cancer
- Plum trutovik
- Gall mite
- The Golden-fleece
- Plum moth
- Aphids in the tree
- Why do worms appear in plum fruits
- Plumfewfly and wormy fruit
- Plum weevil on leaves
- How to get rid of fruit worms in a plum
- How to deal with plum pests: preventive treatment
Fungal and viral diseases of plum: diagnosis and treatment
Diseases of the tree are associated with insufficient care and improper planting. Most plum is affected by viral and fungal diseases that appear on weakened trees. In order to start treatment on time, it is important to know the main signs of the manifestation of the disease.
Plum blossom or sprouting
This fungal disease in the common people was called "witch's broomsticks." A lot of thin, short shoots are formed on the affected tree, which are collected in bundles. Such shoots will not bear fruit. In the fight against the disease, only the destruction of infected plants will help.
As a preventive measure, not only mineral and organic fertilizers are used, but also Bordeaux liquid. In addition, in order to secure the site, only healthy seedlings are planted in the garden.They need to be purchased only in proven nurseries.
The disease is widespread on stone fruit crops, which were previously affected by fungi. Most often the disease begins to develop if the watering regime is violated or too much fertilizer is applied to the soil. Resin on the tree may be released after frost-biting or improper pruning.Symptoms of the following are:
- on the trunks and shoots visible wounds and cracks;
- in places where the gum flowed, transparent, frozen drops appeared.
If the time does not pay attention to the emerging signs, then the tree may die. The affected cortex is an excellent place for the development of bacteria that lead to cancer of the tree.
Affected areas on the trunks must be treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate or garden varnish. Strongly affected shoots are better cut. To further enhance the immunity of the plant and avoid re-infection, you need to properly care for the plum.
Dwarf plum blossom
Insidious viral disease, which occurs more often in a latent form. It is difficult to determine the affected tree. Dwarfism can manifest itself only at the last stage, when the fight against the disease is meaningless. Therefore, all actions of the gardener should be directed more at preventive measures.
Symptoms of the disease:
- depressed tree growth;
- unnatural form of leaves. They become elongated, clumsy and more like willow leaves;
- premature fall of leaves. This is because the sheet plate becomes brittle;
- decrease in yield;
- absence of peduncles or a small number of them. Flowers are ugly and underdeveloped.
At the last stage of the development of the virus on the branches of the tree there are practically no leaves, they are bare. Single needle-shaped leaves can be seen only on the tops of shoots.
Dwarfism affects not only the plum, but also other stone fruits.The virus spreads along with infected planting material, parasites (mites, aphids), with a working tool for pruning.
As a preventive measure in the garden planted resistant varieties of plums, as well as regularly treat plants from pests.
Pockets of plum
Fungal disease, the causative agent of which is a vocalized fungus. Infection occurs in cold, prolonged spring, when the humidity of the air is increased. Spores of the fungus penetrate into the flowers of the tree, so ugly ovaries are formed.
The fruits of the affected plant are unsuitable for food, they grow up deformed. The development of fungus occurs inside the fetus, in a kind of pocket, so there is no bone in the plums. The flesh becomes granular and wrinkled.Since the fungus affects only the fruits, then for the season the disease manifests itself once.
Methods of struggle:
- Destroy affected shoots in the first half of summer.
- The collection and disposal of infected fruits is carried out until the fungus spores dissipate.
- Preventive spraying plum 3% solution of the Bordeaux mixture. The first treatment is carried out before the buds are blossomed, then before flowering and after.
Klyasterosporiosis or perforated mottling
Fungal disease develops in conditions of a prolonged warm, but rainy summer, when the humidity of the air exceeds 70%. It hibernates the fungus under the bark. The mycelium begins to develop already at a temperature of +4 degrees. It can be found on shoots or buds of a plant in the form of a dark, weak plaque.
On young leaves, spores are carried by wind and most pests. The disease spreads very quickly. During the season, many fungal colonies are formed, which adversely affects the condition of the tree.
Symptoms of lesions can be seen on all tissues of the plant, but especially they appear on young leaves.
- Small rounded spots of different colors, which increase in size in a short time.
- In the center of the spot, tissues die, which leads to the formation of holes on the leaves.
- The edges of the holes have a reddish rim. This is the main sign of the klysterosporiosis, which distinguishes it from other types of spotting.
- When the disease is neglected, the tree bark is covered with orange-red spots with a dark border. Subsequently, they are pressed into the trunk, they crack and lead to the flow of gums.
- Of the affected kidneys and shoots, too, gum flows, which leads to their dying off and lower yields.
- Fruits are affected by ulcers, become one-sided, dry up, harden and fall off. Of these, too, can flow out the gum.
For the prevention of the disease in the autumn, the garden is cleaned, the trunks of the tree are digested, the shoots are destroyed, the affected fruits and fallen leaves are collected and utilized. In addition, it is important to treat wounds and cracks on the tree in time, not allowing gum. For processing apply a solution of copper sulfate, manganese or garden var.
In the fight against the fungus will help spray the tree during the growing season. Treatments begin with early spring, repeat in the fall. Use drugs Kuproksad, Skor, Horus, Topaz or Vectra.The last treatment takes place 20 days before harvest.
The causative agent of the disease is the mushroom monilia. Infection of the tree occurs during the flowering period, if there are changes or a drop in temperature. Cold spring weather only speeds up the process. Spores penetrate into the plant tissue through the pestle, gradually hitting the entire tree.
Signs of defeat:
- sharp fall of flowers;
- drying of peduncles and adjacent leaves;
- Old shoots and branches crack, gums emerge from the formed wounds;
- the whole tree looks "burned".
The disease extends not only to the fruit, but also to shoots, the leaves of the plum. The pathogen hibernates in the affected tissues of the tree. Prevention of moniliasis begins in the autumn. Cut out all affected shoots and treat the garden with Hom, Bordeaux or copper chloride. For spraying a single tree, up to 4 liters of solution is needed.
Smallpox on the sink
Sharka, in common people, plum pox is a viral disease. It appears on young leaves of the tree in the form of chlorosis, spots or streaks. Over time, the leaves acquire a characteristic marble, on which appear bright areas. If you do not take any measures, then the disease goes to the fruit. They become spotty, the flesh coarsens and loses its taste. In addition, the spots begin to deepen into the fetus.Sick plums ripen before the due date, crumble or dry up right on the tree.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to fight the disease. All affected trees must be burned. Control measures are only preventive in nature, aimed at timely processing of the garden from pests that can spread the virus.
In July, rusty spots can be seen on the young leaves of the plum, which gradually increase in size. Affected trees drop leaf cover earlier. You can not leave the plum in this state. The winter hardiness of the plant and the future harvest sharply decrease.
For prevention, trees are treated with copper chloride before and after flowering. In autumn, after harvesting, spray 1% solution of the Bordeaux mixture..
Cockcomycosis of plum
A dangerous fungal disease that affects the leaves of a tree, less often fruits and young shoots.The first signs of the disease are noticeable in early summer.
- The leaves are covered with small, red-brown spots.
- On the reverse side of the sheet you can find a whitish coating. This is the fungus spores.
- The leaves quickly turn yellow and fall off.
- Fruits do not develop, become watery and fall off.
Most often the disease develops in warm and humid weather, reduces the winter hardiness of the tree. The fungus hibernate in fallen leaves, so in autumn it must be collected and burned. In addition, the tree trunk of the tree is sprayed with copper preparations or Bordeaux liquid.
Recently, the disease is of a frequent nature. The cause of its appearance are pathogenic bacteria in the soil, which penetrate into the plant tissues through cracks in the roots. On the infected roots of the plum, specific growths are formed, which leads to the death of the tree. A strong drought and a slightly alkaline environment contribute to the development of the disease.
As a preventive measure, the garden is located in a place where no outbreaks of disease have been observed before.Strongly damaged seedlings are destroyed. Place of planting is disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate.
Dangerous fungal growths on the bark of a tree. Penetrating through small cracks in the bark, spores destroy the wood. In the affected areas, hollows are formed. A few years later, a solid fungus body grows instead of them. Sometimes she looks completely innocuous.
To prevent infection of the tree, you need to carefully treat the wounds and cracks on the bark of the sink. Fruit bodies of the fungus destroy before the spread of the dispute, usually in early June.The remaining wounds are cleaned of rot, washed with a solution of copper sulfate, and then poured a mixture of cement and sand (:).
This insect is a bizarre form, which settles near the fruit buds of the plum in the growths - galls. In one gall can be up to 400 insects. At the end of May, the overwintered individuals reach the surface of the cortex and feed on the cell sap of the plant. In the places of bites on the cortex, reddish growths are again formed, where the females lay eggs. For one season, not one generation of pests grows. Define the defeat of plum gall mite can be a characteristic of ugly growths.
Fight with insects need right after flowering plum.Several treatments with colloidal sulfur preparations are carried out. When mass lesion is recommended to cut and burn shoots.
It is a white butterfly, the abdomen of which is covered with yellowish hairs. Winter caterpillars pest in the fallen leaves. To harm the golden-blossom begins after the buds of the plum blossom, actively eating them. Butterflies are nocturnal, laying eggs on the surface of the leaves. Appeared caterpillars are very voracious, in a short time cause great damage to young leaves.They eat holes in them, slowing the normal growth of the plant.
As a struggle against insects, trees are sprayed with a solution of carbophos. In the autumn, the fight with the gold-bearer does not stop. Collect the fallen leaves, loosen the soil under the trees, thereby destroying the nests of the pest.
This gray-brown butterfly harms plum fruits. Its reddish caterpillars hibernate under the bark of a tree or in the upper layer of the soil. In early spring butterflies lay eggs in still green fruits. When caterpillars appear, they feed on the flesh of the fetus, after which they leave for the wintering. Affected plums acquire a purple hue and fall off, often they can be noticed drops of gum.
Against the plum moth, preventive spraying with carbophos is carried out, the hunting belts are worn on the trees, and the soil is regularly loosened.
Aphids in the tree
A small insect is pale green, which sucks out the cell sap.Determine the presence of aphids can be with the naked eye:
- the tips of the shoots are twisted;
- the tree lags behind in growth;
- rain and wither;
- on the reverse side of the leaf there are small insects.
At the beginning of the growing season, the plum is treated with preparations against leaf-eating and sucking insects. Spraying is repeated after 10-14 days. The first treatment is carried out "on a green cone".
White butterfly, which leads a daily life. Its caterpillars feed on the kidneys, leaves, buds and flowers of the plum. The methods of struggle are the same as with the gold-beaked, plum moth..
Why do worms appear in plum fruits
Very often gardeners complain that almost the entire crop is plum wormy. Why does it happen that leads to damage to the fruit?
Plumfewfly and wormy fruit
The larvae of this insect destroy the plums still green. They eat not only the bone, but also the flesh of the fetus. As a result, the cream falls off immature, but already wormy. To get rid of parasites will have to try and remove the painful fruit.
Plum weevil on leaves
The females of this insect eat kidneys and plum blossoms, biting into the ovaries. There they lay larvae that eat fruits from the inside. The crop is all spoiled. For wintering larvae and beetles go to the soil. Treat the trees should be in the spring..
How to get rid of fruit worms in a plum
It is necessary to process trees in the garden as early as possible, without waiting for the pests to take over the cause and the fruits will begin to rot. The first treatment should be carried out in early spring. Re-sprinkle the plum before and after flowering. If the number of pests is very large, then the treatments are repeated with an interval of 10 days.But the latter should be held no later than 25 days before harvest.
To prepare a working solution, use drugs Phosphamide, Dursban, Metaphos, Bordeaux liquid or iron vitriol. With a small number of insects, spraying is made by infusion of tobacco, wormwood, dandelion or ash. Infusions cook differently.
How to deal with plum pests: preventive treatment
Every gardener knows that it is easier to prevent a disease than to heal a garden. Therefore, prevention should always be.
- Each tree needs a full care, regular watering and fertilizing.
- Regularly carry out sanitary cleaning of the garden, cut out thickened branches, remove fallen leaves and dig through the soil.
- In spring and autumn, spraying not only the tree, but also the soil under it.
It is very important that all actions are of a permanent nature. If a neighbor's garden is affected by worms, scab, coccomic or curly, then it means that it's time to start working and process your own trees. It is not necessary to hope for "perhaps will carry".
To reduce the risk of damage to trees by harmful insects and various diseases, you should regularly inspect the garden. In addition, to carry out prevention, and at the first signs of the disease immediately take action. This will increase not only the yield of plum, but also the quality of the fruit..