Aphids (aphids) are the most common pests of garden crops. Fighting aphids on fruit trees is a whole complex of agrotechnical measures, including compliance with the rules of farming, prevention and destruction of insect colonies.
Control over the number of pests is an important task for all gardeners and it must be done systematically and correctly.
Table of contents
- Harmful activity of aphids on fruit trees in summer
- Preventive works
- Control of aphids without chemicals
- Sole-soap solution
- Birch tar
- Herbal products
- Kitchen methods
- Terms and rules for processing
- Spring processing of fruit trees
- Autumn treatment against aphids
- How to process plum and fruit trees
Harmful activity of aphids on fruit trees in summer
Many species of the superfamily of aphids pose a threat to fruit crops. Mass distribution of the pest is initially promoted by a small insect size up to 7 mm and often gardeners notice the defeat of the tree only after the colony has been enlarged.
A special feature of aphids is their ability to migrate.
And they take it from plants, mainly from young buds and leaves, piercing the tissue of trees with a thin proboscis.
Stable exhaustion of amino acids and trace elements from the tree, leads to its exhaustion. On the ground numerous punctures stop the development processes. Outwardly it can be seen on the grounds:
- twisting and darkening of leaf tips;
- premature fall of the green mass;
- deformation of shoots;
- painful growths on the trunk;
- darkening, stopping development and falling buds.
A major threat to the fruit tree is the products of aphids.Excess moisture and carbohydrates are removed from the body of the pest in the form of sugary excreta, which is called a drop or honey dew.
In the leafy plates covered with sticky liquid and stems, photosynthesis and respiration of the plant are disturbed. An environment is favorable for the development of fungi, the spores of which are easily transferred by the wind and can cause epidemics in the garden. In addition, aphids are a carrier of viral diseases, which provoke abnormal development of trees.
The defeat of the fruit tree by a pest leads to a loss of quality and quantity of the crop, not to the correct development and morbidity in the future. Cases of death or long-term restoration of fruit trees are frequent as a result of the defeat of large colonies of aphids..
Avoid exhausting work on the destruction of the pest and preserve the health of fruit trees if possible to minimize the possibility of the appearance of aphids on the site in advance. For this, it is necessary to create uncomfortable habitat conditions for insects, to make the garden plot unattractive for settling aphids.
- Useful insects.Biological enemies of aphids: ladybugs, beetles, wasps and flies-murmurs. In the garden area they can be attracted by planting daisies, carrots, dill, calendula, parsley.
- Repellents. Plants containing phytoncides repel the aphids with their specific odor. You can plant near the fruit trees marigolds, basil, lavender, mint, coriander.
- Plants are neighbors.It is important to avoid neighborhood with plants, the smell of which attracts a pest. This: linden, viburnum, bird cherry, legumes. Ornamental plants: petunia, cleoma, mallow, nasturtium, poppy. Many gardeners plant these plants in the distance from fruit trees, and in the fall destroy affected crops. This distracts the aphids from the guarded plant.
Having flown to a new place, the pest lays eggs, capable of wintering in the bark, under the mulch, in the soil, in the rhizomes of the plant and dies. In the spring, with the appearance of the first heat, new eggs are hatched from eggs and begin to feed on young greens.
It is necessary to remove all the exfoliated bark of trees, change the layer of mulch, dig up the near-trunk circle, cover the cracks and whiten the stem.So for the pest eggs there is practically no possibility of moving the winter.
If preventive work is not available or a particularly favorable season is created for the development of large colonies of aphids, it is difficult to avoid damage to fruit trees. In this case it is important to prevent the increase in the number of pests and minimize the damage to the fruit tree..
Control of aphids without chemicals
Chemicals are very effective, but they have a lot of side effects for human health and pets. Therefore, many gardeners apply them only as a last resort, with massive damage to the garden plot. Alternative replacement is to get rid of aphids on the drain by solutions of natural components that are environmentally friendly.
The composition of the two components in the complex is the strongest toxin for aphids.
Preparation of the solution:
- ash (400 g) is sieved and poured into water (5 L);
- boiling for 30 minutes;
- the solution is filtered and brought to a volume of 10 liters;
- add 50 g of laundry soap.
In addition, such a composition has protective and nutritional properties.
It is a dark oily liquid, the aroma of which scares away the aphid. Additionally, it is useful for the plant to antiseptic and antimicrobial properties.
Composition of the solution:
- tar 10 ml;
- laundry soap 50 g;
- water 10 liters.
Process should be and a trunk circle. To prevent the re-emergence of aphids in the tree crown, tanks with birch tar are suspended. An insecticide from birch tar will be effective to destroy a moderate amount of pests.
You may also be interested in the following articles on fruit trees:
- How to properly plant a pear?
- Apple disease and their treatment.
- Proper care for the pear and preparation for the winter.
- Scheme of pruning pears.
Many plants contain insecticidal components that are most vividly manifested after infusion and heat treatment.
Infusions and decoctions:.
- Garlic. The crushed vegetable (200 g) is poured in water (10 L) and insisted for 24 hours.
- Bow.The vegetable husk (300 g) is infused in water (10 L) for 5 days.
- Pharmaceutical camomile.The aboveground part (1 kg) is poured in hot water (10 L) and insisted for 12 hours. From the infusion make a solution with water 1: 1 with the addition of soap (40 g).
- Buttercup.Stems and leaves (1 kg) are poured in water (10 L) and insist for 2 days. Filter and add 40 g of soap.
- Bottle of tomatoes. Freshly ground raw materials (4 kg) are placed in water (10 L). Insist for an hour and cook for 30 minutes. The broth is diluted 1: 1 with water.
- Chilli pepper.Fresh vegetable (100 g) is poured in water (1 L) and cooked over low heat for 1 hour. The broth is insisted for 2 days, the raw material is squeezed and brought to a volume of 10 liters.
- Yarrow.Dry grass (1 kg) is poured with water until the raw material is completely covered. Steam in a water bath for 30 minutes. After this, pour 10 liters of water and insist 2 days.
Cooking refers to the methods by which available products are used. These products are characterized by quick cooking, harmlessness and relatively quick action:
- "Coca Cola".In lemonade contains orthophosphoric acid - a strong toxin for aphids. For the procedure uses a solution of Coca-Cola and water (5: 1). The treatment with the product is characterized by a long effect.
- Vodka.Spray with a clean product, and for better adhesion, you can add liquid soap.
- Sunflower oil.The product (200 ml) was dissolved in water (10 L).
- Tobacco smoke.For fumigation you will need to place a heap of straw or manure near the trees, spread tobacco over the surface and set it on fire. The procedure lasts 2 hours and is carried out 2 times with an interval of two weeks.
Kitchen methods are economical for the application of small trees and shrubs or partial processing of the most affected areas..
Many gardeners try not to use chemicals in the garden. However, with massive pest damage this can not be avoided.
By the way of penetration and the nature of the action, insecticides are divided into three types:
- Contact.Penetrate into the body of the pest through the skin on contact with any part of the body. Most preferable for controlling aphids and other piercing-sucking pests. The main drugs: "Carbophos "Fury "Fufannon."
- Intestinal.Causes poisoning when ingested with food. It is advisable to use, if together with aphids on the tree, gnawing pests also settled. Popular means: "Aktellik "Confidor "Bankol".
- System.They enter the tissue of the plant and are kept there for up to 30 days. With constant contact, the death of insects living in the crown is caused. In addition, toxic substances enter the body of pests through food. Differ by relative harmlessness to humans. Effective drugs: Tanrek, Prestige, Biotlin, Aktara.
A good option for certain cases is the combined preparation Nitrofen. It is a complex agent that is effective against pests, fungal diseases and weeds..
Terms and rules for processing
Each treatment for the season pursues its goals, and they need to be carried out based on the individual situation.
Spring processing of fruit trees
Early spring treatment is performed before the buds are blooming. During this procedure, it is necessary to spray the tree with an ash and soap solution. When the tree is severely damaged, the ash in the solution is replaced with 80 g of kerosene.
The second treatment is carried out at the beginning of the bud opening. The purpose of the procedure is to destroy the young individuals born from winter eggs. This measure is very important and warns the growth of the colony to a large scale,feature of aphids - high reproductivity.
With a large number of pests treatment is carried out by contact or systemic drugs. If the number of insects does not cause concern, you can get by with folk remedies, whose consumption is 10 liters per average tree.
The third treatment is performed in the absence of effect after previous procedures or when they are missed.It is especially important when the number of aphids is out of control. It is carried out twice in the phase of opening the buds and after the fall of 75% of the petals. The choice of the remedy depends on the number of insects. The following procedure is carried out after flowering, and only if pests are observed on the tree.
Aphids quickly acquire resistance to the active substances of drugs, so they need to be combined. It is important to ensure that there is a period of 30 days between processing and harvesting, before and after the process. In parallel with these activities, fumigation of fruit trees is necessary.
Autumn treatment against aphids
In the autumn period, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures: remove the old bark and moss from the trunk. Cut old and damaged branches. Pristalny circle is cleared of fallen leaves, and if the tree is affected by pests and diseases, it is burned.
Autumn processing is carried out in October or November at a temperature above -5 ° C. A 5% urea solution (500 g / 10 l) is suitable for this procedure.Additionally this will protect the tree from the development of scab.
How to process plum and fruit trees
The gardener's task is to get the insecticide solution directly on the aphid colonies. This can be difficult when the leaves are strongly twisted. In some cases it is much better to simply rinse the tips of shoots with a solution.
A good spray quality is:
- procedures conducted in the morning or evening hours when there is no dew;
- treatment in windless and cloudy weather, at high temperatures, the effect of drugs is reduced;
- no precipitation, the preparation should remain on the surface of the tree for at least 3 hours;
- work with a quality sprayer, which is kept at a distance of 70 cm;
- covering the entire tree crown, you need to use a stepladder.
It is important to protect the skin and mucous membranes from toxins and carry out treatment only in protective clothing.
The fruit garden is a small ecosystem and how it will develop depends only on the gardener.Peaceful coexistence of pests and fruit crops is possible with constant monitoring of the number of harmful insects.To do this, it is not necessary to violate the rules of farming, it is important to clean up plant waste in a timely manner and create favorable conditions for beneficial insects.
And finally a small video on how to deal with aphids on fruit trees:.