Besides taste qualities, the pear is famous for its useful properties. The pear variety of Velez differs from other varieties with its tasty fruits and ease of care.
Table of contents
- Variety description
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Diseases and pests
- Selecting the location and time for landing
- The soil
- Planting the pear of Veles
- Additional fertilizing
- Preparation for winter
Let's start with the description of the variety. The pear of Veles is the result of crossing the varieties Forest Beauty and Venus, the second name of the variety is "Daughter of Excellent". We worked on deducing a new variety N.V. Yefimova and Yu.A. Petrov. Veles immediately became interested in many gardeners, and not for nothing. Smooth, with a thin skin, beautiful shape of the fruit,pear of Veles has excellent taste qualities. Fruits are sweet, fleshy, juicy, with a pleasant aroma.
The fruits of the pear change color, the fruits of green-light green in the middle of summer, change to yellow ones closer to August. That, the side of the pear, which receives the sun's rays, acquires orange-red tones, and the side, which is in the shade - remains green. Because of such metamorphosis,
Pear of Veles refers to autumn varieties. Blossomed tree in spring, white, fragrant inflorescences. During the summer fruits are formed, the fruit ripening begins in early August.
Collect ripe fruits can be in early September, but... Variety of pears perfectly stored in the collected form until the winter. And if you need to keep the fruits until the cold, it is worth collecting the pear, when it is firm, carefully remove the fruits from the tree, without damaging them. Damaged fruit (fallen or dented on the peel) quickly rot and is not suitable for storage.
To keep the pear fruits until the spring, it is better to put them in a box, and each fruit should be wrapped in a newspaper. So, the pear can be stored in a cool place for several months.
In itself, a tree taller than 4-5 m tall with a thick brownish trunk. The branches are sprawling, curved, of medium thickness, of gray-brown color. The leaf plate of an adult tree is dark green, young leaves have a green color.
Advantages and disadvantages
The variety has a beautiful view, which makes it attractive for sale. The tree is also resistant to various diseases and pests, is not afraid of cold weather and severe weather. Harvest brings every year, does not need "rest besides the number of fruits increases every year.
But there is some sort of disadvantages, for example,with abundant harvest, the fruit becomes smaller in size. This is easily eliminated by regular tree trimming. There is also a freezing of the kidneys, during the ripening of the fruit..
Diseases and pests
Powdery mildew - the first signs of this disease are the formations on the inflorescences, shoots and leaves of white thin plaque, which eventually becomes brown and leaves behind a black points. It is important to fight this problem before budding, with the drug Skor or Topaz. Before flowering it is better to use Hom, and after harvesting it is necessary to sprinkle the tree with copper sulfate.
Fruit rot is often seen on fruits in the form of brown spots,in this regard, the core of the fruit becomes brown. Fruits rot and become unsuitable for eating. Before flowering the tree can be treated with Hom, and after flowering apply Oxihom.
Often the pear is exposed to bacterial burns, the leaves of the tree turn black, and the annual shoots dry up. Fight this disease with a solution of copper sulfate or Hom. It is also important to prune the infected leaves and shoots and burn them.
The cracking of the crust is also dangerous for the pear, the cracks on the trunk make it more vulnerable to insects and other diseases. The usual solution of lime will save the tree from cracks in the crown.
In addition to diseases, the pear attracts many pests. Among them stands the hawthorn, which feeds on ovaries, inflorescences and leaves of the tree, as it is able to eat young branches.Before bud blossoming, you need to spray the tree with Carbophos or Entobacterin.
Medyanica is a pest that causes yellowing of the leaves. They twist and fall. Also, the medina feeds on the flowers and leaves of the tree. Fight it with the help of a solution of Vermitik or Hom.
Plodozhorka causes falling and decay of fruits. Fight it with drugs Apollo or Vermitik.
Selecting the location and time for landing
When choosing a place where to plant a pear it is important to remember that a pear is a heat-loving plant, so plant it is necessary for a light section, on this depends not only the growth of the tree, but also the level of sugar content in fruits. Just do not land the pear on open areas, winds negatively affect the growth of the tree.It is better to plant a pear near the house, where it will have enough sunlight.
As for the time for planting, then you can plant a variety of Veles both in winter and in autumn. Spring planting protects the tree from rodents, moreover, in summer the root system will grow in the tree, and it will overwinter better. However, when planting a pear in the spring, the pit should be cooked in the autumn. After all, a tree planted in a fresh pit suffers because of the subsidence of the earth.
In autumn it is better to plant a pear in the middle or the end of September, a couple of weeks before the onset of frost. Just in advance, you should prepare pits for the pear to settle down in a new place and not suffer from frost..
Pear grows well on almost all soils, clay soils and soils with a minimum amount of fertilizers are not terrible. But for growth and yield it is better to choose fertile soils.
butDo not plant a tree on wetlands, where the ground water is close to the roots. From excess moisture, the root system of the tree suffers and undergoes diseases.
Planting the pear of Veles
To grow a pear, it is important to choose the right seed material.
At purchase it is necessary to pay attention not only on appearance of a tree, its branches should not be broken, are damaged by cracks and illnesses. The foliage should have a natural green color, and on the underside of the leaf there should be a streak - that means the tree is healthy, and in the nursery, there was proper care. Similarly, the root system should not be damaged, the roots do not show signs of disease, brownish or gray.
When planting a seedling, you need to properly prepare a pit.Its size depends on the root system of the seedling, but it is also not worthwhile to make a too deep and large pit, you can simply cut the roots. Excavated to a depth of no more than half a meter. Peat or manure is placed on the bottom, the mixture is mixed with the ground.
Now a bucket of water poured into the pit, so that the earth would settle a little. To the tree grows evenly and does not bend to the side, you can immediately put a small wooden shank in the pit. After that, the seedling is placed in the pit, so that the root neck is 8-10 cm above the ground.
Further, the seedling can be attached to the cuttings, and it is necessary to water the tree with 2-3 buckets of warm water. Further watering will be required in 3-4 days.The soil around the cut should be covered with grass or leaves, so the soil will retain moisture for longer.
Pear of Veles quickly roots in new places, transplants are not terrible for her. With the correct planting of the tree, within a couple of weeks new leaves will form on it (if planting was made in the spring), which means that the young tree has taken root in a new place and is ready for growth.
Watering is important not only for a young seedling, but also for an adult tree. After planting, the land around the seedling should be watered 2-3 times a week. 2 buckets of warm water will be enough for growth.
The plant grew, especially when it began to bear fruit, also needs watering. At what, it is especially important to shed a tree well in the spring, before the beginning of flowering.It is necessary to water each week with a small amount of water.The second careful watering should be done before the formation of fruits, it is at this time that the pear needs moisture.
You can water a tree in several ways:
First, by means of rotating mechanisms, i.e. rain method. Water by drop will feed the earth. However, with this method of watering, water gets far around the tree, so there will be much more around.
Secondly, you can dig a small trench around the tree trunk and gently pour in water.
Pear feeding is performed several times a year. The first top dressing is applied before the beginning of flowering. It is better to use nitrate, carbimide or urea.
The second top dressing is carried out after flowering. It is good to introduce the so-called "green" fertilizer. A small trench is digging around the tree, into which food waste, grass, leaves and manure are placed. In this mass is the presence of soil.
The third feeding is introduced in the middle of September, it is better to feed the tree with mineral fertilizers, sawdust or ash. But the introduction of nitrogen in the winter is strictly forbidden.
Pear pruning is done to ensure that all branches receive light for growth. For the first time 2 years, a young tree does not need pruning, it only forms branches, so excessive pruning will only slow the growth of the pear.
But since the third year of growth, the pear needs to be pruned, which can be carried out with a sharp knife or pruner.The first thing to cut out branches that grow at a right angle.On such branches, fruits rarely arise, and they block the light of the lower growth shoots. There are branches growing at an angle of 60-70 degrees, they stand heavy fruits in the fall.
The remaining branches are shortened by a third of the length. The central branch is also cut off, but its height should exceed the height of the other shoots by 20-30 cm. For the fourth year, young shoots are cut off as well.
Also, irrespective of the tree's growth year, sanitary trim is performed, i.e. cut out broken, withered branches. During the summer, if the branch was infected with diseases or pests, do not wait for autumn.We need to cut it immediately so that the whole tree does not get infected.
Preparation for winter
The pear of the Velez variety is perfectly experienced by the cold winters. But the preparation of the tree for winter protects it from low temperatures and pests that winter in the roots or bark of a tree.
In autumn it is necessary to collect all the fruits from the tree. Next you need to collect foliage around the trunk and dig through the earth. This procedure is necessary so that the roots receive more oxygen and to remove insects.
Pear of Veles is a real find for gardeners. Not only does this variety have beautiful and large fruits, so they still do not inferior to the taste qualities of many other varieties.Tasty, sweet and fleshy fruits are sung closer to autumn, long remain on the tree, and in the torn form of preserving the taste for a long time. In addition, the variety does not need special care, it is resistant to colds, diseases and pests..