Connect a small country estate to a central water supply is often not possible due to the remoteness of the passage of water supply line. Dig a well or drill hole sometimes can not afford, and for the construction of an autonomous system needs its own source of water.
In such cases, you can arrange an Abyssinian well with their own hands - a technology company that source water intake is quite simple. Agree, before the implementation of ideas, it is necessary to understand the construction and operation of the system.
We'll show you how to plan an Abyssinian well, what equipment you will need and how to make their own well-needle. Particular attention should be paid to the type of soil on the site.
The content of the article:
- Working Principles Abyssinian well
- The structural specificity of the needle-hole
- barrel manufacturing technology
- Improvement of the filtration element
- Terms and conditions for the construction of wells Abyssinian
- Himself hydrogeologist: assessment of soil
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Working Principles Abyssinian well
Abyssinian well is a simplified version of the well, allowing to receive water from the overlying top of the first or second aquifer. Its construction is very simple. It represents a column of interconnected steel pipes gazovodoprovodnyh primitive filter and a metal tip at the bottom.
Thin barrel resembles the oldest generation device for sewing. Hence, the second name: the needle hole.
Properly arranged Abyssinian wells provide water infield no worse silo and will not give him durability
Classic immersion method Abyssinian well in the ground made banal clogging - the easiest way, is actively used in the environment of independent artists. Clog up until the down tube with a tip would reveal no aquifer.
Sometimes the column is partially deepened by auger drilling, but the rent manual or mechanical drilling rig significantly increases the budget works.
Abyssinian well was invented and tested in practice during the colonial war between England and Ethiopia in 1867-68, respectively. The proposed design of an American engineer Norton tirelessly provide British troops with water during their journey through the desert.
Abyssinian well - the most economical method of extraction of groundwater
Since the depth of needle-standard borehole does not exceed 10 - 12 m, a surface inexpensive pump suitable for pumping water
Flow rate of the needle-hole is debited conventional well tubular
Arrange well-needle can be anywhere, often inaccessible to ordinary well drilling site, for example, in the basement
Apparatus needle-well it takes a minimum of means
Pumping water pumps are superficial
Abyssinian wells production rate does not differ from the standard
Drilling a well in the basement of the Abyssinian
The apparatus for extracting liquid from invigorating underground soil layers operatively establishes dismantled and re-used in the next halt.
Priorities such as mobility, low cost and ease of construction were appreciated by the military, have attracted travelers and explorers.
Pros needle device with your hands well is in its simplicity and minimal timing structure, easy disassembly and fiscal value (+)
In Russia, with a remarkable invention met a year later at the end of the English campaign. Device for lifting water with a small depth has been described in K. AND. Maslyannikovym in a book devoted to prevail while effective drill.
Arranged in the vicinity of the Tsarskoye Selo five Abyssinian wells, two were quite suitable for the production of fresh water. Three failed to reach the aquifer because of the limestone overlying close to the surface.
Successful Abyssinian wells gave a minute of the bucket. Initially was turbid slurry, which after a half hour pumping became sufficiently clear and clean.
The well-opened, only the first needle from the earth's surface aquifers, however for the purposes of drinking water obtained can not be used. It is suitable for irrigation, territory cleaning and similar household needs.
If desired production rate and imposing production water treatment system can be set coarse and fine filtersDelaying mechanical inclusions and chemical impurities.
A strong lack of Abyssinian well - small depth of water intake associated with the use of surface pumps, but it is the most convenient source of temporary use
The structural specificity of the needle-hole
Developed half a century ago Abyssinian rig over the years has undergone dramatic structural changes. At some time in general has been undeservedly forgotten. Although the pace of construction and ease significantly, as well as the price of everything ahead of widespread traditional wells.
The design of Abyssinian well identified two main components:
- the drillComprising primers inside the tip and the barrel, stackable during penetration into the ground. The trunk channel at the same time serves to raise the water depth. Because going from tube segments instead of a steel wheel or rod.
- pile driverConsisting of a metal tripod and a hefty women, playing the role of the hammer. At the top of the tripod has two blocks with outstretched over them with ropes, to which is tied a woman.
When stringing cords woman climbs to the top of the installation. With the weakening rapidly falls to the rigidly fixed to clog segment podbabok trunk. The latter carries out the function of an anvil, whereby the barrel consistently sinks into the ground.
The main part of Abyssinian well - a tip of the pipe inner diameter 11/4 11/2 and 2 inches, and includes respectively of perforated gas pipe and provided with such a filter at the end of a spear thickening (+)
Podbabok is a kind of clamp, consisting of two symmetrical parts. Area Baba podbabka contacting surface is somewhat larger than the area of the bottom of the "hammer" incident thereon.
After hammered barrel segment almost completely immersed in a land podbabok removed. By submerged pipe segment next bolted on which once again clamp-fixed anvil.
Falling, woman strikes the lower clamp and bury the pipe, as well podbabok penetration and clamp block is moved to upward along the pipe
Actions for burial of the drill is repeated as long as the lower part of the needle of the well, built by his own hands, it reaches the aquifer. Water pot should not just reveal, but also to pass on a minimum per meter.
Under the rules of the layer to be cross 2/3 of its capacity, but independent driller actual size of the water-carrier probably unknown. About them difficult to judge without a hydrogeological survey.
To obtain water in a particular location set tripod are screwed on the tip of the gas pipe, on which a woman wearing and Baba spikes into the ground tube (+)
The appearance of water in the formulation should be periodically monitored. Have a professional drillers for water level measurement purposes in the development is the simplest device that perfectly defines the depth of the aquifer in its occurrence up to 15 m.
This is a hollow metal cylinder, called a cracker. The device looks like an upside-thin glass, attached through a loop to roulette.
The working body of firecrackers - a hollow cylinder or cone, which is in contact with the surface of the water produces a characteristic cotton: the similarity of the device can be made with your own hands
When the flapper is in contact with the edge surface of the water is distributed cotton, which tells about the appearance of the desired downhole. To produce such a control device can own tying twine to the nut so large that it could touch the flat surface of the water.
Instead of nuts would be good to find the not too lightweight plastic or metal cone, not closed on one or both sides.
There is one more ingenious means of serving the monitoring device. Commonplace to monitor the appearance of water in the well may be Abyssinian, omitting the barrel conventional polymer tube. On contact with the ground water mirror will signal characteristic of cotton.
barrel manufacturing technology
In the industrial production of Abyssinian wells there. Making installation order in the shop or make your own hands.
To facilitate the immersion in the ground the lower edge of the first rod is equipped with a spear tip, the diameter of the wide portion 3-5 cm larger than the diameter of the main pipe length about 10 - 15 cm
To make the hole the needle will need:
- Thick-walled pipes AIV, Marked with the "reinforced". The optimum size of the outer diameter of pipe rolling from 25 to 40 mm. It should be remembered that the thicker the stem, the harder it is driven into the ground, and the thickness of the pipe does not affect the production rate.
- steel tip, Carved on a lathe. Part length of 10-12 cm, 1-2 cm Ø Ø larger pipe to soil friction on the stem plugging process is not slowed down. The tip may be conical or pyramidal, but not welded wedge scraps of the tube.
- Steel mesh weave braid tightNecessary to further filter device. It will prevent the ingress of fine sand and even mud slurry.
For the manufacture of the barrel is better to buy seamless pipe rolling, which during pile definitely not give cracks. The pipe must be cut into pieces of approximately 1,2 - 1,5 m. In fact they are called drill rods.
These sizes are recommended on the basis of the largest facilities in operation. The specific length of the segments in the designated interval depends on the expected depth output. Desirably, one of which was 1 m for the final burying a water carrier.
The check valve in the form of a ball or plates prevents outflow extracted water pump needle into the well after stopping of electromechanical or manual pump
barrel capacity is produced as the projectile penetration, performed by sequentially winding the pipe segments AIV.
For the compounds of the cut edges of the segments of 7 turns of the thread and sanitary use steel sleeve. Compounds sealingly operate, the thread is laid plumbing tow.
Fully produce and install easy Abyssinian well with your hands, but if the temporary operation of Koper is planned reasonable rent
The first segment next column tip is welded and fitted with a primitive filter - is part of rainwater. The opening segment of the pipe drilled holes Ø 8 - 10 mm so that the elements of said perforations arranged in a kind of checkered pattern.
In the conventional horizontal rows of holes should be about 5 cm: close them not to do so as not to weaken the pipe.
Drilling holes start, departing from the bottom edge of about 15 cm with the same order to maintain strength characteristics. In place of the first column with the following compounds of link rod set check valve pumping system.
Most often it is the ball that passes water only in the direction to the pump.
Step 1: Before drilling the well-needles need to stock up on tools. Total footage drill string should be 2 - 3 m over the intended depth of the aquifer
To facilitate the drilling process and the organization of the pit at the mouth of the production, it is desirable to dig a pit
Step 3: If the geological section of the drilling site has boulders and pebbles, it is advisable to stock up drills with chisel function
Step 4: Before beginning drilling, check the screwing coupling with drill pipes and their number
If the cross-sectional area and has a sandy loam loam, prior to installation in the well pipe with filter start better destroy rock rod with a sharpened tip
If the cut is composed of sand and gravel deposits, tunneling Abyssinian well, you can start with a tube fitted with a strainer and a cone-shaped tip
If you do not plan to install pumping equipment in the pit, the top link in the drill string to better protect the casing, the cavity to be filled with sand or CBC
Install a hand pump at the mouth of the needle hole to allow the limit to reduce costs in the supply arrangement
A tool for the construction of wells Abyssinian
Pit for the device Abyssinian well
Drills for the destruction of boulders and pebbles
Clutches for drill pipe connections
Tool for penetration of clay soils
Starting with tube-tipped filter, and
Variant needle arrangement wells
Hand pump for an Abyssinian well
Improvement of the filtration element
The described filter protects against ingress of small pebbles and gravel, but not eliminate the smaller inclusions. Because in need of modernization. To turn a perforated pipe section in filter with higher degree of protection, it must be finalized.
- Above the pipe coils wound stainless steel wire. They need to increase the area of the filter body. The distance between coils 3 - 5 mm.
- The resulting preform tightly wrapped piece of stainless wire mesh, which is soldered to the pipe wall. Use only tin solder, because the use of an alloy with lead have a negative impact on water quality characteristics.
It is believed that for greater importance to be upgraded filter outside wrap wire rod of stainless steel. We allow ourselves to doubt the reliability of this strengthening. We believe that will certainly undock when submerged in the soil outside the turns homemade filter will increase the friction and significantly hamper the clogging.
In downhole use filters mesh braid weave P52, which allows to filter out fine sand and silt, thereby protecting the well from silting
Finalization of the filter - a good thing, not only contributes to optimize water quality, but also prevents silting of the needle hole.
The truth is strict adherence to the rules is required for all devices prostate:
- To the strainer is not suitable mesh made of brass or other nonferrous metals. In alliance with the steel at solid spike they will form a galvanic pair, quickly and easily corrodes corroded.
- The diameter of the perforated tube together with additional filter should not be equal to the maximum diameter of the tip or exceed it. Otherwise, important additions filter separate from the pipe into the ground during pile.
- For the construction of the drill string and the first link, being the water receiving part of the barrel, not suitable brittle cast iron pipes.
Yet do not skimp on the couplings, buying handicrafts from the poor quality cutting. If clogging compounds disperse, the needle will have to be removed and the hole to pass again.
Terms and conditions for the construction of wells Abyssinian
For device Abyssinian well enough hot desire holder portion, supported by the knowledge of the water intake structure installation. Before the start of work is necessary to determine whether the geological conditions for the construction of the needle well suited.
soils occurring in the earth differ in their physical and mechanical properties: density, structure, and hardness parameters etc. In drillers have classification of so-called "drillability" rocks.
For penetration of sand and sandstone, for example, apply a different kind of tool and method for drilling. Sandstone rock core barrel is drilled with carbide crown and Aquiferous sand raising rope shock method using the bailer.
Installing Abyssinian well not be able to be made at occurrence close to the surface limestone (1), clay deposits (3) sand (2) for optimum primers and are Sands (4)
From the combination of physical and mechanical properties along with rock drillability conventionally divided into:
- Hard or rocky. They are able to crack, break up, are gradually destroyed when drilling at high speed and pressure. Solid rock are shown in the upper part of limestone deposits, sandstones, marl, dolomite, etc.
- Plastic. They are easy or relatively easy to knife cutting and drilling tools, including the tip of the Abyssinian wells. To the representatives of the plastic are clay, loam, sandy loam with a high number of plasticity.
- Loose. They do not keep their shape, because They consist of other sisters unbonded particles. When saturated with water, some silty species can "float". By granular varieties include Sands all categories by size, gravel and pebble, dresvyano-detrital deposits and the like.
At the disposal of domestic artists, wanting to do device Abyssinian well, no drilling tool for sinking all these soil types. Independent drillers will be able to cross the only plastic and loose category. Crush hard rock Abyssinian well tip impossible.
For normal operation of the device and the well Abyssinian ideal sediments: gravel, rubble, pebbles with a filler, sand, sandy loam, loam (+)
Do not try to break up a large boulder better to move slightly and there again to start the production. Especially that the removal of water intake is done much faster installation.
In addition to restrictions on drilling capacity on the possibility of building a well-needle affects the height of the water table. The fact that the extraction of its tonkostvolnoy generation can be charged only surface pumping equipment. Most grades surface ready to lift pumps water from a depth of not more than 8 m.
For pumping water from wells used needle surface pumping equipment, extracting water from a depth in average of 8 - 10 m
Even if the data sheet contains the suction depth of about 10 m, it is impossible to forget about standard pressure loss in the barrel and that normally conveys the water pump and further the horizontal part.
Every 10 th horizontal movement robs suction depth of 1 m. In addition, the surface pumps are urged to be located in enclosed spaces, and they are often removed from the place of the fence water.
If, apart from the Abyssinian well there is absolutely no way out, and the depth of occurrence of water in nearby wells fixed at 12 - 15 m from the ground surface, then feeding water should be reserved airlift or manual pump capable of pumping water from the aforesaid depths.
For pumping water from a depth of more than 15 - 20 m airlift can be used, which is beneficial besides transporting water performs its oxygen saturation
Useful information on how to find water in the area to assess the location of the wells and aquifers is presented in this article.
Alternative water intake needle adapting to an improper level of groundwater in the device is a pit. Before clogging of the column into the earth dug pit depth of about one meter, a convenient width for the shovel therein. Driving rod begins from the bottom of the pit. Pump in such situations, is set in a pit.
If the groundwater at the site lie lower than the maximum depth of the suction pump, constructing a pit and it has a pumping equipment
Himself hydrogeologist: assessment of soil
No matter how simple the process was not driving the needle hole, careful preparation for work is still necessary. It is not enough stock of the bar to start with the filter element, rent or make your own pile driver. Looking for information about the geological and hydrogeological conditions in the area of Abyssinian well device.
Where and how to get them? Information on the level of ground water in the literal sense, Draw out into the neighboring well or in the well.
Measurable independently cracker or inquiries source holder that with which it pumps water depth. At the same time we find out what the ground was raised from the bottom when drilled or dug generation.
Koper and the barrel of the needle hole is not commercially available, the installation of all devices can be bought off the shelf or order the production of
In plain areas rock formations lie almost horizontally, with a slight bend or small inclination. Mirror groundwater is approximately the same absolute level. The difference in the depth of the existing and planned well can be expressed only through the terrain changes.
Do not forget that the well is opened Abyssinian perched or following it aquifer is overlain by clay or loam, but not rock confining layer. Those. the water level in the formulation will uniquely unstable - depending on the amount of precipitation.
During the period of snow melting and rainy time of the mirror of ground water will be higher than in the dry weather season. The owner of an existing water intake point should be to find out what the maximum and minimum water level drops to dry summers Abyssinian well is not found empty.
If the walls are folded generate stable nonshattering primers, partially wellbore can pass through a manual rock drilling rig with a screw shell
The issue of emerging rocks is not idle. For example, in the field of water extracted Leningrad major sands with a significant amount of massive boulders.
Often due to the inability to crush and remove the huge rock drillers displace water wells. Similarly, should I do if the region facilities Abyssinian well have similar soils.
Pointless producing clogging at high occurrence arrays rock and semi sawmills. If a neighbor station is obtained underground water circulated in fractured dolomite, sandstone, limestone, with the idea of the device, the needle is necessary to leave the well relentlessly.
Details on carrying out geological surveys described in the article - Where and when it is better to drill a well on the site: common rules + advice of experienced drillers
For those who decided to make a pit Abyssinian well, we need information about the structure and condition of soil layers at a depth of the pit. If the cut is folded sandy loam, loam or their alternating layers, optionally strengthened pit wall.
Friable, unstable pit wall must be strengthened, to the mouth of the needle hole and pumping equipment not covered with incoherent soils
If drip hole in the sand, the walls should be reinforced shields plank or concrete. Sand bead unstable and may collapse to fill water intake point together with pumping equipment.
Inquiries about the upper layers of soil are necessary also for those planning to produce the upper part of the screw to pass. Auger drilling significantly speed up the process, but can not bring the planned result. For operation using simple device - the purchase or homemade drill.
When collapsing sand walls need to install casingBy which reduced economic priorities Abyssinian well.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Analysis of the pros and cons of Abyssinian well against the backdrop of a conventional wells:
Movie about deepening the screw with subsequent clogging Abyssinian well:
Pro uselessness water popular search method using frames:
Installation and operation of Abyssinian well - the easiest and cheapest method of getting water from the upper aquifer. For the construction of the water intake generation does not require equipment, all work stages can easily perform their own hands.
Invested effort and little money will be paid back quickly, last for an Abyssinian well is not less than traditional sources of water. It is important to catch fire and implement the idea, armed with the information provided by us.
Do you have practical skills in the area of arrangement of needle-hole? Please share accumulated knowledge or ask questions on the subject in the comments below.