To answer the question which bulbs are best for the home, you need to consider the advantages and disadvantages of all sources. light, suitable for use in residential premises, and then conduct a comparative analysis on the most important parameters.
The winner will be a practical, safe for humans, durable device that provides the highest quality light flux at an economical energy consumption.
The content of the article:
- Main types of household light sources
Features of Edison Bulbs
- General Product Description
- Design and principle of operation
- Advantages and disadvantages of products
- What are luminescents
- What is interesting galogenki?
- Unique specifics of LED models
Rules of choice and useful tips
- What is better for wet rooms?
- What to light living rooms?
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Main types of household light sources
Lamps suitable for home are primarily classified according to light-emitting technology.
The most relevant among them are:
- classic incandescent bulbs;
- fluorescent products;
- halogen devices;
- LED devices.
Each of the positions has specific technical characteristics and a different level of efficiency in the same operating conditions.
The choice of the best device directly depends on the requirements for a specific lighting system.
Features of Edison Bulbs
The traditional incandescent lamp is a classic version that has been used for home lighting systems for more than a century.
General Product Description
It creates a pleasant radiation in shades of warm gamma and does not irritate the eyes, even with prolonged illumination. It has a low level of efficiency, because in the process of work it is very hot and spends about 97% of the energy resource for this.
The flask consists of heat-resistant glass with a high level of transparency and transmits the maximum amount of generated light energy
For lighting standard living space consumes a lot of energy and is considered economically disadvantageous compared to more progressive light sources.
The service life is about 1 000 hours and directly depends on the correctness of the operating conditions of the device. More than affordable price attracts buyers, and they often prefer this particular light source only because it is cheaper than others.
Despite the disadvantages, incandescent devices can be used where the light turns on often, but not for long. More economical units often do not withstand constant on / off, and Edison bulbs tolerate it quite calmly.
However, the benefit here is false. It is necessary to change incandescent bulbs with enviable regularity, and electricity bills literally within one month “eat up” what they managed to save at the time of the initial purchase.
Design and principle of operation
The upper part of incandescent bulbs is a pear-shaped sealed flask of heat-resistant transparent glass. Partially air was pumped out of it and replaced with inert gas. It is because of this that the working tungsten filament does not burn during the heating process.
Two electrodes and molybdenum holders are attached to the leg located inside. They fix the body heat, not allowing it to sag and tear under the weight of its own weight in the process of warming up.
The tapered portion of the bulb is mounted in the housing of the metal base, designed to be screwed into the plug cartridge. Spiral thread is a contact with the electrode soldered to it.
Ilyich bulbs are mostly equipped with a classic screw base. The most widespread sizes are E14, E27 and E40. They are most often used to illuminate the premises
The second contact is located at the bottom of the base and is equipped with a ring insulation around the circumference, preventing it from contact with the body of the base.
Unchanged in classic incandescent bulbs always only positions such as:
- body heat;
- flask part;
- working electrodes.
The remaining elements, depending on the operational requirements and features, may be absent, have a different constructional appearance or be supplemented with accompanying details.
The spectral palette of the modules differs from the daylight by the predominance of yellow and red hues, which significantly distorts the color perception of objects
The principle of operation of the device is based on the incandescence of the arc-shaped inner tungsten element. At the time of passage of current, it becomes hot, reaching a temperature of 2600... 3000 ° C, and converts electrical energy into light. The lamp bulb is evacuated or filled with a special gas in which tungsten is not oxidized.
Advantages and disadvantages of products
The advantages of the devices include instant ignition, the absence of blinking harmful to the human eye, always the same warm spectral gamma of a luminescence, noiselessness in the course of burning, immunity to sharp differences of tension, and also an opportunity brightness adjustment using dimmer.
The manufacture of incandescent bulbs is very cheap. Manufacturers have the ability to make modules of any capacity for mains voltage from a few volts to several kilowatts
Products perfectly show themselves in a wide temperature range from extremely high to low levels and do not need accompanying starting devices for activation. They function correctly with current flow of any polarity, do not create radio interference and are subject to trouble-free disposal due to the absence of toxic substances in the composition.
The first place among the negative factors is the lowest efficiency. In a hundred-watt bulb, this figure is only 15%, and in a sixty-watt bulb, no more than 5%.
Increase the figures can only increase the temperature of the filament, however, while the service life of the tungsten element is reduced significantly and the expediency of the procedure is lost. Small operational period, vulnerability to vibration, shaking and mechanical damage also does not increase attractiveness.
If the voltage in the power supply network falls below the standard marks, the life of the modules of the glow module is significantly reduced.
For economical light sources incandescent bulbs are not. The largest amount of power they "eat" at the time of launch. Then the consumption is reduced by 5-10 times, but still significantly exceeds the indicators that show other lighting products.
What are luminescents
A fluorescent lamp is a gas-discharge artificial source of radiation, suitable for lighting residential premises. Shows good efficiency and in terms of light output exceeds the capabilities of classic incandescent devices.
The first luminescents had the form of an elongated, sealed from two sides, cylindrical tube with mercury vapor. Now manufacturers produce lamps of more original forms.
Subdivided into devices of high and low pressure. The first are used for street lighting, and the second are intended for residential premises. The service life declared by the manufacturer is 5 years, provided that the number of inclusions per day does not exceed 5 times.
The luminescence gamma in luminescents is incredibly wide and includes all shades of white ranging from the coldest to the most natural and warm.
The device and the nuances of operation. Constructively fluorescent lampDepending on the version, it consists of a tube or flask with one or two bases, located at the edges.
Filled with mercury vapor. After activation between the electrodes in the flask, a glow discharge is manifested and ultraviolet radiation is created in the mercury environment. The phosphor coating located inside converts it into saturated light radiation perceived by the human eye.
The luminescent type module connected to the power supply system by means of an electronic starter does not practically buzz during operation and does not flicker.
The values of the base current flow are lowered to the correct values by electromagnetic or electronic controllers or ballasts. Without these additional elements, full lamp operation is impossible.
Pluses of modules. The list of advantages of luminescents includes the following characteristics:
- effective light output;
- higher efficiency level;
- operational durability;
- good power and density of the light flux;
- extensive spectrum of luminescence in the warm and cold ranges;
- service life of about 5 years subject to the necessary conditions.
Reasonable energy consumption, 5 times less than that of incandescent bulbs, makes it possible to attribute luminescent products to the number of economical sources of radiation. They provide an opportunity to high-quality illuminate large premises, while not overpaying on utility bills.
During operation, the luminescent flask element is heated to a temperature of no more than 50 degrees. Due to this moment, lamps are allowed for operation in living rooms where fire safety is especially important.
Instrument flaws. Among the negative qualities of products is a more complex incorporation scheme, which involves the presence of starting elements. As well as a limited 150 W unit power and a noticeable decrease in the saturation of the light flux at the end of the operating period.
Ballasts, without which the fluorescent lamp is not able to function, provoke a significant loss of energy, amounting to 25-35% of the power of the light source
In addition, the devices react to a decrease in temperature and at too low rates go out and do not turn on. In the process, they emit specific acoustic noise and pulsate, having a negative effect on the eyes present in the room, and when the mains voltage drops by 10 percent or more of the nominal, they stop light up
The mercury contained inside seriously complicates lamp recycling process. It is not possible to send them to a regular dumpster near the house. Indeed, if the integrity of the flask is violated, the harmful substance enters the atmosphere and releases toxic fumes that negatively affect humans and the surrounding nature.
Properly authorized companies carry out proper disposal, but lamp reception takes place there in certain days and the user has to podgadyvat time to get rid of luminescents that worked due date
What is interesting galogenki?
Galogenka is a modern, more progressive variation of a traditional incandescent lamp. Filled with buffer gas vapors. Due to this, the working temperature of the spiral element and the service life of the lighting product are increased.
Halogens possess the highest color rendition. This figure is 99-100%, which is an absolute record in the environment of light sources
The devices are presented in various typical configurations and can be built into the lamps of the most unusual modifications, into furniture elements and systems that create spot lighting.
Distinctive features of lamps. Halogens provide the room with bright, saturated and dense light throughout the entire period of operation. Due to their compact dimensions, they can be mounted in very small fixtures or built into fragments of the interior.
Despite its modest dimensions, they have a uniquely high luminous efficiency and, at equal power, give much more light than ordinary incandescent modules.
The highest level of efficiency halogen light sources are shown in small flasks. Some manufacturers even produce lamps, already immediately equipped with such a lamp
The main disadvantage is the vulnerability to mechanical damage and frequent on / off. Both of these parameters significantly reduce the life of the lamps and contribute to their rapid failure.
The conditional operating period, according to the manufacturers, is 2000-4000 hours, which greatly exceeds the capabilities of the incandescent modules. However with LEDs halogen bulbs They can not, on their background look more attractive only in the context of low prices.
Unique specifics of LED models
LED lamps (LEDs) are the most advanced source of radiation available for use in home lighting systems. Inside it contains one or more diodes, which generate saturated high-grade light.
LED lamps are made of absolutely safe materials. There are no toxic substances in the composition, so the products are suitable for installation in any areas of a residential building, including children's rooms.
Working diode elements rarely burn out. Due to this, ice-modules do not show sensitivity to regular on / off and reliably serve for many years.
Advantages of LED-type bulbs. The list of positive qualities is very long. Lamps are completely non-toxic and completely safe for the health of both children and adults. They do not need specific, complex disposal.
With minimal consumption, they provide a bright, saturated light flux, do not create harmful ultraviolet radiation and do not provoke burnout of furniture, interior elements and decor items.
Diode lamps have a high structural strength and are not afraid of falls or bumps. They give a nice light without blinking.
Variety of shapes sizes and configurations of the cap allows you to complete LED modules sconces or chandelier of any type. This applies not only modern but also rare lighting fixtures.
Only high initial costs are reproached for the aggregates, but in the end it pays off and is even more than compensated for by a decrease in utility bills and a prolonged operational period.
Rules of choice and useful tips
Knowing exactly what is being used. bulbs for home, it is possible without much difficulty to choose the best option of radiation sources to ensure in residential home comfortable, easy to manage, operational and cost-effective system lighting.
What is better for wet rooms?
For bathrooms and kitchens, where the level of humidity is particularly high, the traditional incandescent options are not very suitable. In addition to large power consumption, they get too hot during work and if they accidentally get in water can explode and cause injury to people nearby. Better take safe energy saving type.
Even if the network is experiencing a drop in voltage, the LEDs, unlike other sources of radiation, will not feel this and will not work worse. Their structural design and equipment allow to function correctly in the range of 180-260 W
Halogens consume little energy, but are vulnerable to moisture and, being in such aggressive conditions, after a short time fail. Luminescents are not suitable because of the noise emitted in the process of work, the presence of toxic substances in the composition and not too pleasant color spectrum, more than the corresponding working rooms.
In this case, the most successful solution LED products. They provide a good light flow of the desired level of intensity, they do not heat up and do not consume excess energy.
Due to the variety of socles, they can be built into the lamp of any, even the most unexpected configuration, without violating the stylistic design of the bath room.
What to light living rooms?
It is impossible to say exactly which light bulbs are 100% better for the home. To arrange a high-quality lighting system in residential premises, they should be carefully and carefully selected.
Many customers are primarily focused on the efficiency of light sources, and rightly so, because you have to pay monthly bills for electricity, which regularly rises in price.
The most economical are LED bulbs, and the most voracious are incandescent bulbs. Galogenki and luminescents occupy middle positions and eat not so little resource as the first, but not as much as the second.
The longest service life is demonstrated by LED models. They, with observance of operational standards, can work from 25 000 hours and more
An equally important parameter when choosing is efficiency. It determines how light it will be in the room and is usually measured in lumens. The indicator is placed on the lamp packaging and is visible to the consumer before purchase. The higher the numbers indicated, the better the selected lamp will illuminate the room.
By this criterion, the LEDs are seriously ahead of the rest of the clan of lighting devices. With the same consumption of electricity, they supply 10 times more powerful light than Edison's bulbs.
The efficiency of diode products is at least 90%. Both halogens and luminescents exhibit lower rates, and for incandescent lamps they do not exceed 5-10%, depending on the power.
To create a room lighting, equal to the effect of a 100-watt incandescent lamp, it is enough to screw the LED module in 10-12 W
The base, which is equipped with a lamp, also plays a significant role. For domestic use mainly use standard types of bases: pin or screw.
The first have the 3 most common species, differing in size:
- E14 - Minion - inserted into narrow ammo;
- E27 - classic - can be mounted in standard modules;
- E40 - maxi - are intended for large-sized devices.
All light sources with threaded plinths are suitable for wall lamps, chandeliers and other similar products of any configuration. LEDs experts do not recommend to put in a closed lamp.
Pin have a slightly smaller distribution and are mainly used in the construction of lighting of the modern type as in ceiling systemsso and desk lamps.
The size and appearance of the radiation source is also of great importance. Nobody wants to see a lamp sticking out of a spectacular sconce or a beautiful ceiling, of inappropriate dimensions. The widest choice of interpretations and forms is demonstrated by LEDs.
In their product range can be found:
- miniature models that are conveniently embedded in the furniture element or in the suspended ceiling;
- standard products of the usual configuration, suitable not only for a modern lamp, but also for an old-style chandelier;
- products of a specific form, which not only give light, but also carry a design load.
All other sources of radiation in such a variety can not boast.
Not in last place is the primary cost of products. Here are the lead classic incandescent bulbs. Their price is minimal and, thanks to this factor, they are still in demand among buyers. In the average price range are luminescents and halogens.
In the same luminaire there should always be lamps of the same type, only then can it work for a long time and correctly, properly lighting the room.
LEDs are much more expensive and sometimes the price scares potential buyers. But if you think well, it becomes clear that the costs justify themselves in all respects. By power and color temperature You can literally choose any option.
After installing the diodes, all the rooms in the house receive excellent, eye-friendly lighting. Utility bills are reduced and running after work in the store to buy a light bulb instead of the next burnt does not require a very long time.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. Tips for choosing interior light sources:
Video # 2. Comparison in all respects of lamps of different types:
Video # 3. A detailed overview of the lighting for the house:
The choice of light bulb depends on the requirements for safety and operational durability, frequency of activation, the planned intensity of light flow and price. Perhaps the most successful will be a combination of several types of lamps, in which each will demonstrate maximum efficiency in certain conditions.
And what kind of lighting devices do you prefer? Share personally your criteria in choosing the light sources for arranging your own home / apartment / office. Please leave comments in the block below, ask questions on interested or unclear points, post a photo on the topic of the article.