Addition to the lighting device in the form of a light barrier can reduce the power consumption. This is a small and simple in construction, the apparatus completely takes control of the on / off lights according to the brightness level on the street.
At twilight photocell street light activates the backlight near the house, and turns it off at dawn. It is simple in installation and operation, but before the acquisition of an optimal model, have a lot to provide. We'll show you how to pick the perfect option.
The content of the article:
- The operating principle of the photosensor
- The main types of electrical appliances
Selection of photoelectric lighting on the street
- Technical parameters - what to look for
- whether additional features are important
- Nuances light sensor mounting
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The operating principle of the photosensor
The basis of the control of street lighting light barrier (twilight switch) - a photosensitive member responsive to the available brightness sunlight and artificial light.
When twilight, photocell contacts closes and supplies power to the lamps mounted on the street near the house. And by increasing the intensity of the luminous flux in the morning he again opens the circuit, turning off the lighting appliances.
Due to the presence of street lighting scheme photoelectric owners of the house there is no need to constantly turn on the lights at night on the local area, and off in the morning - everything happens automatically
Photosensitive relay automatically controls the operation of the connected lighting unit, including its switching off and on as needed.
This significantly reduces the consumption of electrical energy street lamps and prolongs their life. After all, in this case they only work when you really need it, rather than 8-9 hours a day.
In the private sector, such systems are installed for lighting:
- outdoor stairs;
- areas near the cottages;
- park and garden paths;
- gazebos, mangalnye areas and outdoor terraces.
Organizations photoelectric mounted in the regeneration of the lighting in the courtyards of apartment buildings in the shopping center and the stairwells of apartment buildings, as well as street lighting designs with advertising. Everywhere one goal - to save energy and resource lighting.
In the simplest execution of the switching device under consideration consists of a power supply, a light sensor, a current amplifier, and switching relay
There are several types of light barrier, but the principle of operation of all of them is one. It has a connection to the power light sensor that monitors the light level in the controlled area.
At dusk the sensor closes the relay, including lighting in the street. When the sun rises again, the opposite occurs off of street lamps.
The main types of electrical appliances
Any controlling street lighting light barrier has in its design, three blocks with different functionality:
- Receptive - photosensor-based semiconductors.
- Intermediate - power electric current.
- Executive - such as a relay (switch).
Structurally, the first of these elements can be brought from a common housing. But there is a device where the photosensitive sensor is mounted in a single unit with the rest of the internal circuitry of the appliance.
The compact light sensor can even be mounted on street lighting poles, lamp near or directly on it
Accordingly, all models of photoelectric light control is divided into:
- devices with integrated photocell;
- Devices with separate photosensor that taken out of the body.
Equipment with a built-in sensor is mounted directly on the street. The housing has its greater protection from moisture and dust. In the second case, the switching unit is mounted on a DIN-rail in-house switchboard. A remote sensor already connected thereto by means of conventional wiring.
In addition to tracking the level of illumination such control systems are often equipped with an internal motion sensors, timers and various control buttons. The shops lighting can also be found photoelectric, which are built on digital controllers. However, these devices cost several times more expensive than conventional models.
Digital devices are expensive, but allow you to control lighting more accurately. The principle of operation of household light barrier and the main elements are identical to those found in the standard device.
But these options are complemented by a microcontroller, which can be adjusted so that the lights will be switched on only during certain hours. This makes it possible to fine tune the relay, linking his work with the weather and even month of the year.
Selection of photoelectric lighting on the street
Before you go to the store to purchase a photo sensor to adjust street lighting system, should define the number and type of connected fixtures. For one or two lanterns enough relays, lighting appliances which are connected directly.
If the bulbs are many, the light barrier can not withstand the current flowing through it. In this case the equipment is required with the magnetic actuator.
Here, the light-sensitive switch triggers a special device by which already made washing lighting equipment. Those. very much in the selection of the photo-sensor model depends on the capacity to connect to it from the circuit fixtures.
Special treatment and compulsory execution of preliminary calculations require the selection of a light barrier for the system street lighting solar. Its capacity and the number of connected devices depends on the average annual number of sunny days in the region, as well as the number of geliopaneley in the circuit.
The more to the light barrier is planned to connect light bulbs, the more he obliged to be parameters of the dial current - the market is now represented by instruments denominated current in the range of 6-63 amps, there are plenty to choose
According to the power supply connection type svetokontroliruyuschie relay for street lighting are divided into:
- single phase (household, by network 220);
- three-phase (380 V for networks).
However, switching relay itself and the entire circuit voltage fed to the photosensor 12, which is supplied with a step-down transformer. Opting for a single-phase or three-phase instrument depends entirely on the network to connect to it from the bulbs and its power consumption.
To install photoelectric control for street lighting in private homes is better to choose the usual household model 220 V. They are abundant enough, especially if it will be connected to the fuel-efficient LED lighting.
Technical parameters - what to look for
Some imported electrical appliances designed for network 110 or 127 V. Rare, but they can stumble in lighting stores. Just as in the Russian networks to the 220 they can not work. For them, the need to install an additional transformer. Better just to take the equipment from which the connection will be less of a problem.
The first and main indicator - degree of protection. For installation in the open air should choose a model with a sealed enclosure for IP65 or higher. And to be installed under the roof or in the dark panel is quite suitable device with IP44.
The second option - thresholdWhich is expressed in lux. This range is usually from 2 to 50 Lk. Photo- Has adjustment of this indicator, the user can customize it for your personal preference. Acquire the device with a fixed minimum threshold is only in extreme cases.
The third indicator - type of connected lamps. Often the light barrier is designed for exclusive use with incandescent bulbsCreating a resistive load.
To connect devices with fluorescent already reactive load is required to take a different kind of twilight switches. A connection for mercury or sodium lamps need machinery with an additional protective circuit, designed for inrush current.
When you select a relay with external photocell is necessary to consider the length of cable between them - it has certain limitations, to change it to a larger by the meter can not be
And last parameters - dimensions and the weight. The largest size of the light barrier - a power supply step-down transformer inside. Sam photosensor (LED) has a very small size.
Much more space is required, the contactor or magnetic switchThrough which the connected lighting. All this must fit in a cabinet or near the lamp.
whether additional features are important
Many models are supplemented svetokontroliruyuschih relay sensors and timers. Origin guarantee inclusion lighting only when moving the person on controlled areas, and the second unit allows completely disable the day regardless of the level of natural illumination.
Virtually all of the photosensors at the factory are configured so that when the short light headlights of a passing car simply does not operate
The most expensive models - is a light barrier with an electronic scoreboard and a programmable controller. These devices make it possible for every season and occasion to lay its program of work.
For example, the lighting in the winter will be included earlier in the summer later. It is also possible shutdown of the relay together with street lamps after an hour of the night, so that they did not burn the energy in vain.
Nuances light sensor mounting
Svetokontroliruyuschy device is usually mounted near with a lamp connected to it. For each model, the connection scheme is selected according to the instruction in the data sheet. It before works should be explored without fail.
Special skills to perform the installation is not required. We only need to calculate everything so that the lighting appliance is not overloaded line. Load Photo- practically does not on the network. However RCD a photosensor panel itself should be chosen based on the number and capacity of connected light bulbs.
For self-installation photoelectric enough to have minimal knowledge of electrical installation and follow the simple rules of safety of its performance
There are a few simple rules of installation of photosensitive switch:
- Connect the twilight switch and the entire line of lighting devices after it recommended a separate line from the switch board with your circuit breaker.
- Do not install photosensor upside down. On the one hand it should be open to sunlight, on the other hand it should fall on the light from artificial light bulbs.
- This appliance can not be installed near flammable materials near heating equipment and reactive environments.
- If the light barrier is connected to a lot of light bulbs in the circuit necessary to provide a magnetic contactor.
The main thing - the light from all luminaires should not fall on the photocell. Otherwise it will not work continuously, as it should be. Photo sensor reacts to any light. Whether it is artificial or natural lighting from the sun.
Wiring lighting to light barrier (direct or via a contactor) is selected depending on the total power plug fixtures
The main body of photoelectric have a plan with all the color-coded wires emanating from it. Typically, brown phase goes on with the flap ( «L»), blue to zero ( «N»), and the red or black - a street lighting lamp. It is only necessary to clean the ends of the cores and connect all in accordance with the attached wiring diagram.
If the photosensor two contacts, one of which is connected to the phase with the panel, and the second is on the lamp. Zero in this case is absent.
In a situation of connection of street lighting through the magnetic starter, he is connected to a light barrier as well as a light bulb. And they themselves have lights powered by it.
In this case, the relay closes the lamp circuit is not feeding, but only the starter. After a switch to such a scheme, the minimum current passes, so will suit a cheaper and low-power device. The entire load is shifted to the external contactor.
About how to choose the fixtures for the organization of street lighting with solar batteries, detailed in next articleWith which we recommend reviewing.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Difficulties with the selection and incorporation of the light sensor should arise in the street lighting system. All very simple. The following video will allow even the novice electrician to understand all the intricacies of installing this device.
Video # 1. All the nuances connection photosensor "day-night":
Video # 2. Overview of photoelectric switch on / off night light in the street:
Video # 3. Description connection diagrams twilight switch via an external contactor:
Svetokontroliruyuschie relay for mounting with street lighting devices are simple in design and connection. They greatly simplify the life of the owners of private houses and reduce power consumption. Models of such devices in the stores there are many. You can always pick up with the necessary parameters for a particular situation.
And if you have knowledge and experience in electrical engineering, something like a light barrier may be collected from the photodiode, a conventional diode, a relay and a pair of transistors with resistors.
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