Grushovka is an old variety of apples, which is obtained by natural evolution. Apple trees of this sort have a value among gardeners and gardeners of amateurs for the excellent properties of apples, for frost resistance and high yield.
Apples of Grushovka variety are common in all regions of the Russian Federation. But if you are planning to plant seedlings, it is worth studying the characteristics of this variety of fruit crops.
Table of contents
- Description of the variety of apples Grushovka
- History of breeding
- Description of apple tree
- Description of fruits
- Region of growth
- Yield and storage of Moscow and winter varieties
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Photo of ripe apples
- Rules of landing
- Care instructions
- Protection against pests
- Reviews of gardeners
Description of the variety of apples Grushovka
History of breeding
Variety Grushovka - a kind of apple trees, which appeared by natural selection, that is, in a natural way. This variety is one of the oldest, it is more than 200 years old. Even in ancient Russia there are mentions of these apples.
On the basis of Grushovka by crossing, other varieties of apple trees were obtained - Grushovka early, Grushovka winter, Grushovka Moscow.
Description of apple tree
The Grushovka trees have the following characteristics:
- Large in size. The height of the tree is 6-7 meters;
- Crown, branched with a round view, young trees have a pyramidal crown;
- Apple-tree Grushovka is an erect plant with a sympodial type of branching, branches without spines;
- The bark of branches has a yellowish-orange color;
- Shoots of the vegetative type have a bark with a reddish-brown color;
- Shoots of the generative type or the rings are in large numbers, their coloring is much darker than the main branches;
- The leaves are located on long petioles, the form in the form of elipsa;
- By color, the leaf blades are green or yellowish green in color;
- The leaves of young trees have a margin on the surface, in adults the leaves have a rare fluff or their surface is smooth;
- During the flowering period, flowers with pink petals appear, after a while they change the shade to light pink or white.
Description of fruits
At the moment of fruiting, fruit trees appear on apple trees of Grushovka variety, which have the following characteristics:
- Ripe apples of small size. The weight of one fetus at the moment of maturation is from 60 to 80 grams. The maximum weight is from 100 to 120 grams;
- Fruits have a round shape with a flattened structure;
- The surface of apples is greenish-yellow with a lot of stripes and interspersions with red or pink color;
- The skin has a fine structure with a smooth surface.On top there is a coating with natural wax;
- The fruits have a soft flesh with a high juiciness, which has a bright and pleasant aroma.
Region of growth
Apples of Grushovka variety grow in all regions of Russia. They are widely distributed in the following regions:
- All regions that are part of the European part of Russia;
- The Urals;
- Western regions;
- East of Siberia.
In addition, the variety grows in other CIS countries - in Belarus and Ukraine.
You may also be interested in the following varieties of apples:
- Variety of apples Borovinka
- All about Semerenko apples
- Detailed description of a variety of apples Zhigulevskoye
Yield and storage of Moscow and winter varieties
Grushovka is an early variety.The ripening period of the harvest begins in late July at the beginning of August. Apple trees can live up to 50-60 years. The fruiting period starts from 4 years after disembarkation. The yield in the first year of fruiting comes to 10 kilograms, and if the tree has an age of 15 years, the yield level reaches 80-100 kilograms from one tree.
Fruit collection begins in early August. Shelf life of the crop is 2-3 weeks.
Variety Grushovka samobesplodny, for ovary fruit, pollination pollen from other varieties is necessary. Pollinators such as Antonovka, Papirova, Anis Striped, Cinnamon, and Belfler-Chinese can be used for pollinating this variety..
Advantages and disadvantages
Variety Grushovka has a number of advantages, of which it is worth highlighting the main:
- Trees have high frost resistanceand can withstand frosts below 50 degrees Celsius;
- Long life expectancy up to 50-60 years;
- Have early fruiting;
- Rapid appearance of ripe fruits;
- High yield;
- High level of useful components in apples;
- From apples you can make compotes, jam, jams, juices, jam.
In addition to the merits, there are also negative aspects:
- Trees are prone to diseases, pests;
- High susceptibility to weather conditions;
- Not regular fruiting;
- Has uneven maturation of fruits. In one tree, one fruit completely ripens and crumbles, while others remain green;
- Short shelf life. The harvested yield is maximum 2-3 weeks;
- Not intended for transportation.
Photo of ripe apples
Below are the varieties of Grushovka apples:.
Rules of landing
A suitable base for cultivation is loamy, sandy and turfy..
Rules of planting seedlings:
- Holes should be made with steep slopes.The width of the holes should be 100 cm and depth 60 cm;
- 4 days before planting in the pit, you need to put the fertilizer mixture. In each pit you need to fall asleep 25 kilograms of humus;
- In the excavated pit, a depression should be made for the branched roots of young trees;
- Planting should be done with pegsand, to which the planted seedlings are tied;
- Pegs should be driven from the north side;
- After landing, the tree is immediately watered. One seedling requires about 30 liters of water;
- After watering, the wells are mulched with humus and compost.
Recommendations for care:
- For a good development of the tree at the time of the first flowering, 85% of the flowers, 50% of the fruits in green condition, are cut off;
- Apple-tree apple Grushovkado not tolerate a severe drought,so they must be watered at least 2-3 times a week. A complete cessation of watering should be done at the end of August, beginning of September, so that the tree has time to prepare for the winter;Fertilizing wood is required in the second season. In the first year of his life it is possible to loosen and constantly water.
- In spring, to fertilize trees in the ground, you need to fill up the rotted horse manure or humus. At 1 square meter, 8-12 kilograms. For mineral fertilizer, 400-600 grams of carbamide is used;
- In the autumn period, the trees need to be fed with fertilizer mixtures of a complex type"Kemira Autumn". At 1 square. meter will take 30-40 grams;
- In the autumn period, mulching by horse manure is carried out to improve the winter hardiness of the tree, the thickness of the layer should be 5 cm;
- In order for the trunk to become straight and formed, circumcise the tree one year after the landing. During trimming, the upper branches are cut to the third part. The trunk is shortened by 30-40 cm. Further pruning is done as needed.
Recommendations for whitewashing:
- Before beginning whitening, all cracks and various holes in the bark of the tree should be covered with garden varnish;
- For whitewashing, you need to prepare a solution, which should consist of 2 kilograms of quicklime, 6 liters of water and 1 kilogram of fatty clay. All components are mixed, add a little skim milk, so that whitewash tends to stick to the tree;
- Whitewashing trees should be done in November, after the end of autumn showers%
- The surface of the trunk and bifurcates, which are the base of large branches, are white.
Protection against pests
In order to avoid the defeat of apple-trees with scab, every year in the autumn period it is necessary to completely clean the garden of old foliage, carrion.It is necessary to perekapat entire surface of the tree, and also treat all wounds by special means, for example, garden syrup.
If on the trees there are already lesions from the scab, they must be treated with a Bordeaux mixture with a 1-3% solution. When preparing this mixture, it is necessary to mix a solution of copper sulfate and lime.
During the preparation of a 1-solution, 10 liters of water should be filled with 100 grams of copper sulfate and 120 grams of quicklime.Preliminary copper vitriol should be diluted in 1 liter of boiling water. Then slowly into this mixture you need to pour 5 liters of cold water.
Lime should also be diluted in 1 liter of boiling water. Then 5 liters of cold water are poured into this solution. Both solutions are separately filtered through the gauze material. Further, a solution of copper sulphate is poured into the lime solution. Everything is mixed.This mixture of trees must be processed on both sides.
From the lesions of the scab help to get rid of other means. The most effective are Strobi and Skor. By means of "Strobi" apple-trees should be processed in the early spring, and "Skor" in the autumn period. Both drugs are bred equally - 1 ampoule in 10 liters of water.
Reviews of gardeners
Olga:"In my garden, the apple of the Grushovka variety has long been growing. This variety is early. Ripe fruit I collect already in early August. Despite the fact that apples are small in size, they taste superb. When fully ripe, they become green silt and yellow with a lot of red or pink inclusions. Structure of the pulp is white. However, they are not stored for too long. "
Elena:"Several apple-trees of the Grushovka variety grow on my site. They are already about 15 years old. I get a big harvest, I collect up to 3 bags of apples from each tree. The period of ripening is from the beginning of August. Ripe apples have an excellent taste and high juiciness. However, only the shelf life is not long, only 3 weeks. "
Alexander:"We have one apple tree in the garden in the garden of Grushovka. He is almost 20 years old. The maturation period is quite early. Ripe apples are already torn in early August. The color of ripe fruits is light green with a lot of red inclusions. They taste superb - they are juicy, sweet and aromatic. "
The apple tree of the Grushovka variety is an old variety, which has a high value. Trees perfectly take root in the region with any climate, and also tolerate severe frosts. A ripe apples have excellent taste and useful qualities. Almost every year you can get a high level of harvest..