The washing machine failed: does the washing start, the drum does not spin? Probably, you need to check up serviceability of the electric motor of the washing machine. When there is a breakdown of the motor, the AGR completely stops working.
You can determine the malfunction by external signs - we described each in detail in this article. Also you will learn how to properly check the engine in a washing machine with a multimeter.
Content of the material:
- 1Varieties and working principle
- 2How the engine works in a washing machine
- 3Causes of malfunction
4Stages of verification
- 4.1Checking the brushes
- 4.2Problems with lamellas
- 4.3Winding problems
Varieties and working principle
There are three main types of engine washing machines:
- Asynchronous (single-phase, three-phase). Single-phase was used in older models of SM. Quiet work and simplicity of design made it popular in the 2000s. The part consists of a stator and a rotor.
However, larger models and lower efficiency have replaced larger models.
- Collector. The most common type today. The motor is compact, quiet in operation, rotates at high speeds. It operates on a belt drive, and most importantly - it does not depend on the frequency in the electrical network. Easy to disassemble, which allows you to perform repairs yourself. However, its graphite brushes are quickly erased and require replacement.
- Direct drive (brushless). Modern development of manufacturers. This type does not require a belt to rotate the drum. The three-phase motor, the rotor on magnets allow to develop high speed with high efficiency.
Due to the compact dimensions of the motor, the styrene has a smaller size.
It is important to know which engine is in your washing machine and what to do if it does not start.
Before you test the efficiency of the motor, consider its operation principle and the main nodes.
How the engine works in a washing machine
Stator.This part consists of steel plates, between them there are copper windings. The stator itself is immovable, but the magnetic field produced by it interacts with the field of the rotor, causing it to move.
Rotor (anchor).The element consists of a core, a winding, a collector. The rotor interacts with brushes that transfer the voltage to its collector.
Tadhodchik.This part is located on the engine casing. The sensor measures the speed of rotation, transmits data to the main module. Depending on the selected mode, the module adjusts the speed of rotation.
Causes of malfunction
- Every user should know how to check the brushes of the electric motor. By transferring current, the brushes wear out quickly, which can cause the styralki to stop.
- The cause of failure of the AGR can be worn out lamellas. Their connectors are rubbed, jags are formed, which requires replacement or repair of the engine of the washing machine.
- If there is a break in the stator or rotor windings (this may be a consequence of a short circuit), then repairs can not be avoided either.
Before resorting to replacement parts, find out how to check the collector motor in the washing machine.
Stages of verification
Why should we check the collector motor? Because the rest types at home can not be checked. To determine their breakdown, you can only by external signs, or by the error code on the machine display.
The first thing you need to get the motor out of the car body. To do this, turn off the Stiralka from the voltage, disconnect all communications. Now:
- It is necessary to remove the back cover from the case. In some models, you will first have to remove the top cover. To do this, unscrew the two screws from the rear and set the top panel aside.
- Unscrew the bolts around the perimeter of the back cover, remove it.
- Below, under the tank, you will see the engine.
- Take pictures of the connectors, disconnect the wiring.
- Remove the bolts holding the motor. Pull it out of the case.
To check if the electric motor has burnt out, it is enough to inspect it superficially. Then proceed to a serious test: connect the stator and rotor windings alternately, connect the remaining ends of the wire to a voltage of 220 volts. Proceed according to the diagram below.
So you check the electric motor of the washing machine. If it rotates, it means it still works, if not, it must be replaced.
However, one must take into account that in the working environment the rotation of the part takes place under load. Therefore, you need to fully check all the components.
Checking the brushes
Signs of wear of brushes:
- When you work SM, you hear a noise, grind.
- The drum rotates only at low speed or stops altogether.
Rapid wear is facilitated by overloading of the washing machine with linen, constant spinning only at high speeds.
Checking the motor on the washing machine by connecting to the voltage, you can notice that the brushes began to spark. Verify this will help visual inspection: they are located on the sides of the body. Disconnect their wires and pull them out. The photo shows how a new and worn brush looks:
Be sure to change both brushes at once, otherwise the effect on the rotor will be uneven. You can buy the right product by calling the brand and model of the washing machine.
The elements are installed in the reverse order, then the wiring is connected to them.
Problems with lamellas
Consider how to check the collector of the motor. Visually inspecting the collector, on which the brushes slide, you may notice slight detachments. The lamella exfoliates because of the jamming of the engine.
Slightly scrolling the rotor, you can hear a scraping sound - he talks about problems with the collector.
If this is a small detachment, the groove on the machine will help. The lamellas are sharpened, all burrs and chips are removed.
Due to a malfunction of the stator winding and the rotor, the motor loses its power or completely stops the movement. Why this happens: in a faulty winding, short circuits occur, because of this the motor housing is heated to 90 degrees. As a result, the thermostat trips and the engine shuts down.
If the integrity is broken, you will have to completely change the winding or buy a new engine. You can not perform such repairs at home.
How to correctly ring the winding of the electric motor rotor? Take the multimeter tester, set it to the resistance measurement mode. Apply the dipstick to each lamella, checking the readings. A serviceable component should not show more than 20-200 ohms.
With a break in the winding, the resistance will be as high as possible. And when you close the overall indicators will be lower.
Now you know how to check the resistance of the motor winding.
Next, switch the tester into buzzer mode. Connect the dipstick to the rotor and to each lamella in turn. If you hear a signal, a malfunction has occurred.
Consider how to check the stator winding by ringing the engine with a tester. Apply the dipstick alternately to each end of the winding. Heard the signal? This indicates the interturn closure.
For diagnostics on the breakdown of the body, attach one probe to the winding, the other to the body. The presence of a signal will indicate a breakdown. In this case, the AGR can be shocked.
If you determined that the motor is defective, replace the engine and the compatibility of the washing machines. Always buy the item specifically for your model.
We analyzed how to check the rotor and the stator of the collector motor. You also learned how to replace brushes. You can start repairing. Related videos will help you:.