The task of the device autonomous sewage on a country site without any problems you can handle on their own. For the organization of its accumulative and purification points, they produce a wide range of structures. They need to be properly installed in the pit and connected to the sewer pipeline.
However, for normal operation of the system, it is necessary that it be constructed in exact compliance with the installation requirements. As an illustrative example, let's look at how a septic tank is installed. This is a typical non-volatile sewage treatment facility designed for wastewater treatment.
You will learn all about the choice of capacity suitable for the volume and the installation rules of the cleaning point from the article proposed by us. We have laid out in the finest detail the steps for assembling and installing a septic tank. Taking into account our recommendations, you can build a trouble-free system.
The content of the article:
- Device and principle of operation
- Advantages and disadvantages of septic tanks Tank
- How to choose a suitable model?
Step-by-step installation instruction
- Step # 1 - Preparatory Work
- Step # 2 - preparation of pits and land works
- Step # 3 - Install Infiltrators
- Step # 4 - Connecting the elements to the sewer house
- Step # 5 - Backfilling and Warming the Highway
- Rules of operation and maintenance
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Device and principle of operation
Traditionally, in the private sector, a drain well or a pit without bottom is arranged. However, this method with the current standard of living with the frequent use of chemical detergents is unacceptable. The ecosystem of the site and the whole neighborhood suffers. Unpleasant smell - the usual drawback of such a structure.
Installing an airtight storage tank will help only with occasional residence. Otherwise, the costs of the services of the nightman, especially if there is a shower and washing machine in the house, become substantial.
The septic tank is a local structure, which is inserted into the ground on its own site. In fact, it is an underground tank-settler, in which the mechanical and then the biological purification of the effluent takes place.
After a septic tank, the degree of purification of water reaches 75%, so it is imperative to install an additional device for purification - filtration field, infiltration tank, filtration well
With the combination of a septic tank and a soil dofiltration device, a degree of water purification is reached, equal to 96-98%.
The septic tank is a cast container made of polypropylene, the internal volume of which is divided into three sections. The chambers are interconnected by internal overflows, the latter is equipped with a powerful ecofiltration system.
The device case is lightweight and durable at the same time. Thick, elastic, ribbed walls withstand the pressure of the soil, while not deformed. At the top there are service hatches. The design of the tank is block-modular, which allows you to dial any desired volume of wastewater by the serial connection of several devices.
The septic tank is chosen depending on the daily volume of water consumption. All Tank models are compact enough and can be mounted almost anywhere on the site.
Each septic chamber performs a specific task. The first is the reception room - all the drains from the house get into it and undergo primary cleaning. As a result of settling, heavy particles sink to the bottom and form a layer of sludge, and light fatty and organic fractions float upwards.
Conditionally clean water from the middle region falls into the next section. Here, the process is similar - there is a completion.
In the last chamber, the liquid passes through a floating module - a filter made of polymer fibers, in which colonies of anaerobic bacteria are established. Under their influence the decomposition of waste occurs, the process residues settle on the bottom.
The manufacturer recommends cleaning the septic tank from sludge once a year.
Septic tank operation does not depend on the availability of electricity and occurs in a completely autonomous mode.
For the complete purification of water, the system must be supplemented with a soil purification device. Since the installation of a septic tank Tank is most often done by hand, the most convenient structures are industrially manufactured infiltrators. They allow you to organize a sewage treatment system in the shortest possible lines and do not require complex installation.
Structurally, the infiltrator is an oblong tank with ribbed, solid walls and without a bottom. Outwardly, it resembles a cover. From the ends provided pipes - inlet and outlet.
Output is used to connect several modules in series or vent pipe. There are models without an outlet - they have a vent in the upper part of the case.
The use of an infiltrator in an autonomous sewage system can significantly increase the degree of wastewater treatment. The shape of the body of the device contributes to the direction of wastewater only down (+)
The filtering layer is a pad of sand and gravel or gravel on which the body of the device is mounted. Passing through such a cleansing natural filter, all remaining nerazdelazivshiysya impurities and substances are deposited, and water enters the soil, the purity is comparable to the technical.
Advantages and disadvantages of septic tanks Tank
Among the owners of houses in cottage and cottage villages septic tank are always in demand because of their merits:
- Robust and reliable monolithic construction;
- The possibility at any time to increase the performance of the cleaning system by including an additional septic tank and infiltrators in the circuit (thanks to the block-modular device);
- High effluent treatment in combination with infiltrates;
- Long operational life;
- The work of the septic tank is carried out autonomously, without any energy sources;
- The small size of the containers and their light weight allow for installation with their own hands;
- Low labor costs during installation;
- No need for frequent maintenance - once a year, it is enough to use the services of a vacuum truck and pump the sludge;
- Affordable cost - these septic tanks belong to the average price category among similar products on the market.
High-quality plastic, from which the container is made, is not susceptible to corrosion and erosion under the influence of aggressive inclusions in soils, water erosion and cracking. Resistant to aggressive wastewater. Therefore, the sewage system with such a septic tank has a long service life of at least 50 years.
Installation of several septic tanks in a sequential circuit allows you to improve the performance of the sewer system. The number of infiltrators also proportionally increase (+)
There are drawbacks for tanks Tank:
- It is necessary to complete the purification of the fluid leaving the septic tank;
- Improper installation and operation lead to the smell of sewage;
- With a close location of groundwater, additional drainage systems are required.
It is necessary to consider the location of groundwater throughout the year. The spring flood can become a serious annual problem when the filtering layer of the infiltrator is simply filled with liquid and will pose a threat of excessive rise in the groundwater level.
If the area of the site allows, for disposal of the settled and clarified water is better to arrange filter field. This option will allow to dump the processed liquid component of the effluent into the upper layers of the geological section. They usually quickly absorb water, because differ in high filtrational properties.
Therefore, in areas with a characteristic seasonal appearance of flood waters, an elementary drainage well with a submersible pump for pumping excess liquid and dumping it on the relief (into the drainage ditch).
How to choose a suitable model?
When choosing elements of the wastewater treatment system, the number of people permanently living in the house becomes the determining factor. For each tenant, the norms need 200 liters per day. Therefore, the minimum performance of a septic tank for a small family of three people is 600 liters per day.
In combination with septic tanks, Triton-400 infiltrators are used. Their number is also selected taking into account the daily water consumption. The absorption capacity of soils is also taken into account - for clay representatives the number of buildings is doubled.
The number of infiltrators depends not only on the performance of the septic tank to which they are connected, but also on the filtration properties of the soil
Septic tanks are available in different versions, each of which is supplied with the manufacturer's recommendations:
- Tank 1 - suitable for servicing three permanently residing people and a daily volume of wastewater up to 600 liters. It has dimensions of 1.2 mx 1 mx 1.7 m, weight - 75 kg. A chain with it is mounted one infiltrator when installed on peat and sandy sediments and two - on clay soils.
- Tank 2 - handles up to 800 liters of waste per day, can serve up to four people. Dimensions - 1.8 m × 1.2 m × 1.7 m, the weight of the installation - 130 kg. Two infiltrators go to it, four are installed on clay rocks.
- Tank 2.5 - daily output is one thousand liters, dimensions - 2 m × 1.2 m × 1.85 m. Suitable for four to five people. Weight - 140 kg. The number of infiltrators is similar to the installation Tank 2.
- Tank 3 - septic tank provides water disposal in the amount of 1200 l, serving five to six family members. The weight of the installation is 150 kg, dimensions - 2.2 m × 1.2 m × 2 m. In areas with peat and sandy soils, three infiltrators are connected to it, and six in sandy loams and loams.
- Tank 4 - set for the discharge of wastewater from one or more buildings and maintenance of up to nine permanent residents. Performance - up to 1,800 liters per day. The weight of the septic tank is 230 kg, overall dimensions - 3.6 m × 1 m × 1.7 m. Together with it, four infiltrators are installed on the sand and peat, eight - on clay and loams.
If the amount of wastewater will constantly exceed the recommended one, then insufficiently purified water will merge into the ground and the site's ecosystem may suffer.
Too much septic tank will not be economical and will require more space. It is worthwhile to choose a reservoir with a higher performance if guests often receive guests in the house or it is planned to replenish the number of tenants.
The model of septic tank is chosen based on the volume of water consumption, which depends on the number of residents
Step-by-step installation instruction
Installation of elements of autonomous cleaning system is simple. However, it has its own subtleties, so before starting work it is necessary to carefully study the installation instructions for a septic tank, infiltration tanks, sewer pipelines and strictly follow the technology.
Stages of work include preparatory, ground works, directly installation, connection and backfilling.
A photo of
Stage 1: Installation of a septic tank The tank includes a number of stages traditional for all sewer systems, the first of which is the development of a pit
Stage 2: A sewage tank is installed on the leveled and rammed bottom of the pit, the capacity of which is selected according to the water consumption of the family. Multiple modules allowed
Stage 3: The inlet (or nozzles) is fitted with a fitting that provides a tight connection to the sewer line
Stage 4: To the septic tank, a sewer pipeline is laid, laid on the depth of the sewage system traditional for the region
Stage 5: Plates of extruded polystyrene foam - insulation with minimal moisture absorption are laid over and around the septic tank.
Stage 6: Since no septic tank was anchoring, consisting in fixing the container to the reinforced concrete plate laid at the bottom of the pit, the pit is filled with sand concrete. After wetting under natural conditions, it will not allow the tank to “float” during the flood flood period.
Step 7: To install the infiltration plants, a separate excavation pit is being developed, the depth of which takes into account the slope to the place of discharge. Geotextiles and rubble are laid on the bottom
Step 8: On top of the filtering bed, infiltration plants are installed, the number of which corresponds to the project. After checking the performance of the system, the pit is filled with "native" soil
Formation of a ditch for installation of a septic tank Tank
Immersion of a septic tank in the prepared ditch
Fitting for connection of sewer pipes
Sewer Pipeline Assembly
Warming of a septic tank plate thermal insulation
Filling of a ditch with a septic tank sand-concrete mix
Arrangement of a pit for infiltrators
Installing Septic Tank Infiltrators
Step # 1 - Preparatory Work
To avoid problems during operation, it is necessary to take a thorough approach to site preparation, the necessary materials, tools and structural elements.
First choose the place of installation. Any modern septic tank is a sealed and durable design. However, the cleaning system represents a certain environmental hazard, since the possibility of pipe rupture or depressurization of joints cannot be ruled out.
Therefore, the placement plan taking into account sanitary standards:
- Sewage elements are removed from the water intake point at a distance of 20-50 m (depending on the type of soil), from the water supply system - by 10 m to eliminate the potential for contamination of the source of drinking water;
- The minimum distance to the house is 5 m, so that the water filtered and absorbed into the soil layers does not wash out foundation, maximum - 15 m, otherwise it will be difficult to comply with the necessary for gravity flow of waste slope;
- Provide free travel to the place of installation of the tank, as the septic tank must be cleaned;
- It is forbidden to install sewage treatment plants close to the boundary of the site - the minimum distance from the fence neighbor should be 2 m, from the public road with heavy traffic - 5 m, from the passage - 2 m;
- The distance from the pipeline - at least 5 m;
- Do not install cleaning products near plants with a strong root system - the distance from trees should not be less than 3 m, from shrubs - 1 m.
Taking into account these rules, the site is marked for the location of all elements of the cleaning system, and it is planned to lay a highway from the house.
It is advisable to mount the pipeline in a straight line - blockages are formed at the turning points. If you can not do without them, then at the points of change of direction equip inspection (inspection) wellsto ensure the possibility of cleaning.
In addition to compliance with the required distances, the relief of the site should be taken into account. Sewage elements should be located down the slope than the source of the water intake — a well or a well.
Determine the depth of groundwater and the type of sediment in the area. The depth of the trenches, the number of infiltrators and the need for additional drainage elements will depend on this.
Prepare the necessary materials. For the installation of a septic tank will need:
- coarse sand;
- gravel (crushed stone);
- plastic construction mesh;
For highly located groundwater it is necessary to exclude the possibility of pushing the container to the surface. To do this, prepare a concrete slab or a concrete solution to fill it in place.
Step # 2 - preparation of pits and land works
Prepare a pit under the septic tank. Its width and length should exceed the corresponding overall dimensions of the tank by 25-30 cm.
The depth is calculated taking into account the height of the tank, the thickness of the sand cushion, the presence of a concrete screed and the provision of the required slope of the sewer pipeline. The depth of the upper wall of the hull relative to the level of the day surface should not exceed 1 m, but at the same time be sufficient to effectively heat the tank.
At the bottom of the pit, sand is poured with a layer of 30-40 cm and tamped tightly. In order to separate the natural bedding soil and the bulk sand cushion, geofabric is laid.
If the groundwater level is low, that is enough. Otherwise, it is required to lay a reinforced concrete slab over the sand cushion, or to make a concrete screed.
Metal hinges should be laid in the concrete slab (coupler), the distance between which is greater than the dimensions of the hull. If there are no loops, you can install anchor eye bolts.
A layer of sand is tamped and carefully level horizontally using a level to avoid slanting of the tank.
Next, you need to dig a pit for infiltrators. The minimum distance from it to the pit for the septic tank is 2 m. The distance from the side walls of the pit to the walls of the device is 50 cm. The dimensions of the pit depend on the number of infiltrators installed.
The walls of the prepared pit are closed with geotextiles, a plastic construction mesh is laid on the bottom, and 40 cm of a mixture consisting of gravel (crushed stone) and coarse sand is laid on it.
Under the laying of pipelines arrange a trench from the house to the septic tank and from the septic tank to the infiltrator. Their width should exceed the diameter of the sewer by 40 cm (20 each side). Their bottom is also covered with sand - 10-20 cm thick, it should not be strongly compacted.
Step # 3 - Install Infiltrators
Installation of the tank is best done using a crane, as it will be necessary to install the septic tank body without displacements and distortions, exactly in the center of the prepared excavation. Lighter models can be gently lowered with the help of ropes or cloths - this requires the involvement of at least three assistants.
Competent drainage and the shape of the reservoir preclude its ascent under the action of groundwater. However, in areas with characteristic sharp flooding of the soil (seasonal, as a result of river flooding, or after heavy rains), it is recommended to anchor the septic tank.
To do this, the retaining straps are thrown over the upper surface of the case and securely fasten them in the hinges of the metal fixture.
The tank is installed in the pit exactly in the middle, avoiding distortions. Then they bring to him a hose connected to the water supply.
In the pit prepared for infiltrators put the required number of devices. On the last case in the chain mount vent riser.
Step # 4 - Connecting the elements to the sewer house
Lay the pipeline from the sewer outlet from the house to the septic tank and from the septic tank to the infiltrators. Stacked pipes with a slope, providing spontaneous movement of wastewater to the point of treatment.
It is recommended to use rubber connecting cuffs for connection, so that the connections are tight, but not rigid. This will save plastic sewer pipes from cracking and destruction during seasonal displacements of soil layers.
Sewer line must have a bias from home to the last element of the system. Its optimum value for a pipeline with a diameter of 110 mm is 2 cm for each running meter. In this case, a smooth and silent runoff of sewage is guaranteed and the accumulation of solid fractions and the formation of blockages are practically eliminated.
Before each subsequent stage of work, the angle of the pipeline should be checked to ensure that incorrectly installed elements do not impede the free flow of the settled and purified liquid.
At the site of the highway leading to the septic tank, be sure to install vent riser for removal of gases resulting from decomposition processes. It can be attached to the building from the outside, is displayed by a separate channel in the ventilation shaft of the house, or go out in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir.
Step # 5 - Backfilling and Warming the Highway
Clean the cleaning devices manually only to eliminate the risk of damage. To move the containers can not pick up their sharp and piercing objects.
Ditches and trenches are filled with coarse sand based mixtures - a cement-sand mixture is prepared in a ratio of 1: 5 for a septic tank, and sand is mixed with soil for an infiltrator and pipes. Such an environment will help reduce the load on structural elements with seasonal displacements of soil layers and soil heaving.
The excavation with a capacity is filled in stages - evenly distribute the prepared mixture in layers of 30 cm from all sides of the container and carefully compact them. To exclude deformation of the septic tank, they gradually fill it with clean water - it should be ensured that its level is higher than the level of the sand-cement layer.
The pit for infiltrators is also uniformly filled and tamped. Trenches above the pipeline are compacted only from the sides. No tamper is produced above the nozzles.
Cover the system elements with prepared sand mixtures to a level of 10-15 cm above their upper surfaces. Next, the entire highway, including the pipeline, is covered with insulation to protect against freezing. For this you can use both rolled materials (izolon) and sheet (penoplex).
The freezing of any part of the highway threatens the complete cessation of the sewer system due to the formation of ice jams. Therefore, all elements are carefully covered with insulation
Fill trenches and trenches with primer to the surface. It should be borne in mind that even a thick layer of sedimentary rocks will not protect the septic tank from the load that occurs when vehicles are passing over its installation site.
If it is not possible to avoid such situations, then a reinforced concrete slab with a thickness of 250 mm or more should be mounted above the tank.
At installation of a septic tank it is necessary to strictly observe technology and recommendations of professionals (+)
Rules of operation and maintenance
Septic tanks Tank does not require specific maintenance and invitations of technical specialists, unpretentious in operation. They quietly carry almost any kind of domestic waste - allowed to enter the sewer food debris (while washing dishes), toilet paper, a small amount of cleaning and washing means.
However, some rules of treatment are still worth observing:
- Once a year to make cleaning of solid waste deposited at the bottom of the settling chambers. When using biopreparations with bacteria that thin a sediment, the frequency of such a procedure is reduced - pumping is carried out every 3-5 years.
- Antibacterial detergents, alcohol, alkalis and acids, antifreeze, chemicals and medical preparations should not be allowed to enter the system. Such substances kill the bacteria needed to clean the wastewater.
- Do not let aggressive bacteria enter the container. Contained in pickles, mushrooms, rotting food and water, which is washed with household filters. They interfere with the proper operation of the septic tank and can cause its complete failure.
- It is impossible to keep open the maintenance hatch for a long time in winter.
- If tenants live in the house only in the summer season, then the system should be mothballed for the winter. To do this, it should be filled with clean water in the amount of 50-70% of the total volume of the tank. The liquid will allow to preserve the vital activity of the colony of bacteria, compensate for the load of the soil on the body and prevent the septic tank from floating up.
By following these recommendations, home owners will be able to use the autonomous sewage system for many years, without the cost of repairing or replacing individual devices.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
A video clip from the manufacturer shows how to properly install a septic tank with an infiltrator:
Professional installation of a septic tank, infiltration tank and drainage well:
Independently carry out installation of wastewater treatment systems should be based on the recommendations of the manufacturer and professionals. In this case, it will be guaranteed uninterrupted operation and comfort of living.
Please write comments in the box below. Tell us how a septic tank or similar construction was installed on your site. Ask questions, share useful information and useful information, post a photo on the topic of the article.