From the south to the north of our country, the apple tree is a favorite fruit crop. People have been cultivating it since ancient times, and therefore there are more than 1, 00 varieties of apples, old, well-known, new or imported to us recently! They differ in size, shape, taste of the fruit: from bitter, fresh, sour to very sweet, because everyone can choose what he likes.
Apples are:summer, that is early, usually in July, ripen, they lie badly, the shelf life is about three weeks, in which they need to be eaten or processed.
Applesautumncategories begin to collect in September, they can be stored until the middle of winter. Vintagelate, or winter, finally ripens in late autumn. The apples of this category are distinguished by good curing and winter hardiness.
It is interesting that both autumn and winter varieties of apples can be ripened during storage. We will consider the best and most popular in each of the categories of the list of illustrations, so that it is possible to identify and learn the name of the fruit from the photo.
Table of contents
- Early varieties of apples
- Northern Sinap
- Types of late apple trees
- Summer grades
- White filling
- Grushovka Moscow
- Summer striped
- Autumn varieties of apples
- Autumn striped
- Cinnamon striped
- Memory of Isaev
- Glory to the winners
- Renet Simirenko
- Sinap (Kandil) Orel
- Anis scarlet
- The sweetest and tasty fruit and their names
- Belarusian sweet
- Sweet nega
- Arcade yellow
- The best green
- Granny Smith
- Pepin saffron
- Golden delishes
- The best reds
- Gloucester York
- Red Delicious
- The best varieties of apples for the Moscow region and the middle belt
- Cinnamon new
- Moscow Winter
Early varieties of apples
The northern Sinap came from the Crimea, although it now grows in the north-eastern regions of Russia. It comes from the Kandil-Chinese variety.
Is differentgood winter hardiness and keeping quality, fruits can be stored until May-June, thanks to which is very popular. Spinning, gives a stable, plentiful harvest of very tasty apples.
For a good ripening of fruits requires a lot of summer heat, because in regions with a short and fairly cold summer, apples just will not ripen. Harvest is worthfinally ripe, since unripe fruits with characteristic taste qualities will not have, and during storage can wither, but not ripen. But the mature fruit will taste as good as possiblein two or three months.
Average resistance to fungal diseases and drought. Suitable for fresh use, processing into juice, compote and jam, as well as for making dried fruits.
The famous fast-growing variety Melba, who came from Canada. Melba fructifies literally for 3 years. They grow this apple tree almost everywhere in Russia, except for the Far East, the Urals, and the northeast of Siberia.
Is differenthigh yields. The flesh of the mill is snowy, the skin is smooth. The fruits are not small, sweet and sour, with a pleasant sweet flavor. Apples melbas are well transported and with proper storage lie until November, unripe - until January, without losing attractiveness and taste, which distinguishes the grade from other summer ones.
Harvest is harvestedin late summer and early autumn. Melba poorly withstands frost, infected with scab, adult trees do not bear fruit regularly. But the arid hot summer is not frightening for her.
More than 20 new species were put on the basis of the Melba apple tree.
Late-Winter, the harvest of Student'sSeptember and first half of October. It differs especially early in fruiting: apples appear in the second year. The variety is popular in central Russia.
The fruits are not too large, but they have an attractive appearance, they have a pleasant, sour-sweet taste. Apple tree is well tolerated frost, resistant to scab. Fruits possessgood cauterity, it is easy to save until May. Ripen for a long time, harvest is removed in October..
Types of late apple trees
Apple tree of the Idarred variety -talltree. Fruit-bearing starts 5-6 years after planting. Apples are rather large, green with yellow or red blush, pleasant taste, flesh is dense and juicy.
Harvest is removedat the end of September, and apples lie before the beginning of spring. Resistant to the brown spot type, however it is affected by powdery mildew and scab. They are used fresh, juices and compotes, as well as dried fruits.
A variety that begins to bear fruit after 5 years after planting. Bogatyr's advantage is the ability to grow it practically in any climatic zone.
Fruits have a pleasant sweet and sour taste, firm and strong, juicy. Until the harvest, apples remain light green, when stored yellow, a blush may appear. Resistant to scab, frost, well transported and stably well fructifies. Harvesting takes placein September, with proper storage, apples lie until the end of spring.
A unique Macintosh variety comes from Canada. Fruits whitish yellow or green with purple or beard strips.
Fruit-bearing begins 6-7 years after planting. Harvest is harvestedin late September - early October, after which he lies for 2-3 weeks and only after that is considered ripe.
Apples are moderately sweet, full of flavor. Possessesmoderate cauterity, the fruits are stored until the beginning of spring and at full ripeness the flesh becomes slightly transparent. Winter hardiness and resistance to scab in the middle..
In most of Russia's regions, summer is not long, and therefore summer apples-refreshments are sometimes not frequent. Apple trees of this category early ripen and begin to bear fruit.
Breeders to date have been bred many varieties of apple trees that can be grown in regions previously considered unsuitable for their growth.
Apples of summer species, as a rule,juicy, sweet and very tasty. Their biggest drawback -poor shelf life. They are used fresh, make juices and canned. Consider the best of them.
A popular, common, old variety. Fruits of the white filling of a noble ivory color, where the name came from. The apple tree is a white medium-height pile, the adult tree grows to 5 meters high, the crown is pyramidal.
White fill iswinter-hardy, but is highly vulnerable to wood pests, therefore requires regular treatments. Have an sour-sweet taste. Harvest is harvestedin August.
Apples quickly deteriorate, especially when striking or falling, becausevery short time is stored. Therefore, it is best to eat them immediately or to process them. Do not over-ripen the fruit, because in this case, the taste significantly deteriorates, the pulp becomes mealy and almost tasteless.
Another famous variety, which is often confused with white bulk. But this is not entirely correct. As relatives, they still have differences. The homeland of apple-tree Papirovka is the Baltics. Fruit-bearing begins early, already 5 years after planting.
Well tolerates frosts, but unstable to the scab, the traces of which can be seen both on the foliage, and on the apples themselves. The harvest ripens a week earlier than the white pouring. Pulp is white, coarse, contains an increased level of ascorbic acid, because the taste of apples is refreshingly acidic. Quite well resists the influence of pests and diseases, but suffers from drought and frost.
Fruits of papyruspoorly transported and lie, stored for about three weeks, with damage quickly rot. If you want to keep them for a while, you need to remove the crop unattained. Also suitable for processing and preservation.
A variety of apples, obtained by Michurin's method from white pouring and boxing. Apple Candlesticks are characterized by rapid development and growth, they begin to bear fruit for 5 years, they have a powerful sprawling crown.
Theywintering, unpretentious, which is an undoubted advantage for many Russian regions. Pruning trees increases the yield, as well as the ability to form a bush from a tree. Due to frost resistance, it is possible to grow even in Siberia.
Fruits ripenin the middle of August, from one tree you can harvest up to 50 kg. The fruits are smooth, with a sweet taste and excellent commercial appearance. Apples are not bad at all, they can be stored for up to two months.
Apple treewithstands frosts to -50, because it can be grown in many Russian regions, even in the Urals and Siberia. It is one of the most frost-resistant. Fruit-bearing begin already on 5 year after planting, the crop ripensin July-August, but do not bear fruit in bulk. Apples inside the crown and on the top ripen at different times, which significantly complicates harvesting.
The pulp of apples is juicy, but after harvest it quickly becomes powdery. Fruitdo not tolerate transportationand are practically not stored. When rainy weather is susceptible to infection with scab, and when drought the tree can even lose fruit.
Grushovka Moscow is not very suitable for conservation, because the taste of apples is sour, which will require high sugar costs. But at the same time they have a lot of vitamins B and C, so they should be consumed in a fresh form.
Has Canadian roots, inferred by the method of natural pollination of the Moscow pear. Apples round-oblong, slightly ribbed at the top, bright. The taste of Mantet is very sweet, practically without the presence of acid, the pulp is white and fragrant.
Ripenfrom the end of July until the end of August. Fruits early, but the fruit is stored no more than two weeks. Trees are prone to scab,can not tolerate frosts.
As the name suggests, the color of the fruit is striped, which is its distinguishing feature from other varieties. Apple tree is rather unpretentious in care, it has immunity to scab,frost-resistant. When grown in almost any conditions, you can get a high yield of delicious, juicy, fragrant apples with tender flesh.
Fruits are poorly preserved, overgrown and not harvested in time, the crop will simply fall from the tree. Suitable for fresh, jam and compotes.
Quinti was bred about 30 years ago in Canada, from where he came to us. It was created especially for regions with relatively low average annual temperatures. Fruit ripening occurs early, the harvest is already collectedfrom the middle of July.
The fruit of the apple tree is small, with a strong bright aroma and a sweetish-sour taste. Despite the early ripening of the crop, resistance to powdery mildew, drought and heat, which is the undoubted merit of the variety, the fruit is stored very little time, only about two weeks. Quintern Apple TreeNot frost-hardy and amazed with scab..
Autumn varieties of apples
Apples fall bestfor all types of conservation. Consider the best and most popular of them.
The variety is considered one of the best in its category. High-yielding, differentaverage winter hardiness, the planted tree begins to bear fruit for 7-8 years. Ripening in the second half of September, the fruits stay on the tree for a long time, without falling off. They are kept until the middle of December.
Fruits are medium in size, with a fuzzy blush, with a creamy pulp of pleasant taste.
A popular and long-known variety of apples. It differs in that abundant crops begin to give rather late, after 14-15 years.Highly resistanta long-lived strain, suffers prolonged severe frosts.
Fruits with pulp of cream color, high taste and flavor of cinnamon, thanks to which they gave this name. Harvesting takes placein September, time for resting - up to two months. Apples are well suited for dipping and jam. In rainy weather, the variety is prone to scab disease.
Consumer maturity, that is, the time when autumn apples can be eaten, comes in 2-3 weeks.
Winter hardy unpretentiousVariety Borovinka with regular fruit.
Fruits ripenin early September, and can lie until November. Apple tree begins to bear fruit already from 4 years after planting, fruits are juicy, yellowish, medium taste qualities. Despite the high tolerability of low temperatures, wood has fragile wood, unprepossessing taste of apples themselves. Fruits and leaves are prone to scab.
Memory of Isaev
The memory of Isaev, who possessesextremely high winter hardiness, high yield. Harvesting takes placelate autumn, and the collected fruits are kept until January.
Apples differ in sweet and sour taste, they do not have a pronounced flavor, with dense, juicy and tender flesh. Resistant to scab.
Glory to the winners
Maturesin September-October, the harvested crop of fairly large fruits is stored for up to three months..
Apples Glory to the winners of sweet with sour taste, juicy and very tender. Fruit-bearing begins early, already for 4 years, good resistance to disease and winter hardiness.
Giving high yields,well-tolerated frostvariety. Large fruits with a pleasant sweet and sour taste ripenin early September..
Varieties of apples that have a late maturity are called winter varieties. Winter apples are valuable in thatthey can be for a whole year. Such good quality are best grades of this category.
Winter apples are difficult to eat immediately after collection, as their ripening usually occurs during storage. Harvest is harvested from the middle of autumn, and the fruits lie until May-June.
Fruits ripenin the first half of October, are kept until April-May. Trees are large, yields are abundant, up to 240 kg. The tree is powerful, scab andfrost resist medium. Therefore, it requires special attention during the winter, and also requires regular spraying.
The fruits are rather large, with excellent taste qualities. Stored until May, suitable for both raw use and for all processing methods.
Everyone is famous and popular variety. He has quite a few species: white, ribbed, gray, striped and so on. All of them are distinguished by high, but not regular, yields.Frost-resistantand well tolerate other climatic troubles.
Fruits Antonovki have a characteristic aroma of high intensity, sweet with sour taste, juicy and crisp flesh.
Harvest is removedin the first ten days of October. Depending on the method of storage, apples of this sort lie: in the refrigerator - until December, in the cellar - until December. Eat fresh, and also processed for jam, marmalade and pastille, make compotes and juices.
Apple trees of the Renet Symirenko variety are resistant to drought, strong wind. Trees grow very high with medium and large fruits of green in different shades. A distinctive sign is the formation of a brown hue on the fruit.
Havevery high lean, are stored until the summer. The harvest of juicy fruit with spicy, slightly giving wine, sweet taste is removed in September-October. Suitable mainly for fresh consumption.
A variety that can bear the coldest winters.Highly frost-resistant.
Ripening, the fruits turn red, have a pleasant tangible flavor, juicy and sweet. It is not rare for apples to have a waxy coating on the apples, which helps to increase the shelf-life of the fruit.
Harvesting falls onend of September-beginning of OctoberI, and the stored apples can almost until the end of spring. They can be after 2 months of resting, when they fully ripen.
Sinap (Kandil) Orel
Trees are quite large, with large practically identical in size fruits. Apples are green with blush, sweet with a little sourness. Harvest is harvestedat the end of September, there are apples until spring.
It is withdrawn in the Volga region, becausetolerates both severe frosts and drought. Fruit Anise scarlet begins quite late, 6-7 years after planting, bringing abundant harvests.
Harvesting takes placeIn November, the shelf life is limited to two months. An unpretentious apple tree, but if the weather is too wet, the fruits and leaves are infected with scab.
The sweetest and tasty fruit and their names
Adults and especially children are very fond of eating a delicious, sweet apple. The most famous in this category is the white fill and candy, which we mentioned earlier. In addition to these, there are still popular varieties of this category.
Winterprooffast type. Due to its large size, the tree is able to withstand fairly large fruits. Apples are sweet, with a very fragrant, but not too dense flesh.
Harvest is removedin early October, and the fruits lie till the end of February. Possessing excellent taste data and commercial appearance, besides it is resistant to scab.
The medium-sized tree is sour-sweet fruits of round shape of small size. Light with blush apples are characterized by an excellent aroma, sweet dessert taste without the presence of acid.
Well resists unfavorable environmental factors. Is differenthigh frost resistance.
The fruits are small, like a cylinder, yellow, with a very sweet taste and a pleasant aroma. The yield is average.
Summerwinter hardyvariety. The fruits of medium and large size are sweet, with a slight sourness and honey taste. Maturation occursIn the end of Augustand lasts for a month.
It is cultivated in the middle belt of Russia, Belarus and the Baltics. Summer maturation,perfectly tolerates freezing.
The yield is average, but the tree begins to bear fruit rather late. The fruits are small in size, very fragrant, with a honey-sweet taste. Foliage and apples are resistant to scab. Ripenin late July-early August. However, the keeping quality is low, stored for a month.
Variety with uneven maturation, harvest is removedin the second half of August. The taste of apples improves after a short rest, becoming even more sweet-honey. Taste quality is preserved for a long time without changes.
The best green
Green, with sour taste, green apples are consideredmost useful for healthand with diets. Among them - the most popular grade of renet of Simirenko, as well as papyrovka, antonovka and white fill, described above, and others.
Probably the most popular winter variety of green apples, which is difficult to confuse with others due to its bright, shiny green color and hard skin. Displaced in Australia. The taste of the fruit is very juicy with a pleasant sourness, are considered dietary due to the low sugar content.
Late ripening, ripens towards the end of autumn. The fruits are large anddo not have aroma, which is their peculiarity. Transport is well tolerated and can be stored for a long time.Frost resistant, with regular abundant fruit bearing. However, when there is a lack of heat and light, the fruits fade and become yellow.
Variety Pepin saffrondoes not have good frost resistanceand in severe frost it freezes, although after hoosho it is restored. For regular fruiting requires regular pruning, the first harvest brings 5-7 years after planting.
Apples are sweet, with an interesting grape and spicy taste, with a bright aroma. Have a good cure, from the time of collectionin Octoberperfectly preserved until March, preserving their taste.
Despite the yellowish color, yet the variety belongs to this category. Apple treewell tolerates frosts, but the drought resistance is low.
Dense, very juicy fruit with a sweet taste is harvestedFrom september, but kept until March. Lezhka positively affects the taste, making it even more gentle.
The best reds
Beautiful, bright apples decorate any table and seem especially tasty. The best grades in the category are as follows.
French variety, resistant to scab. Large, slightly flattened apples ripenin October. Fruiting starts for 6 years, but good harvests are collected only at 8-10.
The quality of the fruit is very high: sweet, juicy, with acid sourness, while growing, it becomes even sweeter. Well transported and stored until March. Frost resistance and drought resistancemedium.
Variety with large, bright red fruits of beautiful shape. Excellent taste, appearance, but resistance to scab of medium level. The tree begins to bear fruit after 5 years after planting, but yields only to 10 years.
Fertile variety, the first harvest can be removed after 3-4 years. You need to do thisat the end of September, and the fruits lie until the end of winter, with proper storage until April.
Apples are rich, bright red, with a dense skin, sweet, with a slight iron aftertaste, juicy and crispy. Well transported, resistant to mechanical damage, but when stored, are affected by a bitter patchiness. To scab, there is no stability, butfrost resistance medium.
The Late Winter Variety comes from America. It is also known to gardeners under other names: winter, winter red, Oslamov. Cultivation is necessary on moist soils, only with this condition can you get good harvests. The tree is resistant to scab and to powdery mildew.
Fruits with a pleasant, sour taste and bright aroma are removedin mid-September. Well tolerates transportation and storage, lies until the middle of spring.
The variety originated from the Mackintosh, and therefore has its properties: a rich red color, remarkable taste qualities. The variety is distinguished by annual fruiting with a noticeable increase in yield, the first can be removed after 3-4 years.
Well tolerates frostand is resistant to drought, but the disease is stable medium.
The best varieties of apples for the Moscow region and the middle belt
The Moscow region is characterized by an unstable climate, a short summer and lack of light. Therefore, the varieties that are best suited for cultivation should beHardy, unpretentious and frost-resistant.
Among the summer varieties are suitable: Moscow pear, medinitsa, candy, cinnamon striped, which was mentioned above. And also autumn varieties of apples.
The first fruits of Zhigulevsky are removed for 5-6 years after planting, the harvest is abundant, but decreases with age.
Characteristic feature of the variety arevery large fruits. But it's better to plant in the Southern regions, because the varietypoorly tolerates frostsand weakly resists the scab. Maturesin September, and lay the collected apples up to two months.
Another autumn variety of apples, suitable for growing in the suburbs. The first crop is removed rather late after planting, closer to 6-7 years. At the beginning the trees bear fruit regularly, over the years the yield increases, but becomes irregular.
Fruits are small, juicy, fragrant, with bright spots are collectedin mid-September, they are stored for about three months.Winterproof, resistant to pests variety.
Variety withaverage winter hardiness, but good resistance to scab and various pests. Fruit-bearing begins at the earliest - after 5 years of cultivation, the harvest of light striped fruits is harvested in the autumn and stored for about six months.
Good,frost-resistantgrade Uslada with excellent resistance to pests and various diseases.
After 5-7 years, you can shoot a good harvest, apples are large, sweet and sour, green with a bright blush. Ripenin September-October, with proper storage, until April.
Semi-dwarfish autumn variety, well fruiting already from 3 years of growth. Fertile, high-yield apple with red fruits of medium size. Because of the thickened crown, the size of the apples is different, they taste sweet and sour. Especially valuable for immunity to scab andgood resistance to frost.
By the third year of cultivation, you can shoot good harvests of sweet and sour apples.Resistant to frostand scab, loves top dressing, but it is necessary to deal with aphids.
Dwarfish tree, yellow fruitin the second half of August, are stored for a month.
The described varieties of apples are considered the best, because they are very popular and popular with many gardeners. Planting summer, autumn and winter varieties together, you can enjoy delicious fruits for a year..