Very many gardeners dream of growing their own reference fruit crops in their area. One of them can be attributedPear variety Marble, which is distinguished by its excellent taste..
Table of contents
- Description of the pear variety Marble
- Fruit characteristics
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Features of planting and care
- Growing conditions
- Harvesting and storage of crops
- Features of the variety
- Diseases and pests
- Reviews of gardeners
Description of the pear variety Marble
The Marble variety was bredin the Voronezh Region in 1965. Its authors were G. D. Neporozhny and A. M. Ulyanishev. Parent varieties are Birch Winter Michurin and Forest Beauty.
According to the description, the tree itself is small in size and grows to a height of no more than 4 meters. Crown of medium density, in shape resembles a wide pyramid. Branches are located at an angle close to a straight line. The bark on the trunk and main branches are gray-green in color.
Shoots of this variety are red-brownand slightly directed upwards. The leaves are bright green, smooth, ovoid in shape and tapered closer to the shoots, there are small notches on the edges. The size of both leaves and petioles is medium.
Flowers of such a tree are terry, with a diameter of not more than 3 centimeters, collected in inflorescences of 8 pieces. The petals are slightly closed, the edges are solid. The pistils are on a par with the anthers.
From one tree collect up to 200 kilograms of harvest.
It is best to grow Marble in a warm climate. The official regions are the Central Region, Voronezh and Bryansk regions.
Given the poor frost resistance, this variety can not be grown in areas with a cold and changeable climate.
The fruits of this variety contain a huge amount of useful substances, in additionhave excellent taste. The tasting evaluation of these pears is equal to the score of 5.
Their pulp features a delicate cream shade, a juicy and sweet taste, a pleasant aroma and a coarse-grained texture.
In most cases, one fetus weighs 130-170 grams, but there may be instances with a mass of up to 220 grams.The color of the pear is golden green, covered with red, marble blush, the form is correct, pear-shaped.
Saucer small, seminal chamber of medium size, light brown in color. The calyx is of a semi-circle type..
Advantages and disadvantages
Pros of the cultivar:
- the main advantage of Marble is resistance to powdery mildew, scab and fruit rot;
- the pear peel is thick and strong, due to which the fruit well tolerates transportation;
- many sweet tooth adore this variety, because it has a sweet and juicy taste, a bright aroma;
- From one tree you can harvest up to 200 kilograms of harvest, which makes the Marble enough attractive for commercial purposes.
The disadvantages are as follows:
- the variety does not tolerate the winter season;
- does not tolerate dry weather, because of what, with insufficient watering, the fruits can begin to crumble;
- after planting Marble gardener will have to wait a long time for the first harvest, fruiting begins at the age of 6-7;
- If May turned out to be particularly cold, you can lose not only flowers, but the whole tree as a whole.
Features of planting and care
The first stage will be the selection of seedlings. To purchase was successful, and the tree quickly caught on the site, with the purchase of planting materials are guided by the following indicators:
- the age of the seedlings should not exceed two years;
- The root system should consist of 3-5 sprouts, a length of 25-30 centimeters;
- if an annual seedling is purchased, it may consist of one stem, but a two-year specimen must have at least 3 lateral branches;
- on the roots and the cortex there should be no mechanical damage, cracks and consequences of the transferred diseases.
It is best to choose seedlings with a closed root system, because an earth clod is a natural protection against damage.
Then you need to decide on the landing site, taking into account the individual characteristics of Marble:
- the tree requires pollinators, in the form of which other varieties of pears protrude, the flowering period of which coincides with the Marble. The best options are Severyanka, Cathedral, Lada, Chizhovskaya and Tatiana;
- The landing site for the pear should be illuminated as much as possible;
- the tree does not tolerate strong winds, so this variety is better protected from such a manifestation of nature. As a shelter, a low structure or a fence is suitable;
- a high groundwater table can erode the root system or become a reason for the appearance of mold;
- marble does not tolerate water stagnation, so you need to take care of her withdrawal in advance.
The soil must be loamy, looseand nutritious. If the soil is sandy or clay then it is necessary to additionally introduce such fertilizers as humus, manure or peat.
1-2 weeks before the immediate planting of the pear, the soil must be prepared:
- The diameter of the pit should be 60 cm and the depth 80 cm. Digging a pit, the ground is removed by layers, because the upper part is fertile, and the bottom is not.
- Then the upper part of the soil is mixed with the following fertilizers: 7-10 kilograms of humus, 40 grams of potassium, 200 grams of superphosphate, 150 grams of wood ash.
- If the soil does not meet the requirements, then 300 grams of limestone are additionally added for drainage.
- Put walnut shells or tin cans on the bottom of the pit, then add the mixture, given that one-third remains free.
- The support is installed in the middle of the pit, its length should not be less than 130 centimeters.
If the roots of the seedlings have dried up, they are lowered into a clay chatterbox. Damaged areas are cut with a sharp pruner, 80 percent of the leaves are also removed.
Choosing a planting scheme, it is worth remembering that vigorous trees should be at a distance of 6-7 meters, and medium-sized 4 meters.
Planting the pear,You need to pay attention to the deepening of the root neck, it should be 3-5 centimeters above the ground level.
After the seedling has been placed in the soil, it must be thoroughly tampered with and built a well to irrigate the plant.
Immediately after planting, the tree is abundantly watered and mulched with hay, sawdust or grass. Between the planting of Marble you can grow vegetable or berry crops.
Planting of this varietyYou can carry out both in spring and autumn.
In autumn, the preferred time will be the beginning of Octoberthat the tree could grow stronger before the onset of cold weather...
Marble is extremely unstable to drought, so you need to water it thoroughly. The lack of the necessary amount of moisture can reduce the yield several times.
On average, 3 buckets of water will be consumed per tree, in droughty weather it is necessary to make up to 5 buckets. It is better to water the tree using special holes or grooves.
This variety requires quite a lot of additional dressings.
During flowering, you need to makenitrogen-containing substances, for example 100 grams of urea, diluted in 5 liters of water.
In June to maintain the formation of fruits used50 grams of carbamide per 5 liters of water. In July, potassium sulfate is 100 grams per 5 liters of water.
To maintain the future fruiting, after harvestingthe root zone is dug and 1 kilogram of bird droppings, 5 kilograms of compost or 2 kilograms of manure are paid.
For the same purposes, phosphorus and potassium are used. The size of the introduced substances will depend on the age of the tree:
- up to 12 years - 4 grams of phosphorus and 6 grams of potassium;
- from 12 to 20 years - 6 grams of phosphorus and 8 grams of potassium;
- more than 20 years - 6 grams of phosphorus and 12 grams of potassium.
To stimulate the tying of fruits and the highest yield,10 days after flowering, the tree is sprayed with 1% urea solution, the procedure will need to be repeated after 1-2 weeks.
Those trees, whose age does not exceed 5 years, all feeding is made on the diameter of 1-2 meters from the pole, for adult planting, this indicator increases to 3-5 meters.
It is best to prun tree in the spring, before the movement of juice or in the fall after harvest, at a temperature not lower than 8 degrees. The first two years of life remove only dry or damaged twigs.
Thenyou need to sanitize trees, removing diseased or damaged branches.
Trim the pear follows the use of an acute pruner. After the wound has dried, the damage sites are treated with garden wax.
The trimming of the tree trunk protects it from frost, sunlight and rodents. The procedure should be performed in autumn and spring, using the following mixture:
- 10 liters of water;
- , kilogram of clay;
- 2 kilograms of lime.
Given thatMarble does not tolerate cold, the tree is carefully prepared for winter:
- It is necessary to remove all the fallen leaves and remove the last hanging fruit;
- abundantly to water a tree, using 50-100 liters of water, then it must be walled up using hay or sawdust;
- The tree trunk and large branches are covered with cotton, breathable material.
This grade is necessaryprotect not only from winter cold, but also from spring frosts..
Harvesting and storage of crops
Complete maturation of Marble begins in October, but you can start collecting fruits from September. It is best to remove pears in the morning, tearing off with the peduncle.
Store fruits in a dry room with a temperature of 0-1 degrees. The container must be dry,boxes or wicker baskets are best suited.
When all conditions are met, pears can lie up to 2 months..
Features of the variety
Thanks to these qualitiespear varieties of Marble recommended by many nutritionists. Such fruits do not increase appetite and contain a small amount of calories.
This varietyis an excellent pollinator for many other pears, but at the same time the process of self-pollination takes place with difficulty.
Marble is very fond of breeders. With its help you can get quality pear varieties, it is an excellent donor.
To negative qualities mono attributed poor resistance to colds, because of this the tree has to be sheltered not only for the winter, but also in May, during the spring frosts.
Diseases and pests
Marble has resistance to diseases such as powdery mildew, scab or fruit rot, but there are ailments that can hit a tree, so it is very important to know the prevention measures and the ways of its treatment.
Pear Mite- sucks the inside of the leaves, early in the spring, before the buds swell the tree needs to be sprinkled with a solution of colloidal sulfur.
Black Cancer- is one of the most dangerous diseases, with the appearance of darkening on the cortex, the damaged area is cut, capturing 2-3 centimeters of the healthy part. Then the cut site is treated with a 2% solution of ferrous sulfate.
Mednyatsya- As prevention during flowering, the tree is sprayed with infusion of yarrow or chamomile.
Rust of leaves- orange spots begin to appear on the leaves, after flowering, they are treated with 1% Brod liquid, and after falling off the leaves, the branches are treated with a 5% carbamide solution.
Fruit Juices- to get rid of insects, you need to collect all the crumbling carrion and sprinkle the leaves with water during the summer butterflies.
Green aphid- to get rid of pests the treatment of a tree with a soap solution with anabasin will help.
Sunburn- the most effective is the regular whitening of the tree pillar.
Cytosporosis- the bark of the tree becomes dark red and gradually withered, mostly old or weakened individuals suffer.
To prevent the appearance of the disease,You need to whitewash the trunks and avoid damage. Infected areas are removed and treated with a solution of copper sulfate.
The most important method of preventionand the treatment of diseases is the timely removal of infected or suspicious branches, after which they must necessarily be burned.
Reviews of gardeners
Olga: "I planted the Marble pear on my plot and did not regret it at all, the climate is warm enough for us, we live in Orel. Yes, the tree happens, it freezes, but the taste of the fruit itself always remains at the highest level, if it is correct to take care of a tree, it will bring a huge amount of harvest, from which I will make jam and compotes. "
Basil: "Next year I'm going to remove Marble from my site, the tree is always cold, it requires a lot of care. In addition, there is no sourness in taste, and without it, in my opinion, the pear is no longer a pear. In addition, this variety can dramatically stop fruit ripening, and they remain hanging until late autumn, with other trees regularly harvesting. "
Irina: "I adore Marble for its wonderful taste, besides, the appearance makes it possible to use this variety for sale. If you collect pears in the fall, then they taste like a melon, you get a very unusual combination of tastes. "
But if the weather allows you to grow this variety, thensuch fruits will be an ornament of any table. Gentle, sweet, juicy, with flesh melting in the mouth, they will become favorites for both children and adults..