Strange as it may seem, garlic is also prone to diseases, and it does not hurt them more than other plants. The diseases of garlic and the fight against them (photos attached) will be described here. Pests, pathogens, this vegetable is not liked, because it is garlic volatile that act on them is fatal. Very often you can see the beds of strawberries, sweet peppers, eggplant other gifts of the garden, planted with garlic..
- Rust on garlic - what to process?
- Downy mildew or peronosporosis of garlic
- Bacteriosis of garlic or bacterial decay
- Fusarium garlic - control measures
- Cervical rot of garlic
- Black moldy rot of garlic
- Green mold mold rot or penicillosis
Garlic gives piquancy, supplements, emphasizes the taste of meat or vegetable dishes. But in addition to its outstanding taste qualities, it is still incredibly useful not only as a culinary product, but the garden also benefits. For the protection of plantations, not only the planting of this vegetable, but the treatment with protective compounds, the main ingredient of which it is, is used.
Despite the fact that this culture is an insecticide, fungi, various types of mold can significantly impair your harvest. Garlic and garlic diseases bring a lot of cares to truck farmers, but the end result is worth it - this vegetable is incredibly useful. However, what is really a sin to conceal, it is profitable to grow it for sale.
Most often weak plants suffer, so before planting any variety planting material is recommended to pre-fill with hot water (about 50 ° C), to withstand 10-15 minutes. After heat treatment denticles can be sprinkled with chalk chalk, as well as carefully select all suspicious spoiled lobules. In order not to provoke the appearance of pathogens, the time interval between sowings of a given culture should be at least 3 years in one place..
Photo of diseases of garlic (manifestation of fusariosis):
Rust on garlic - what to process?
This is a rather dangerous thing, affecting the crops of bulbous cultures. Rust of garlic is manifested by the appearance of yellow lines, which become wider, cover the entire leaf. Sometimes the symptoms have another visual manifestation - yellow round spots (which later turn red), slightly convex.
This disease can cause significant damage to crops: plants lose leaves, accumulation organic substances is significantly reduced, the heads can not fully develop small. The taste of commercial qualities of such garlic is no longer necessary, but the preventive treatment of teeth before sowing helps to reduce the likelihood of manifestation of the disease. Slices can be poured with 40% formalin solution (40 ml / 120 l water) - two hours of soaking will be enough. The beds themselves should be spilled with water dissolved in Fitosporin-M (15 ml per 10 l). Also for these purposes, you can use copper chloride (inorganic fungicide) or Bordeaux fluid (1% solutions).
If the disease has already manifested - the leaves are covered with rust, then the crops can be treated with copper sulfate or fungicide "Hom". It is the same copper oxychloride. Especially good results are the mixing of the preparation with finely grated tar soap. Irrigation of the stems is carried out at intervals of 10-14 days, but a month before harvesting the procedure should be stopped (copper salts are harmful to the human body).
Rust on the stems, photo:
For processing, you can also use the same drugs that are used in the fight against another disease of garlic - peronosporosis. A means of broad antifungal action "Alirin-B" gives good results in combating rust, especially in the initial stages, increases the resistance of the plant to diseases (immunizing fungicide). Suppress a wide range of fungi drug "Gamair". Fungicides "Kuproksat "Champion "Medyan Ekstra 350 SC, ks" are also recommended for use.↑ back to content ↑
Downy mildew or peronosporosis of garlic
With this disease of garlic, the reaction begins with the yellowing of the upper part of the stem, after which it dries out. The plant slows growth, it weakens, the stems turn pale, then turn yellow and deform. Peronosporoz can become a real epidemic, affecting the extensive crops of this culture. This disease is particularly affected by regions where the humid climate prevails. However, the peronosporous fungus is very sensitive to bright light, elevated temperature, and when it's hot, it simply dies. It turns out that with clear warm weather, it practically does not become active, and when it rains - on the contrary, it develops very successfully. These individual features of the fungus (Peronospora destructor) are used in prophylactic as well as radical control measures.
Peronosporosis of garlic, photo:
Studies have shown that the onset of the disease is from infected seed, as well as from residual organic elements remaining to the soil after seeding and harvesting. Noteworthy is the fact that infection of healthy crops can occur through fungus spores, transported along the wind for significant distances..
To prevent the disease at the very beginning, before sowing the head is recommended to warm up in a bright sun a day or two, at the desired temperature of + 40 ° C. With the harvested crop, you should do the same. Combating this scourge is possible through complex fungicides of the type "Tiram" (according to the instructions), "Fentiuram" (3 kg / 10 l of water), "Polycarbocin" (40 g / 10 l of water), "Arceride" (30 g / 10 l water). With the same solution of the preparation "Tiram" (2-3%), it is possible to treat the denticles before inoculation, to withstand their suspensions for about 20-25 minutes. It is also possible to treat young plants with 1% solution of Bordeaux liquor, for treatment of buds fungicide "Polichom" will suit.↑ back to content ↑
Bacteriosis of garlic or bacterial decay
Varieties of bacterial diseases of this plant are much less than fungal. Nevertheless, such a disease as bacterial rot causes a significant damage to the crop and the marketable appearance of garlic heads. Bacteriosis of garlic affects plants during the growing season, as well as when storing already collected stocks. Perennial forms of pathogens attack the plant only during the growing season, and bacteria infected by the bacteria undergo rotting during growth, do not germinate. On the tubers, the disease manifests itself in the form of yellowish-brown wounds covering the surface of the tooth, subsequently they capture the entire garlic slice. Another manifestation of the disease is expressed in the transparency of the denticles, which then passes into the form of mucus with a sharp unpleasant odor.
The germs of bacteria live in organic crop residues. They penetrate into the seed through microtraumas, and pests such as nematode, onion fly, tobacco thrips only exacerbate the situation, being carriers of bacteria. In addition, the immunity of plants is weakened by factors such as poor earth minerals acquired during the vegetation burns. Also, garlic is at risk of contracting bacteriosis, if it has not matured completely, it was not enough dried after collection or stored for storage in a humid room (as well as in a high temperature).
Bacterial rot of garlic, photo:
Measures of prevention, control of this disease - is the observance of the time interval between crops in one place (at least 4 years). The treatment of the land with "Hom" also gives good results. It is not recommended to plant garlic next to late vegetables, do not rush with harvesting - soak the full maturity of the heads. It will be good if you pre-fertilize the soil with phosphorus fertilizing. Remains of the harvest should be carefully cleaned, and the land itself is deeply plowed. Do not remove the tops prematurely, allow it to dry thoroughly for about 10 days at a temperature of 23-30 ° C.
The use of insecticides to stop insect activity is an excellent preventive factor, also do not forget to treat the seed with formalin solution, as was indicated higher. Observe the storage conditions of the tubers: the humidity should not exceed 70%, the temperature can vary from +1 to + 4 ° C - for winter cultivars or + 16..18 ° C (at 60-70% humidity) for spring varieties.↑ back to content ↑
Fusarium garlic - control measures
It is sometimes called the disease of a hot climate, since fusariosis is most active in the south, where it is very hot in summer or not very cold in winter. Loss of crops due to fusarium infection can reach impressive proportions - up to 70-80%. Central Russian regions, especially in hot summer conditions, are also sometimes a risk zone. Fusarium rot of garlic, in other words - rot of the bottom, affects the inoculum right in the ground. Remains of past harvests, water for irrigation can contain fusarium spores. For seeding should be carefully selected whole, intact denticles, since the presence of any microtrauma - a direct entrance to the fungus..
The disease affects the plant during the growing season, at a temperature of + 15..30 ° C. An increased level of humidity favors this. Fusarosis of garlic is manifested even in beds, when the stems begin to rapidly turn yellow or dry, beginning with the tips. Sometimes the stems are covered with brown strokes, and pinkish plaque is collected in the leafy sinuses. The defeat of the heads, lobules begins with softening, the appearance in the contaminated sites of mycelium fusariosis (its color can be white, yellow or pinkish).
The roots of the plant begin to rot, die, garlic, of course, dies. As for the harvest already harvested, the rot of the bottom is activated in warm rooms with high humidity. In this case, infection occurs fairly quickly - the mycelium appears between the teeth, gaining strength, mummifies the heads.
Fusarion of garlic, photo:
Measures for the prevention and control of this disease are not particularly different from other methods used in other fungal diseases. Thorough control of the seed, treatment with "Hom "Fitosporin" or "Maxim disinfection soil with fungicides and cleaning last year's organic remains - all together provide a sustainable preventive Effect. Very good indicators give the preparation "Quadrice it is also used for the treatment of rust. So that your garden does not affect the rot of garlic donkey, the control measures should be taken from all sides: soil control, treatment sowing teeth, observing the time interval between plantings in the same place, maintaining the timing of sowing and removal harvest. Store well-dried tubers should be in the proper temperature conditions.↑ back to content ↑
Cervical rot of garlic
Often this disease comes not alone, but with fusariosis, bacteriosis, black, green mold. It even happens that onion culture is simultaneously attacked by fungi, bacteria. There is nothing to guess here - the weakened immunity of the plant simply can not cope, therefore the complex of prophylaxis and treatment should be aimed at suppressing all the aforementioned diseases.
Gray neck rot of garlic causes significant damage to the crop, which is already harvested, stored for storage, and also affects the heads during transportation. The first to fall ill is the unripe, undersucked tubers. The fungus begins to attack crops during the ripening of the bulbs, the source of the infection is the remains of past harvests that were not removed in time. Gray rot penetrates into garlic tubers through external injuries, is activated at the top of the neck. Disputes of the disease are carried along the wind, settle on the stems. The most dangerous thing is that at first the disease is difficult to identify, since the visible symptoms are not very visible to the eye. Thus, the affected heads are sent to the storehouse together with the healthy ones, subsequently infecting all the stocks.
Cervical rot of garlic (left), black moldy rot (right), photo:
Gray rot appears below the stems as small whitish spots with greenish borders. At this point the stem breaks, turns yellow, dries up. On the head, gray spots appear at the top, which over time cover all the denticles. The softening of the teeth starts from the top, the lobules acquire a watery consistency, a sharp unpleasant odor. At this stage the gray mold confidently captures the entire top of the tuber.
A careful analysis of the harvested crop should be carried out, the affected heads should be removed, it is desirable to burn them. After that, the storage area must be safely disinfected with formalin or sulfurous anhydride.
This fungus feels well at a temperature of + 20 ° C, is able to actively develop at +3.. + 5 ° C. Proceeding from this, for the harvested crop during storage it is necessary to provide the appropriate humidity level (70%), temperature regime 0-2 ° C. Reserves should be checked periodically for the affected tubers, the heads themselves can be sprinkled with crushed chalk. The better the garlic is dried, the less the risk of infection with gray cervical decay. As recommended above, the land for sowing is preferably pretreated with copper chlorhexide ("Hom" preparation) or copper sulfate.
The teeth for sowing can be previously decontaminated with a suspension of "Tiram" (according to the instructions), and already grown heads - "Fundazol". After treatment (minutes 15-20), the tubers should be dried well, and then determined for storage. The time intervals between crops are observed, as mentioned above, the stems from the ripe heads are cut after their final drying, not very briefly. It is also worth mentioning the type of soil: a plant grown on loams, is more susceptible to disease with gray mold, sandy loam soil is much preferable in this case.↑ back to content ↑
Black moldy rot of garlic
If the storehouse for vegetables is hot and stuffy, then black rot (aspergillosis) does not take long to wait. Under conditions of poor ventilation, black dust-like spores form between the lobes, and the teeth themselves lose their hardness. Under the category of risk are badly ripened, poorly dried tubers, dampness - the ideal environment for this fungus. Disease fungus lives in unharvested remnants of the past harvest, as well as on damaged vegetables or fruits. If in warm weather the stems of garlic stay more than 6 hours in wet condition, the risk of activating the fungus increases significantly.
Black mold on garlic, like other fungi, does not like Bordeaux liquid, about 3 weeks before harvesting, irrigate the garlic beds with 1% composition. In general, for the prevention or control of this disease, you must use the same drugs that are recommended to eliminate the effects of bacterial decay. The remaining measures are similar - control of bulbs after harvesting, high-quality drying, appropriate temperature storage regime. It is necessary to protect the seed denticles, the shoot stems, and the ripened tubers from damage.↑ back to content ↑
Green mold mold rot or penicillosis
This disease takes over the palm tree of gray cervical decay. It is quite common, manifested as drying (withering) of individual teeth.
A little later on the surface of the lobes begin to appear small yellowish specks, which seem to be slightly impressed inside. In the next stage of the lesion, the spots are covered with white mold, which subsequently acquires a greenish shade. Then the denticles dry, they change color. At the last stage, this head seems empty, because when pressed, the wrinkled withered lobes become dust. If you open the affected tuber, you can see the rotten contents of a green or bluish hue, which was once white dense teeth.
Fungal green rot, photo:
Green mold mold is activated after 2 or 3 months after harvesting. The increased humidity only contributes to the manifestation of the disease, the damaged heads are the first contenders for infection. Control measures are similar to those described more than once - safely dry the collected heads. Before sending garlic to storage it can be treated with diluted water "Zaslon" (three capsules / 1 liter of water).
The diseases of garlic and their treatment take away our time and a significant part of the harvest. Like any disease, it is better to prevent them at the very beginning, to apply radical preventive measures for treating soil and seed. The main thing is vigilance, do not be lazy to carefully examine the stems, the radical part of the shoots. At the slightest suspicion, sacrifice a couple of plants, remove the tuber from the ground, check its condition.
Garlic diseases and control, photos (pre-treatment of seeding material):
In advance, store appropriate fungicides, preventive drugs. Now you know what the diseases of garlic look like, you know how to deal with them. Let this healthy vegetable please you with a generous harvest, give you health, your relatives.