Operation of the well is impossible without the use of a mandatory component of its arrangement - the pump. After all, a bucket is absolutely not suitable for drawing water from a narrow barrel. Moreover, it would take too much time and effort to climb from the depth and transporting water manually. Do not want to waste either one or the other, do you agree?
Competently selected pumping equipment in a few minutes will fill the tanks in the bath, house, garden. Now there is an opportunity to purchase equipment for servicing an object of any scale. At its base, you can easily build an automatic plumbing system that does not depend on centralized supplies and the participation of the owners in the pumping process.
We will tell you in great detail how to choose a pump for a well, what is required to take into account and provide for the future owner of the device. A scrupulous explanation of important points for the user is supplemented with photo and video tutorials.
The content of the article:
- Well Characteristics
- Analysis of small nuances
- Differences between surface and immersion units
Specificity of submersible pumping equipment
- Vibrating pump + well: yes or no?
- Guidelines for selecting a centrifugal pump
- A few words about popular models
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Before purchasing a suitable pump for a well, it is necessary to clarify a number of indicators of its structure:
- static level;
- dynamic level;
- bottom bottom mark;
- pipe diameter.
If a well drilling was engaged in a specialized drilling company, in accordance with the contract the owner had to provide her technical passport. All the characteristics mentioned above must be indicated. However, in cases when the well is used (or not used) for a long time, this information will not hurt to be clarified.
Of course, owners of wells that were created on their own or with the help of hired “shabashniki” do not have such a document. They will have to study their well independently and establish its characteristics using simple measurements.
The static level is the distance that separates a constant mirror of water and the surface of the earth. To establish this distance, you will need a cord with a small weight attached to it in the form of a cylinder or a cone without a bottom.
Instead, you can use a plastic tube. A roulette or ruler is also required. The length of the string should be comparable to the depth of the well.
To measure the depth of the well, its dynamic and statistical level, you must use a coil of rope or string with a load at the end
Before starting the measurements, it is necessary to refrain from drawing water from the well for at least one hour. During this time, the water level should be the maximum. Now the string with the load is lowered into the well until the load “slam” on the surface of the water. The characteristic sound is usually clearly audible.
It remains to make a mark on the string, remove it from the mine and measure it with a suitable tool. The first indicator of the characteristics of the well is determined. The dynamic level is the distance from the ground to the minimum water level in the well shaft.
To determine the dynamic level, first well must be prepared. Water is pumped out with a high-performance submersible pump (you can buy it or borrow it), dropping it down as water decreases.
The static water level shows its maximum amount in the well, and the dynamic level indicates the minimum amount of water when the pump is running.
When the water stops falling, we can assume that the minimum water level in the mine has been reached. Now you need to do the operations with twine, weight and tape measure. Measurements will give a new indicator of the well - its dynamic level.
Comparison of these data - static and dynamic levels - allows us to make a preliminary conclusion about the performance of the well. The smaller the difference between these indicators, the faster the water column is filled, and the more powerful the pump can be used with such a structure.
It should be noted that at a good artesian well, the indicators of dynamic and static levels may well coincide, which indicates an exceptionally high performance of such a structure. This happens because water arrives as fast as it is pumped out.
The level difference for a high-performance well usually does not exceed one meter. Dynamic level information will be useful when installing a submersible pump selected for a well. The depth of its immersion should be two meters higher than the dynamic level so that the device is always in the water.
The debit of a well is the amount of water that can be obtained from it within a unit of time. It is measured in the following units: l / min, cub. m / h, cubic m / day, etc. If, when pumping water with a high power pump, a change in the water level is insignificant, then the water arrives quickly.
To determine the flow rate of a well, it is necessary to pump water out of it, measure its volume, and also find out how long the well will be filled with water again.
We can assume that the flow rate is large and choose a pump with high performance for it. Calculating the flow rate of the well, remember that this is not a constant value. In the spring, water arrives well faster than in summer, and in winter this process is slower.
To understand that the well was filled with water, and the flow stopped, you just need to measure the depth of the water level. If it coincided with the previously obtained static level, it means that the well is filled. Those. after pumping water, such measurements will have to be performed several times.
The static level is measured before pumping or after full restoration of the HW mirror after pumping. Dynamic level is measured immediately after pumping is completed.
If the water quickly decreases and arrives slowly, you will need to establish the exact volumes of water that can be obtained from this well. It is necessary to take the capacity of a significant and at the same time known volume. Most often they use a barrel, but it can be a tank, a bath, etc. The main thing is to know the volume of liquid that fits into this container.
First you need to lower the pump closer to the bottom of the well and completely pump water out of it. This will be reported by the characteristic “sobbing” sound of the pump running.
Then note the time and wait until the static level in the well is restored. After that, the water is again pumped out, measuring its volume. By simply dividing cubic meters into hours or liters by minutes, you can determine the debit of your well.
This indicator will allow you to choose a pump whose performance will correspond to the volume of water arriving at the well. If the equipment is too powerful, the well will become empty, which can cause the pump to run dry, i.e. without water. And this leads to early equipment damage.
The diameter of the submersible pump should be at least 3 cm smaller than the internal diameter of the casing. This is necessary to prevent jamming of the unit in the development
To determine the bottom of the bottom of the well, i.e. its depths, again use the twine with a weighty load without cavities inside. Now it is lowered to the very bottom until the string is weakened. After that, it is taken out and measured.
Usually measure only the wet part of the twine. Its dry part corresponds to the statistical level of water in the well. The total depth of the well is equal to the sum of two values: the static level and the depth to the water mirror.
The diameter of a well is the diameter of its casing. In order to choose a submersible pump, the internal diameter should be taken into account, since the dimensions of the pump must allow it to be freely lowered down and, if necessary, reach back.
Analysis of small nuances
The quality of drilling operations is another thing to consider when choosing a pump for a well. If the drilling is performed with the help of professional equipment and by the specialized brigade, such a well is considered to be more reliable.
If drilling was done by shabashniki or site owners with the help of amateur friends, the quality of the well will hardly be perfect.
If the well has been drilled professionally, it will be less silting and dusting, which will have a positive effect on the operation of pumping equipment.
“Amateur” wells, as practice has shown, are more susceptible to flooding and zaporozhivaniya processes. Therefore, for such wells it is recommended to use special pumps designed to work in difficult conditions. Equipment of this type is more expensive.
But it better tolerates situations when water flows into them with a large amount of pollution. With the same loads, conventional pumps break more often. The owners of “professional” wells have more opportunities when choosing equipment, since they can choose both a universal and a special pump.
It is not always convenient to use a rubber hose to lift water from the depth of the well to a height. During operation of the pumping equipment, the air inside the hose becomes rare, from which the walls of the hose collapse and the flow of water stops. To prevent this phenomenon is simple: instead of a rubber hose, plastic constructions of a suitable diameter should be used.
A pressure-rated water supply pipe is more effective when used in a well than a rubber hose that can collapse, creating an obstruction to the water supply.
An important indicator when choosing a pump is the approximate water consumption for one day. This is an average value, since in summer the water consumption usually increases, while in the winter, on the contrary, it decreases. It is estimated that the daily consumption rate for a family of three to four people is approximately 60-70 liters.
These figures do not take into account water consumption for irrigation and other economic needs. The daily rate should be increased depending on the number of plants in the area, the presence of domestic animals, etc.
Prudent hosts choose most often four-inch casing for the well, although structures with a diameter of three inches are also used in this capacity. The fact is that a significant part of the pumping equipment is designed specifically for a more spacious four-inch pipe.
To convert centimeters to inches, you should divide the measurement result with a tape measure by 2.54, since exactly that number of centimeters is equal to one inch.
In order for the pressure to be sufficient for operation at all points of the drawdown, hydraulic calculation is necessary. Its approximate variant can be made with the help of this table. The pump must be provided with all the points sufficiently.
Differences between surface and immersion units
All domestic pumps at the place of installation are divided into two types: submersible and surface. The first is lowered down almost to the bottom of the well. The latter work on the surface. They are usually installed near a water source or directly on the surface of the water using a special float.
The surface models use the principle of suction. The efficiency of such a pump is significantly influenced by the distance it takes to raise the water. They are usually used only if the depth to the water mirror is eight meters or less.
Surface pumps are successfully used, but only for wells of shallow depth, since these devices cannot cope with raising water to a height of more than 8 meters
If we are talking about the Abyssinian well, of course, the surface pump will be just the perfect choice, since it is a very specific well - a narrow and shallow one.
But when operating a filtration or artesian well, a surface pump may simply not cope with the load. In this case, it is necessary to choose the immersion model.
Choosing between submersible and surface pump, should take into account a much higher level of noise when operating the latter. To eliminate this trouble, it is enough to close the pump with a wooden box or install it in a separate room.
A photo of
The design specificity of the needle well is that the tool that is being driven into the ground, the casing and the water supply channel are the same pipe to which the pump is connected.
Since the depth of the Abyssinian well rarely exceeds 10 m, surface pumps are used to pump water from it.
If it is required to form a reserve of water and automate the pumping process, a pumping station is connected to the well with a needle.
The easiest and cheapest unit for arranging an Abyssinian tubular well - a hand pump
The essence of the design of the Abyssinian well
Pump to connect to the Abyssinian well
Needle Pumping Station
Abyssinian hand pump
If the surface pumps draw in water, the submersible pumps push it up. When choosing such a pump, first of all, take into account the height to which water will have to be supplied, or rather, the distance from the surface to the pump.
Therefore, a couple of meters should be added to the data on the dynamic water level. Boundary is the height of 40 meters. If the data exceeds this figure, you will have to pick up a pump with increased power. In the technical passport of each product the maximum height to which it can supply water is indicated.
So that the noise from the surface pump does not interfere with others, as well as to protect it, the device is placed in a special box that you can buy or make yourself
Visually, high and low power pumping equipment varies significantly. More productive submersible pumps have a large body and weigh significantly more models that cope with the depth to 40 meters.
Focusing on the depth of immersion, it is better to give preference to units with a certain margin of performance. If the pump is designed to work at a depth of 60 meters, it is more suitable for a 50-meter well.
For a deep well, a submersible pump should be chosen, since surface models are not designed for pumping water from a depth of more than 10 m
If it is lowered to the maximum depth, the unit will have to constantly operate at maximum load, which will increase its wear rate and shorten its useful life. For a well with a depth of 60 meters, it is better to take a pump designed for operation at a depth of 70 meters. The presence of automatic protection against "dry running" - an important point when choosing a pump.
For various reasons, water may stop flowing to the device. If at the same time the pump continues to work, it may overheat, break, burn, etc. If there is an appropriate Automation device will be disconnected from the power as soon as it starts to idle, which will prevent faults.
A photo of
Submersible pumps are difficult to confuse with surface pumps. They are recognized by elongated stainless steel cases.
A submersible pump on top is connected to a water supply pipe. At the bottom of the unit is a filter and a water intake.
The submersible pump works directly in the water intake, its engine is always cooled with water, therefore it rarely burns out with proper operation
Submersible pumps work in the well, so they don’t bother the owners with the sound of the motor. However, for such systems, a caisson is needed to protect the source from equipment theft.
Model range of submersible pumps
Submersible pump connection
Installation of the pump in the production
Caisson for a well with a submersible pump
Specificity of submersible pumping equipment
By type of device distinguish centrifugal and vibration pumps. In the former, a rotating disk with blades is used to supply water, in the latter, a special membrane that transfers water through numerous vibrations. These design features are important because they affect the integrity of the well in different ways.
Vibrating pump + well: yes or no?
Is it possible to install a vibration pump in the well? These models are relatively inexpensive, easy to operate and have performance that is suitable for a significant number of wells.
Many experts categorically object to the use of any vibration technology in the mine well. However, reviews of the owners report that pumps of this type are quite successfully used without any damage to the structure. So, which pump - vibratory or centrifugal - is better for a well?
Objections of experts are quite reasonable. Prolonged vibration effects almost always adversely affect the state of the surrounding objects. Well - no exception.
A photo of
The weighty advantage of vibrating pumps is an affordable price.
In a wide range of vibration pumps produced in the CIS, the most well-known brands are Malysh and Rucheek.
For installation in the well, the vibration unit must be connected to the suction hose and attached to the nylon cable
There are lugs for fastening with a cable in the upper part of the unit, the hose is connected in the simplest way
Repair of vibration pumps is not difficult due to the simplest design, you can fix the simple damage with your own hands.
With the replacement of worn seals and broken parts there are no problems, you can buy them in almost any locality
The only important requirement for long-term service and normal pump operation is the use of filters.
A vibration pump that is not too demanding on the pumped medium is used in pumping wells, drying basements, cleaning wells, etc.
Low cost domestic vibration pump
The most famous representative - Baby
Easy installation in the well
Mount and connect
Simplicity of repair and availability of spare parts
Nuances of repair of vibration pumps
Filters for vibrating pumps
Vibrating pumps in the pumping of wells
Vibrations from the pump, located next to the filter, affect the state of the casing and the surrounding soil, which are gradually destroyed. Vibration can cause a significant acceleration of the silting and dusting processes.
But it does not happen immediately. Typically, the wells for some time successfully resist vibration. Therefore, using such a pump, it is possible to both drill the well and clean it, and successfully operate it without visible damage.
But the destruction from vibration still occurs, although not too quickly. Continuous use of the vibration pump can significantly shorten the life of the structure.
If necessary, the use of vibration models is quite acceptable, but only as a temporary option. But as soon as possible, replace such a pump with a safer centrifugal device.
Guidelines for selecting a centrifugal pump
For this you need to carefully study the technical passport centrifugal device and find out a few important points:
- What is the performance of the pump;
- are its dimensions suitable for the well;
- how deep it can raise water;
- what are the features of its installation and operation;
- how and under what conditions is warranty service, etc.
Typically, consultants give quite professional advice when choosing such equipment. It should be remembered that many manufacturers specify the limit, rather than the average characteristics for pumps, so you need to take into account a certain reserve of operational resource.
Directly in the marking of the domestic pump or in the technical passport of a foreign one, two important figures for selection are indicated. The first (in example 55) is the flow rate in l / min, the second (75) is the maximum head in meters
A few words about popular models
If you decide to use a vibration pump, it is likely to be purchased. ”Kid" or "Trickle”. These models are characterized by good performance, resistance to breakdowns and quite affordable price.
They are easy to clean or repair with your own hands. But for continuous use, the vibration technique is not suitable, it must be replaced as soon as possible.
Vibrating pump “Kid” is a popular, but not very suitable choice for a well, since vibrations of the device can cause its destruction
Among the popular brands of submersible centrifugal pumps worth noting “Aquarius"And"Water cannon”. They are very similar, but according to reviews of users, “Aquarius” significantly wins in quality and durability, although it costs more.
However, the "Vodomet" has its supporters. If you are lucky to get a well-assembled model, it will demonstrate quite decent results.
Submersible centrifugal pumps of the brand “Aquarius” have proven to be reliable and durable equipment for the well, able to cope with increased loads
Special borehole pumps will cost a substantial amount, but such costs will pay off in time. As an example of such a technique, it is worth noting the models 3STM2 and 4STM2 manufactured by TAIFU.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Movie # 1. Visual information about the calculation of the flow rate and the selection of a suitable pump is contained in the following video:
Movie # 2. Studying the recommendations of experts on well construction before choosing a submersible pump:
Movie # 3. Example of calculations in the selection of a submersible pump Aquarius for water intake:
So, to choose a suitable pump, it is necessary to accurately study the characteristics of a particular well. It should also take into account the general need of the family for clean water and deal with the peculiarities of the functioning of various types of equipment.
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