The pear tree is often planted in the garden areas, gardens, because its fruits are tasty and healthy. In addition, the beautiful bloom of a pear with no other can be confused.Pear trees can grow up to fifteen meters in height, and begin to bear fruit for the seventh year after planting. Juicy, tasty, sweet pears are useful to eat raw, and you can make marmalade, jam, juices, compotes, add to pastries. In addition, the fruits of the pear are very useful and are often prescribed in the diet menu to people suffering from kidney disease. In this article, we will consider the rules for caring for a pear..
Table of contents
- Mandatory measures for pear care in spring and autumn
- Pruning and crown formation after planting
- Spring processing of pears: fertilizing and fertilizing
- Autumn care measures
- Preparing pears for winter
- When and how to feed a pear
Mandatory measures for pear care in spring and autumn
Like all fruit trees,pear requires careful attention and careful, regular care. First you need to determine the pear variety that you want to plant, find out if it is suitable for growing in your climatic zone. If you choose a variety that is not recommended for a specific region, even with good care, the tree may not survive, not yield, or even die.
Once you have decided on the variety, choose the correct planting time, as well as the place that should be sunny, on a loose soil that allows moisture and air to pass through. If you grow apple trees on your site, it will be easier to learn how to properly care for a pear, since the care measures for both fruit trees are almost identical.
Pear trees must be watered, and it is best to do this through a nebulizer. But if there is not one, you can dig a shallow groove around it, but away from the trunk, since the absorbing roots are there, and pour water there.Do not forget to loosen the soil around the tree, to remove the shoots on the lower part of the trunk, since pests and pathogens are most often found in it.
If you just planted a young pear tree, be sure to regularly loosen the soil around, weed the weeds and fertilize it, since the seedlings have a very weak root system, which takes a long time to settle down. If you do not follow the tree properly during this period, it may not take root. Also, the pear must be fed, protected from diseases and other pests, pruned, sheltered for the winter.
Pruning and crown formation after planting
Planted seedling on an open ground in the age of one year is cut to a height of half a meter above the ground, this is done in the spring. But, as a rule, they buy and plant two-year-old trees.If you find a second vertical shoot in the seedling, competing with the leader, it must be removed, leaving one conductor. If this is not done, a runaway competitor will develop, which will subsequently weaken the central conductor.
Usually a tree of this age already has up to eight branches.Form the plant in such a way that there are four skeletal branches, located at the same distance from each other. The left branches are shortened by about a quarter, this is necessary for better development of a strong crown and for the tree not to branch too much. All branches are cut equally, but the conductor is left higher by twenty-five centimeters.
To weaken the growth of some branches, they can not be removed, but simply tilted horizontally and tied to pegs, as a result of this, their growth will cease, and they themselves will acquire wood. The next year, it is necessary to make another shaping pruning in such a way that the branches are placed by layers at a certain distance from each other. Each tier should consist of two or three skeletal branches.
It is not necessary to think that this is too complicated an occupation for a beginning gardener, but it will help to form the crown of a tree, so that later it would not form without thickening branches and shoots.An adult formed tree also requires pruning, but it consists in the removal of small twigs, tops that grow inside the tree, and also broken branches.
Spring processing of the pear:top dressingand fertilizer
In the spring we begin caring for the tree from the cleaning of the infield, that is, you need to scrap the remaining fallen leaves, fruits, scraps, broken and fallen over the winter branches. To do this is necessary because in the last year's leaves and fruits the pests could winter, which in the upcoming season will infect the tree.
After this, it is necessary to start pruning the branches. If the tree is very young, you need to continue to form the crown, adjusting the number of skeletal branches.In adult trees, we remove broken branches, shoots and tops, so that moisture and nutrients are not wasted.
Spring is the time for vaccinations, this fascinating process will allow the tree to become more prolific. After that, the pear should be poured, and the ground under it should be loosened and swelled, after which it should be covered with peat or humus. Treatment of pears against pests and diseases in the spring is mandatory, on its quality depends the yield and survival of the tree.Preventative treatment measures for the spring treatment of pears must comply with the following rules:
- spring pear is necessarytreat twice before flowering;
- choosing preparations from pests, carefully look at the recommended period of their application.In the spring, first spray the pear with substances that destroy already existing harmful organismsand then by those that prevent their appearance;
- Do not use too concentrated solutions., it can harm a pear, and not benefit;
- alternate preparations;
- if possibleminimize the use of chemicals.
Whitewash protects them from sunburn. All measures for pruning branches must be done before the formation of the kidneys. Furtherconduct regular watering, inspection of the tree for pests and foci of disease. If you find fungal diseases that have affected the tree, you need to immediately treat it with the necessary insecticides..
Autumn care measures
Autumn processing of the pear occurs, as a rule, after harvesting. During this period, it is important not to allow pests and pathogens to stay for the winter in fallen fruit or leaves, under the bark of the tree or in the soil. thereforeit is necessary to remove all weeds, all fallen pears and leaves, branches. Fruits can be carried to the compost pit, but the rest is better to burn. Thus you can save not only the pear. But the rest of the garden is from pathogens of fruit tree diseases.
In adult trees, the bark is examined and treated, removing the dead, and disinfected with whitewash. Thanks to chalk or lime treatment, tree trunks are better protected from the effects of low temperatures and the chance that they will crack from the frost is lower. Hence, there will be no place for pests either.To ensure the tree with oxygen in the winter, it is important to dig and loosen the soil in the autumn. Dig up the soil from the trunk itself. Having made a chain circle in diameter in meter. In a snowy winter with a lot of precipitation, this measure will not allow soil to be too tampered and damage the root system.
It is also useful to feed the pear with mineral fertilizers, but it is necessary to refuse nitrogen fertilizers so that the tree can start preparing for winter in time and go into hibernation. If this does not happen, serious frostbite can not be avoided. Be sure to water the tree even after harvest, until the onset of frost.The trunk of a pear must be protected from rodents, tying it with a special net, and the ground around it should be covered with peat.
Preparing pears for winter
So that the tree is not subject to such mechanical damages as frostbite and sunburn, which is likely in the winter, it must necessarily whiten. After all, otherwiseon the bark may appear cracks in which pests and fungal spores will easily settle and overwinter, which then infect him. In addition to the fact that the whitewash layer protects it from sun exposure, disinfects the stem and kills already existing microbes. In the store you can buy a ready-made solution. But it can be cooked and independently, mixing a bucket of water and a half kilogram of clay and two kilograms of lime. If you whiten the seedling, cover it with the solution completely, if there is already a large tree, then start from the bottom of the trunk and cover it with whitewash until the lower branches.
So that the soil becomes more winter-hardy, cover it with humus or with sawdust, together with snow it will save from hypothermia and protect the tender root system. Roots and bark of the pear are especially liked by all kinds of rodents, so properly wrap the barrel with a mesh, lapnik or other covering material that does not allow pests to damage the bark. If you are preparing a pear seedling for the winter, it is best to tie his branches so that the frosty wind does not damage them.
When and how to feed a pear
Pear can be fed at any time of year, except that in winter. It is necessary to begin with the spring, at once, as soon as the trees come out of hibernation.The first fertilizers should be applied in liquid or solid form, but necessarily under the root. If the spring is rainy, dig up the soil, and then fertilize. If dry, dilute the fertilizer with water and water the stem.
In the period when the kidneys begin to swell, feed the pear with nitrogen-containing preparations. Repeat it during the flowering of the tree. It can be nitre, urea or diluted chicken droppings. When the pear has faded, make fertilizing with fertilizers that activate the vegetative processes and improve the quality of the fruit. This can be done with organic or nitroammon.
In summer, the pear does not need additional nutrition, it has enough accumulated nutrients. But,From the middle of June it is necessary to make nitrogen fertilizers, but not in the form of root feeding, but by spraying. This is due to the fact that due to lack of moisture pear poorly digests trace elements from the soil, but through foliage it is happening better and faster. In July, it is necessary to alternate foliar nitric and mineral top dressing, and also add fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium. Closely monitor the manifestations of diseases on the tree. Immediately, once you have noticed the pockets of diseases, treat the tree and make the treatment with the means that will help the pear with them to fight.
The deadline for fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers- September, as nitrogen will only stimulate the pear to grow, not allowing it to leave for the winter. The best fertilizer for a pear in the winter is mineral fertilizer. They can be purchased at the store. Young trees should be fed with wood ash, making it under a digging to a depth of ten centimeters.So that the tree is not afraid of winter cold, it is also recommended to fertilize it with potassium, phosphate and superphosphate, which are introduced into the trench excavated around the trunk at the rate of one tablespoon per square meter of soil.
Pear is a very delicate tree, requiring attentive attitude and care. Be sure to form the crown, so that there are no thickening, this will allow you to shoot a decent crop from the tree.Remember that planting a young seedling, it is possible to grow a strong and well-fruit tree only with the proper agrotechnics. If you know all the rules that are fairly simple, care will seem quite simple..