There are a lot of varieties of pears, but not all of them will settle down throughout Russia. One of such universal trees will be Severyanka.
It is able to endure harsh climatic conditions, thereby interesting gardeners living in the northern regions of the country..
Table of contents
- Description of the pear variety Severyanka Krasnoshchekaya
- Characteristics of fruits
- History of breeding and breeding region
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Features of planting and nursery care
- Growing conditions
- Harvesting and storage of crops
- Diseases and pests
- Reviews of gardeners
Description of the pear variety Severyanka Krasnoshchekaya
The variety was bred in 1959P.N. Yakovlev on the basis of the Institute of Genetics and Selection named after I.V. Michurin.
Medium wood, the crown of medium density in its shape resembles a wide pyramid. Branches depart from the trunk at an angle of almost 90 degrees, the bark of the stem and the skeletal branches of gray color.
Shoots of medium thickness
Flowers are collected in inflorescences, usually 4-6 pieces, the color of the petals is white, the stigma is located below the anthers.
The maturity period falls on the tenth of August, and lasts until mid-September.
Severyanka has a good frost resistance, so it is zoned for the Western, Siberian and Ural regions.
Characteristics of fruits
According to the description of the pear litter Severyanka Krasnoshchekayaconical shape and in appearance resemble a light bulb. At the beginning of the maturation period the fruit is greenish with a pink blush, gradually it becomes yellow. The skin is strong, but not rough.
On average, one pear weighs 80-100 grams, which is a fairly small size for such a fruit crop.Pulp is sweet, juicy, not tart, gently cream color, a pronounced aroma in this variety is absent.
Seeds are located in chambers, which differ in the average size and small amount of occupied space.
History of breeding and breeding region
Initially in 1959 at the Michurin Institutewas a variety of Svetlanka. It was distinguished by good frost resistance and with dignity endured severe Siberian winters. Svetlanka went on sale immediately after the tests.
But the breeders' experiments did not end there, and a little later at the station in Chelyabinsk PN. Yakovlevgot grade Severyanka by crossing pears Lyubimitsa Klapa and Kopechka No. 12.
To this day, it is popular among Ural gardeners, butextremely rare, there are large-scale, industrial plantings of the Severyanka..
Advantages and disadvantages
- high frost resistance of the variety characterizes it well for growing in northern regions with a harsh climate;
- Tree Severyanka small and compact, which allows you to grow pears, even on small plots of land;
- early ripening, fresh fruits can be pampered already in August;
- with proper care one tree brings up to 100 kilograms of harvest;
- Severyanka is resistant to scab;
- is used for various purposes.
- a large number of fruits crumble before the due date, so you should not miss the harvest period;
- the pears themselves are small enough in size and do not have outstanding taste qualities;
- this variety needs to be watered in a timely manner and abundantly, because it does not carry an insufficient amount of moisture;
- a short shelf life and poor transportability make Severyanka not attractive for commercial purposes.
Features of planting and nursery care
To plant a tree in the garden,to begin with it is necessary to be defined with a place where it will grow. In this case, the characteristics of the selected variety are necessarily taken into account:
- the sandy loam or loamy soil with a lot of humus is best for the Severyanka;
- Groundwater must be at a distance no closer than 2 meters from the surface of the earth, otherwise the root system of the pear can blur and the tree will die;
- Also it is necessary to provide reliable protection from a wind and good solar illumination.
Time is chosen depending on the climate and the region of cultivation, the tree planted in autumn is less likely to survive the harsh winter.
For a pear digThe pit, whose dimensions will be 60 centimeters in depth and 1 meter in width. At the bottom of the pit is laid a fertile mixture, consisting of:
- 2 buckets of compost or humus;
- 200 grams of potassium fertilizer;
- 800 grams of superphosphate.
Prepared soil must be infused, thereforedig a hole follows a week before planting trees:
- To begin with, the roots are dipped in a clay chatterbox.
- Then, the damaged and broken branches are removed, so that the plant spends more energy on adapting to the new terrain, rather than on treatment.
- Then the seedling is placed in a pit and gently pricked up with earth.
- Near the tree neatly placed peg, which will act as a support, attach to it just planted.
- The last stage will be plentiful watering.
Variety Severyanka can please the gardener with fruits already for the 4th year of life, but for this you need to properly care for the tree and give it the necessary nutrients.
Immediately after planting, the seedling is pruned. If there are no skeletal branches on it, the bole is cut at an altitude of 80-90 cm from the ground..
Then the tree will require only sanitary pruning, thanks to which the gardener get rid of sick, withered or unnecessary branches. From the tree regularly remove the shoots.
To get to the roots as much oxygen as possibleloosen the ground in the trunk circle. Also need timelyget rid of weeds.
Given that Severyanka loves moistureIt should be watered regularly, avoiding drying the soil.
In the summer, once a season, mineral fertilizing is introduced, in autumn the tree is fertilized with humus or manure.
Although Severyanka belongs to frost-resistant varieties,it must be properly prepared for winter. For this, before the start of frosts, the tree is watered and mulled abundantly, thereby protecting the root system..
Harvesting and storage of crops
The harvest period falls on the middle of Augustand can last until early September. Closer to the autumn period, the pear flesh becomes brown. Ripe fruits begin to fall off and within 2-3 days the tree loses the bulk of the crop.
If you collect the pears completely ripe, thenthey will not be stored for more than 10 days. At the same time they need to ensure a cool temperature and wooden or wicker containers.
Experienced gardeners recommend to harvest fruits a week before full maturation, in which case the fall will have the least amount of harvest and it will be stored much longer (2 months).
The best place is a cold cellar, but instead use the lower compartment of the refrigerator..
The main distinguishing feature of the Severyankais high winter hardiness. There have been recorded cases when, during short periods of frost, only young trees perished to -50 degrees, and when stable change in temperature to -42 degrees only the above-ground part of the tree has frozen out, the root system at the same time persisted.
Also suchthe variety is quickly restored after frosts.
This is explained by the fact that breeders brought out many other frost-resistant varieties, which are more attractive and have more merits.
Severyanka is used in scientific work, and it has already become a parental form for such varieties as Esenin and Tyutchevskaya.
Another feature of the variety will be the need for pollination, because only 30 percent of the fruits will be fastened if the procedure is carried out independently.
The best pollinator for the Severyanka will be Yakovlev's Memory, such trees are advised to be placed next to each other.
Diseases and pests
Severyanka is extremely rarely exposed to diseases and pests. Has good resistance to scab. Most often on the trees of this variety there are the following diseases:
- Microplasma disease or "witch broom"is the most dangerous disease for the fruit tree. It spreads through insect pests or with seedlings. The focus of the disease can not be cured and in this case the tree will have to be completely eradicated and burned.
- Fruit rot- affects pears, the first stage is the appearance of brown spots, which over time grow and destroy the crop, as methods of struggle used chlorine copper or Brodsky liquid.
- Bacterial burn- appears after the leaves freeze. When the disease is detected every 5 days, the tree is sprayed with antibiotics. To avoid the spread of bacteria, all tools are treated with boric acid.
As a struggle against itat the moment of accumulation of a large number of caterpillars on a tree, it is treated with preparations "Carbofos "Iskra" or other insecticides.
The main method of combating any disease or pest is the removal of all traces of their habitat, i.e. infected parts of a tree, fallen fruit or foliage, which must be immediately burned.
As prevention of the emergence of diseasesfor trees it is necessary to take good care of, in time to carry out waterings, top dressing and sanitary trim. In autumn and in the spring it is recommended to spray the plant with Brodsky liquid.
Working with any chemical products, you need to use personal protective equipment.
Reviews of gardeners
Galina: "Severyanka is the oldest resident of my garden. Harvest gives a huge amount, in the early years overeat, now even remains. From this variety I spin juices, recently began to dry pears. The taste of the variety is very pleasant, sweet and sour with light astringency, the pears are relatively small with a red barrel. It is not difficult to take care of a tree, especially now, when it is already adult and adapted to our climate. "
Olga: "My father started growing Severyanka, our dacha is in the Urals, so picking a good grade of pear is very difficult. Now there are a lot of fruit trees on the site, which are several times better than the Severyanka, but I can not decide to uproot it. Fruits it stably from year to year, tolerates low temperatures, moreover it has a pleasant taste. The compote from this variety is the taste of my childhood and I myself continue to do it for my children. "
Vladimir: "There are a lot of different trees on my site, and Severyanka played an important role here. It is an excellent pollinator for many varieties, besides, using a rootstock with its help you can get other, better-quality fruits and taste. Winters in our harsh and mature tree perfectly tolerates them. "
Severyanka has long lost its relevanceand is not currently used on an industrial scale.
But amateur gardeners do not want to say goodbye to this tree, finding in it more and more pluses, at times, not noticing numerous defects of a grade..