Incubation of chicken eggs


Incubation of chicken eggs is an interesting and rather responsible activity. Starting an artificial incubation it is important to check the operation of all devices and make sure of full serviceability, otherwise there is a risk of death of the whole output. In addition to equipment and the desire to take into account some other nuances, but everything in order ...


Table of contents

  • Incubator
    • Flipping of eggs
    • A heating element
    • Measuring instruments
    • Dimensions
  • Eggs
  • Humidity
  • Temperature
  • Ovoscope
  • Bookmark the eggs
  • Periods of incubation
    • Table of temperature conditions


Basicallyincubator- a box of foam (or an analogue - polystyrene foam), of various sizes, consisting of a base and a lid. Its main functions are to maintain the set temperature and humidity in the chamber, some models are additionally equipped function of automatic coup of eggs, which allows not to depend on the hens, which after incubation cease to carry eggs.

Automatic incubator

Thermoregulatorsand the elements that heat the air are located in the lid of the incubator, and

water tanks, providing the necessary humidity, from below. Eggs lie closer to the bottom.

Flipping of eggs

Flipping of eggs is an important necessity, it is carried out:

  • manualway (the cheapest category of incubators, the main drawback is that it is necessary to open the lid for turning the eggs, and this leads to temperature jumps)
  • mechanical(it is necessary to pull the wire and move the grate on which the eggs lie, they will roll and thus turn over)
  • automatic(the whole process is automatic with the help of an electric motor)

A heating element

The heating element is installed in the lid (top).

Heating element in the lid of the incubator

Russian manufacturers have produced two types of models operating on the network220Vand a combined version220V + 12V, this is a variation of a conventional system, additionally equipped with adapters to connect to an alternative power source (for example, a battery). This innovation is good because the backup power source starts automatically when the main power supply fails.

Measuring instruments

Incubation is attributed to complex technological processes, where compliance with the temperature regime and the correct humidity of the air play a key role.

Some manufacturers complete the sold incubatorsthermometers and hygrometers. Someone only thermometers, and for some models have to buy separately and a temperature meter and moisture meter.


Depending on the volume of eggs laid, one can considerhousehold incubators(loading up to 150 eggs) andindustrial(the number of eggs per bookmark is not actually limited).

Industrial Incubator


The process of breeding chicks begins withcollection and storage of eggs. Not all domestic eggs are suitable for incubation, if the goal is to get a healthy, strong, capable of further full-fledged offspring, then it is necessary to incubate,given the following nuances:

Chicken eggs for incubation
  • In the henhouse there should becockthe higher the cock sits in the henhouse, the stronger the sense of domination
  • The more active he tramples the chickens, the more likely100% brood
  • Do not usesmall eggs- chickens are small and weak
  • It is preferable to choose medium eggs and preferably aboutone size
  • Eggs with cracks, dents, pimples, outgrowths are immediately rejected in food, the irregular shape of the egg will not allow the embryo to develop as it should
  • Eggs can not bewash or rub, for cleaning need to wipe with a cloth (for example, rags) soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide, this non-tricky manipulation will allow both to clean and disinfect them
  • Optimalegg laying deadline- it's from 2 to 7 days, freshness can be determined by the air chamber, the more it is the more the egg is older, the older the eggs the more they will lag behind in development
  • Recommendedstore eggsblunt end up
  • To preventsticking of yolk to the shellevery three days the eggs need to be turned over,
  • If during the examination it was found thatthe cord of yolk tore(yolk when turning the egg abruptly moves inside the shell), then such a sample should also be rejected
  • Storage temperaturenot lower than 10 and not more than 18 degrees Celsius, the longer the eggs intended to be placed in the incubator are stored, the lower the temperature
  • Humidity during storageeggs intended for incubation no more than 80%
  • If usedincubator without automatic egg turning function, it is convenient to mark the top and bottom, so as not to get confused (you can use a simple pencil, unlike markers and markers it is not liquid and will not be able to leak through the shell to the embryo)


Humidity in the incubator is maintained bywater evaporationfrom containers placed on the bottom, the hygrometer should be monitored and, if necessary, adjusted for evaporation.

The water level should be checked approximately every three days.

On a note:

  • to accelerate evaporation and thereby quickly raise the moisture values ​​by lowering the tissue into a container of water
  • To slow down the evaporation and lower the humidity values, you can reduce the evaporation area, for example, by placing a piece of foam in the container with water.


Not recommendedInclude an incubator for warming upbefore laying eggs, otherwise the temperature drop can badly affect the brood.

The temperature required for incubationshould be adjusted according to the tabletemperature modes (table below)

The temperature is recommended to be controlled by severalthermometers, t. sometimes they are a little grafted, and in this case every degree affects the result.

Important!Even if the incubator is fully automated, you still need to monitor the temperature and humidity regularly!


Eggs are x-rayed on an ovoscope

The ovoscope helps to identify suitable eggs before they are put into the incubator.Translucing the EggIt should be applied to the ovoscope with a blunt end.Major defectsare revealed precisely by this device. For the first time, the egg is7-8 day(after the first viewing you can remove from the incubator not fertilized or having any other egg defects), the second time on12-13 day, you can enlighten and18 days.


Bookmark the eggs

Practice has shown thatbookmark eggsit is more convenient to spend the evening. Pre-eggs must be taken out of a cool room in a warmer room for warming up to room temperature. Then put in the incubator

Laying eggs in the incubator

Periods of incubation

Table of temperature conditions

Incubation period Days Temperature Humidity Turn Airing
1 1-7 3, -3, ° C 55-60% 4-8 times a day -
2 8-14 3, -3, ° C 50% 4-8 times a day -
3 15-18 3, -3, ° C 45% 4-8 times a day 2 times a day for 10-15 minutes
4 19-21 3, -3, ° C 70% - -

Total 4 incubation periods:

  • 1-7 days- the first day of the bookmark is settemperature 37.8-38.0 degreesand a humidity of 60%. The first week to change the indicators do not need,embryo is only being formed, it is important to provide stable, comfortable conditions, you only need to turn the eggs to avoid sticking the chicks to the shell.
Feature:The first three time periods to turn the eggs need as often as possible (for maximum approximation to natural conditions), but if you can not turn every hour, you can change their positions according to the table, most importantly throughequaltime interval.

When ovoskopirovanii, at the end of the first period, you should see a well-developed blood-vascular system and the embryonic plasma in which the embryo is located, it is not yet visible. At this stage, you canremove excess eggs(not fertilized or damaged)

Carrying eggs in an incubator
  • 8-14 days- the next 4 days you need to lower the humidity, and continue turning the eggs. During this period, especially for the future chick,humidity is important, t. The lack of water can destroy the fetus. During this period, the allantois (embryonic organ of respiration) is located in the acute part of the egg and must already close.
  • 15-18starting from the second week you need to startventilate the incubatora couple of times a day thereby temporarily lowering the temperature, not forgetting to turn the eggs. Air triggers the metabolism and increases gas exchange. During this period, the ovoscope will show the space densely filled with the embryo inside, only the air chamber will remain hollow.
Attention!Under normal development, at this stage, the air chamber should occupy about 30% of the entire egg, and the boundary is curved by a hillock.

During this period you can already heara squeaking from an egg. The chick tries to stretch its neck towards the blunt end of the egg and tear the air chamber, and then reaches the shell.

  • 19-21approximately 19 days after laying it is necessary to lower the temperature in the incubatorup to 37.5-37.7and increase the humidity up to 70%. In recent days, the remnants of protein, yolk are used and an easy puncture begins. The temperature decreases, the humidity rises,distance between eggsshould be the maximum possible and during this period they do not need to be turned over, in general it is better not to touch the eggs. It is important to ensure goodair circulation, but not a draft.
On a note:The health of chickens can be determined by their squeak. A norm is a calm, gentle and monotonous sound. Worse if the squeak is loud and heavy, it means - that the chick froze.

For 21 dayschicks nest, the chicken turns counter-clockwise and pecks through the shell.Healthy chickwill break the shell in about three strokes and the pieces of the shell will be large. Having placed his head at the blunt end, and his neck at the sharp one, he leans his weight against the walls of the shell, and bending breaks it. It is necessary to allow them to dry themselves and then after that place in a warm dry place.

Chickens are pierced from the egg

Signs of a healthy chicken:

  • Tightenedstomach
  • Softumbilical cord
  • Powerfullegs
  • Brilliantdown
  • Active
  • Reacts tosounds
  • Cleareyes, slightly convex
  • Shortbeak

How much you can grow chicks, depends only on you.Mortality of young animals, as a rule, the effect of either not properly selected eggs, or an incubation error. You can not fully trust the technique when growing a bird, no one is immune from technical failures.Monitor workeven the most automated incubator is required at least every 8 hours.

Chickens in an incubator

Also importantdisinfected and incubatorafter use, and before a new bookmark.

If you adhere to these not complicated rules, then small yellow lumps, whether broilers or simple breed, will more than once make you happy with your appearance.

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