Turnip - one of the oldest vegetable plants. There are more than 4 thousand years. In Russia, according to various sources, it is grown since the XIV century - brought from Greece. As a vegetable culture, it has long been a staple food. But the appearance of potatoes reduced the importance of this root. This article - growing turnips in the open field - I hope it will help truck farmers learn more about this, which, unfortunately, has become a rare vegetable in our kitchen gardens.
- Biological features of turnips like plants
- Subpecies of turnip
- Choosing a turnip variety
- Growth of turnip - optimal conditions
- Planting turnip - agricultural technology
- Harvesting and storage of turnips
- Pest and disease control of turnip
Biological features of turnips like plants
Turnip (Brassica r. L.) belongs to the cabbage family. This is a biennial plant. In the first year, roots are formed, rosette leaves, in the second year the plant blooms and forms seeds. The seeds of turnip are round, smooth, small, brown in color. Weight 1 thousand. seeds They remain germinating for up to 5 years.
Turnip - the most cold-resistant plant from the roots. Seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 1-3 ° C. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 8-10 ° C. Young plants can withstand frosts to -6 ° C, adults - up to -8 ° C. Early-ripening varieties are less resistant to frosts than late-ripening varieties.↑ to the contents ↑.
Subpecies of turnip
On the territory of Russia, the varieties of turnip of the European subspecies are mainly grown. The shape of root crops in them can be flat, round, oval and elongated. Outer coloring of root crops - yellow or white, the root of the root crop in some cases may be violet, or green. Pulp of root crops - yellow or white. The bark is thin, smooth. Root crops are immersed in the soil for one third or half of their length. Leaves are incised, rarely integral, pubescent, but smooth. Root weight from 200 grams to half a kilogram..
The varieties of turnips of the European subspecies for food use root crops, both raw and after cooking.
Recently, the varieties of turnip Japanese subspecies are becoming popular. Plants form smooth, beautiful, round or flat-rooted root crops with a diameter of 5-20 cm of white color. Leaves are whole.
The roots of Japanese turnip have less pronounced flavor, inherent in the European. They accumulate up to 17 mg% of vitamin C, a number of other valuable components. Are characterized by precocity.
Along with root crops, many varieties of Japanese subspecies for food use and leaves. Their leaf blades are thin and delicate, characterized by a significant content of ascorbic acid (up to 75 mg%), carotene (, mg%), minerals.
There are leafy forms of Japanese turnips. The plants form a small root crop and a well-developed leaf rosette consisting of large undamaged leaves. Such green products contain up to 75 mg% ascorbic acid, then, mg% carotene.
In the Central Asian republics, local varieties of the subspecies of Afghan turnips are grown. These roots are planar, with a red or white bark.↑ back to content ↑
Choosing a turnip variety
We usually grow varieties of both old Russian breeding (Petrovsky) and Japanese (Geisha). In addition to these varieties recommended by the State Register, cultivate varieties May yellow greenhead, Milan white violet, Golden Ball, Snow Maiden, others..
Growth of turnip - optimal conditions
Turnip - light-loving plant. Good illumination promotes the accumulation of vitamin C root vegetables. Increased requirements for lighting, it makes in the initial period of growth. This is a plant of a long day.
The optimum temperature for growing and growing the roots is 15-20 ° C. Low positive temperatures provoke the floridity of plants.
For normal growth of turnip, sufficient soil and air moisture is needed. Especially it is demanding for soil moisture during the germination and the beginning of the formation of leaves, as well as before harvesting. Irrigation in these terms have a positive effect on the taste and yield of root crops.
Suitable for growing turnips are loamy and sandy loam soils, cultivated peat bogs. It transfers the increased acidity of the soil. Varieties of turnips with flat root crops are tolerated with a small arable layer (15-18 cm)..
The best predecessors are cultures, under which organic fertilizers were introduced: cucumber, zucchini, tomato, beans, potatoes, corn. You should not grow a turnip on acidified areas, after cabbage. Turnip and other cabbage family cultures should be returned to their original place no earlier than in 4 years.
Turnip has a significant need for nutrients.
Nitrogen is required throughout the growing period, it helps increase the protein content in root crops. With its excess, the vegetative period increases, and the quality and quality of the products decrease. At the first stages of cultivation, the growth of cranberries is important for phosphorus nutrition..
Phosphorus stimulates the growth of roots, increases the resistance of plants to unfavorable conditions, increases the sugar content of root crops.
Potassium promotes the accumulation of a vegetable protein, carbohydrates, ascorbic acid.
For normal growth and development of plants, calcium, magnesium, boron, copper, manganese are also important.↑ back to content ↑
Planting turnip - agricultural technology
Turnip is an early ripening culture that allows you to sow it several times a season. Mostly it is grown in two, less often - three terms. For summer consumption, the seeds are sown in the spring - in the Kuban in late March-April, and in the middle zone of Russia - late April-early May. Harvest is ready in 60-70 days.
For autumn use, the July crop is acceptable, the cultivation period is 50-60 days. For the winter storage, the sowing is carried out at the end of July and the beginning of August, the crop is harvested after 70-75 days.
With spring sowing the soil begins to be prepared from autumn. Conduct a fallow digging with the introduction of the necessary fertilizer. In the spring, deep loosening (up to 20 cm) is carried out with the rest of the fertilizers applied. For summer sowing the soil is dug to a depth of 20-22 cm, before sowing water (15-20 l of water per 1 m 2.
Turnip can be grown on a flat surface (in summer) or on ridges or ridges (in spring). Distance between rows 30 cm.
It is grown by the 2-3rd culture after application of manure. If no organic matter was introduced, then 2-3 kg / m 2 of humus is given for plowing. Phosphoric and potassium fertilizers are applied in autumn (2/3 doses) and under the presowing treatment (1/3 dose). Nitrogen fertilizers feed in the spring. Approximate doses of fertilizers: urea - 10-15 g / m2, superphosphate - 30-40 g / m2, potassium chloride - 15-20 g / m2. If necessary, liming of the soil is carried out.
Preparation of seeds for sowing includes their calibration and soaking. For convenience, the seed is uniformly mixed with sand or a mixture of sand with superphosphate. On the marked rows make a groove depth of -2 cm, which if necessary moisturize. Especially important is the sowing with watering during the summer and autumn periods of cultivation.
The seeding rate is 1- 5 g / m2. Seeding depth 1-2 cm. You can also sow a nesting method, 2-3 seeds per nest, followed by thinning. Shoots usually appear on 4-7 days, depending on the temperature.
Care for crops includes combating the soil crust, for which a small, 3-5 cm, loosening is carried out. For the whole period of cultivation 3-5 interrow treatments are carried out.
Before the formation of three real leaves on plants, they are thinned. The distance between plants in a row is 6-8 cm (in summer crops - up to 10 cm).
About 48 plants are placed on 1 m2.
The soil must be constantly moist, the irrigation rate of 10-20 liters of oxen per 1 m2. Irrigation is recommended to alternate with loosening.
The main moments of agrotechnics of growing turnips are:
- struggle with cruciferous flea and cabbage fly;
- ensuring sufficient moisture and cleanliness of the soil;
- ensuring the optimal density of plant standing.
Harvesting and storage of turnips
For summer consumption, root crops are removed selectively when reaching a diameter of 6-8 cm. For autumn and winter consumption turnips are cleaned before the onset of frosts for one reception. Plants pull out of the soil, immediately cut off the leaves. The yield is 2-5 kg / m2.
Turnip is well kept in winter. The optimum storage temperature is 0-1 ° C, the optimum air humidity is 90-95%. Root crops are poured wet sand or peat, and they can also be stored in plastic bags. All this allows us to provide ourselves with fresh root vegetables for the whole year.↑ back to content ↑
Pest and disease control of turnip
At the first stages of turnip growth - until the formation of the first pair of real leaves, which is about 10 days After the emergence of seedlings, the most dangerous for plants are cruciferous flea and cabbage muxa. From the cabbage fly it is recommended to add Bazudin or Medtetoks to the soil. From cruciferous fleas, the preparation Iskra (10 g tablet per 10 g of water) is very helpful. If you do not take appropriate measures, then in hot dry weather, cruciferous fleas can completely destroy the shoots. Against a cruciferous flea it is important to maintain a wetland with crops.
Of the more radical measures to combat flea and cabbage fly, we can recommend dusting the site with fine lime, tobacco dust or ash..
Of diseases, turnip can be affected by a nodule and mucous bacteriosis. To avoid this, you should water the soil with a solution of colloidal sulfur, adhere to the crop rotation.