The content of the article:
The hardest thing for woodworkers is to make of wood - to make the round shape. This will help in this lathe on wood. With its help, beautiful and easy to grind beautiful door handles, delicate balusters, original dishes and souvenirs, children's toys, carved furniture, many elements for the interior decor. In short, one such machine is able to turn a house into a fairy tale. A lathe on a tree is arranged so simply that anyone who can work with a drill can do it themselves. Read the article: Lessons of woodcarving!
Types of lathes and their capabilities
There are many types of machines. They are divided by productivity into industrial, designed for small production, and desktop or household. The first two types are used in small and large industries, and for home use the latter option is suitable. As a rule, it is installed on a workbench and single products are manufactured on it.
Also the machines differ in functionality. Allocate the following varieties:
- Turning and copying allows you to create several identical parts. To work with a lathe with a copier, a stencil is needed, along which the exact copy is created.
- Turning-milling has additional possibilities for boring grooves.
- Turning screw is able to cut the thread and sharpen the products under the cone.
- Lobotokarny used to make items on a wide flat base - bas-reliefs, high reliefs, three-dimensional paintings.
- Round-lopping gives any workpiece a round shape in cross section. It is widely used for the release of ax handles, cuttings for garden tools, handles for hand tools - chisels, knives, mops. The workpiece itself in a circular-lathe lathe is stationary, only the incisors on the tree rotate.
By the degree of automation, they are divided into manual, semi-automatic and CNC machines, in which the turner only installs the workpiece and includes the specified program.
A typical wood lathe consists of several basic parts: an electric motor, a frame, a pod, a front and a tailstock.
The base is the base of the machine, all the other mechanisms are fixed on it. As a rule, it is cast-iron cast-iron. The large weight of the monolithic bed allows to significantly reduce the vibration of the equipment, which adversely affects the life of the machine.
The headstock performs several functions. The workpiece is attached to it and rotation is transmitted from the electric motor through the spindle mounted on it by means of a belt transmission.
The speed of rotation of the part is changed by moving the belt to pulleys of the desired diameter. This device is similar to the work of transmissions on a modern multi-speed bicycle.
The workpiece in the spindle from one end is held by the driver chuck, from the other the chuck in the tree on the back of the headstock.
The functional of the lathe on wood can be expanded at the expense of the faceplate. It is attached to the part, if you need to grind its ends, which were clamped with cartridges.
Also, the machines are equipped with copiers, which make it possible to manufacture several identical parts with great accuracy.
Short description and characteristics of the lathe STD 120M
The machine has a simple and reliable design, tested for years. He put in school workshops, vocational schools, in the shops of enterprises, use at home. With it, perform the following turning work on wood:
- turning on a stencil;
- sharpening of rotating parts of different profiles;
- Cutting, rounding and cutting of parts from different angles;
- treatment of flat surfaces using a faceplate.
The machine tool has its own features:
- changing the speed of rotation is changed by moving the belt to pulleys of different diameters;
- The control unit is located on the headstock for maximum convenience during operation;
- The set of equipment includes several spindle-type attachments, which allows you to fix the workpiece with any type of ends;
- for the safety of the working machine is equipped with a casing and curtains with transparent windows;
- To remove the chips, the cleaning unit is additionally connected.
The unit is connected to a three-phase electrical network with a voltage of 380 V and a mandatory grounding.
How to make a simple lathe from a drill
As you can see, the device of this unit is quite simple, and making a self-made lathe on wood is within everyone's power. The most elementary device for grinding blanks is obtained from a conventional drill. It will allow to carry out simple turning operations at home and save on the purchase of special equipment. The drill in this case replaces the front headstock and the rotation drive.
Instead of a cast-iron bed, a workbench is used. It fixes the supports from the tree for fastening the drill and tailstock. The rear stop is made of bars and a screw with the possibility of adjustment, the end of which is sharpened on the cone. Turning tools for wood are various attachments to the drill, which are attached instead of a drill.
On such a simple device, grind handles for tools and doors, simple decorative products, balusters and much more.
This design is a little more complicated, but it also has more opportunities. At the base is a self-made bed, welded from metal corners and mounted on a bench or on its legs. The reliability of the frame is given special attention so that the machine vibrates as little as possible during operation. The structure of the frame provides for the presence of a longitudinal guide for the movement of individual elements.
The tool is supported by a cutting tool. The bracket for it must not only move in a horizontal plane, but also rotate along the axis of fastening. The support plane of the machine should coincide with the axis of rotation of the workpiece.
The drive can be any good motor of any household appliance of sufficient power. The easiest way is to attach the spindle directly to the shaft without transfer devices.
This method is cheaper and saves space on the frame. But it also has its drawbacks - it is impossible to regulate the speed of rotation and uneven wear of bearings that are not designed for longitudinal loading.
Therefore, it is worthwhile to provide a separate node for the spindle. The torque will be fed by pulleys with belt transmission.
The spindle is the part that fixes the workpiece, giving it the torque. It can look like a stop with slots from slipping or have screw clamps. The version with the clamps is called the faceplate.
The tailstock holds the part on the axis of rotation. The simplest version is a bolt cone-shaped. The emphasis is more complicated from the support bearing.
For the normal operation of the machine, the centers of both heads and the plane of the pod must perfectly match.
As a result, a self-made lathe on wood should look something like this:
Particular attention should be given to the stability of the entire structure, so that a strong lateral force does not overturn the machine. This may cause injury if the motor is switched on. To exclude the most common failures when working with a self-made unit, consider the following subtleties:
- The workpiece should rotate on the turner;
- Before machining the workpiece with incisors, give it a cylindrical shape (if possible);
- The cutter should be pressed to the workpiece at an acute angle;
- final grinding is done with fine sandpaper, this operation is carried out in gloves, so as not to burn your hands from friction;
- The harder the tree, the higher the speed of rotation of the shaft.
When working on a lathe on wood, do not forget about safety. The worker should use protective equipment - special glasses, gloves, if necessary a respirator.
The possibilities of a self-made lathe are expanded, with additional attachments and attachments - paint on the rotating part, grind identical parts with a copier and even wind transformers.