I propose to get acquainted with the experience of my fellow countryman-vegetable grower-amateur NF. Lesovoy, who believes that planting potatoes in such a way method - in furrows - first, increases yield, secondly, it is the most effective in conditions of heavy chernozems The Kuban. One of the fundamental laws of agronomy claims, and practice confirms that for the best development of potato bushes, obtaining a good harvest, up to 40% of the plant's habitat should be occupied by land, water and 20% air. That is, in other words - the soil must be loose, airy..
How can we achieve this optimum, especially in the central part of the region, where dense "fatty" layers of chernozem lie, in which it is difficult to achieve airiness?
Nevertheless, this problem can be solved. When N.F. Lesovoi learned about the above law, he began to plant part of the rows of old grandfathers method for shoveling, square-nesting with distances of 60 × 60 cm, and a new (for him) - in furrows.
The latter turned out to be more progressive, as it always gives a good, and most importantly, a stable guaranteed crop of "second bread". What is the essence of this method?
Since autumn, he has been digging the furrows under the potatoes for a full spade bayonet (about 25 cm) along a cord from north to south at a distance of 55-60 cm. You can cut the furrow with a motor cultivator. By the spring frosts, rains, thaws and snow are well loosened, and the subsequent warmth warms up the soil well.
In spring, with a sharp end of the chopper along the furrow, he makes a groove 5-8 cm deep, spreads the tubers at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other friend, sprinkles them with a pinch of nutritious mixture (on a bucket of humus and sand + a third of a bucket of ash) and falls asleep on the sides furrows. Such a soil mixture and planting of potatoes on the furrows doubles the yield, increases the starchiness, improves the taste of the tubers.
Planting Lesova NF tubers sprouted in the light three months before planting. If you have a long sprout on the tubers, they should not be broken, as this reduces the yield by 20-30%. In such cases, the shoots need to be cut off, leaving a tuber about 5-6 cm.
The second way of planting potatoes (but it is less productive than in furrows) is planting tubers on already dug up (plowed) land - better, of course, in the fall.
Its essence is as follows. At a distance of 55-60 cm from south to north, he makes grooves to a depth of 5-10 cm, and they spread the tubers at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other, sprinkle them with the above mixture. If it is not there, then powder ash and cover the potatoes from the sides with earth.
What is the advantage of planting potatoes in the furrow before planting the tubers under the shovel in a square-nest way?
It was said above that not only moisture, but also air is important for the crop, and it can only be in loose soil.
What do we usually do? When planting potatoes under the shovel in a square-nest way we make a hole, and at the bottom of it we lay the tubers. That is, we remove the loose layer, and put the tubers on firm, cold soil, where there is no air. Now the root system must overcome the resistance of compacted soil in an airless space, losing the strength for this. The optimum of the guaranteed yield can be achieved only by planting the potatoes into the furrows, after two hilling of the plants with a chopper or one with a shovel. The land between the rows is loosened by a shovel to a depth of 25 cm and poured onto planted potatoes, so the crop is formed and accumulates on the crest.
This crest promotes the discharge of excess moisture after rains into the furrows of the rows. And in the dry season, plants on it, like a wick, raise water from deep layers of soil..
Why is it recommended to plant potatoes in furrows with a direction exactly from north to south? In this case, the rows are evenly illuminated at first with the rising of the sun, then at noon, and then on the west side. The warming of the earth in the bushes is uniform. For the experiment, he planted several rows from east to west. And what? The southern side of the plants is illuminated most of the day, and the northern side is almost always in the shade.
The land on the southern side of the bushes in June and July has a temperature 10-15 ° higher than the northern one. And now tell me, how do you feel when there are such temperatures during the day? That's it, not comfortable, but potatoes are also a living organism. As a result of this experiment, N.F. Lesovoy received 50% less harvest from these rows than from those that were located from the south to the north. You can check it on your sites.
And further. With the regular removal of green buds on the bushes, the yield increases to 20%, since when flowering the plant consumes part of the food, thereby impoverishing the tubers, that is, "steals" what is intended for them growth. Now there are many varieties of potatoes that do not blossom. Naturally, for them such a method of increasing yield is not suitable.
A particularly good crop can be obtained if it is planted after the legumes, since after them nitrogen accumulates in the soil.
So, from the above, we can conclude. A stable crop can be obtained annually, if in the fall to dig up furrows, and in the spring they plant tubers.
Then, of course, normal care will be needed: loosening of rows, hilling, feeding, protection from pests, diseases. But the beginning of everything - planting potatoes.
Finally, you got a good harvest. Now there is a problem, how to save till the next year the planting material, how to protect the food potatoes from germination, decay..
To save the crop, cook 2-3 buckets of boiling water, put a teaspoon of potassium permanganate into it, and dip it in the net for 4 seconds (once, twice, three, and four), and then remove and dry. From such a font sprouts perish, and the tubers will only benefit.
"Niva Kuban April, 1998.
P.S. I tried, in my experience, this method of planting potatoes into a furrow. The results pleased, but, probably, it would be even better if I could meet all the conditions of NF. Forest. Read "My method of growing potatoes in the furrow - errors, failures, achievements."
- Planting potatoes - ways - for cardboard, mulch, in double rows